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Asụsụ Maasai

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Maasai
ɔl Maa
Spoken in: Kenya, Tanzania 
Region: Central and Southern Kenya and Northern Tanzania
Total speakers: Àtụ:Sigfig million
Language family: Niluṣeḥrawit?
 Eastern Sudanic
  Nilotic
   Eastern Nilotic
    Ateker-Lotuko-Maa
     LotukoMaa
      Maa
       Maasai
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2: mas
ISO 639-3: mas
Nwanyị Maasai

Maa (nke a na-asụbu Masai) ma ọ bụ Maa (English: /ˈmɑːsaɪ/; [1] autonym: Ọla Maa) bụ asụsụ Nilotic nke Ndị Maasai na-asụrụ na Southern Kenya na Northern Tanzania, nke dị ihe dị ka nde 1.5. Ọ nwere njikọ chiri anya na Ụdị Maa ndị ọzọ: Samburu (ma ọ bụ Sampur), asụsụ nke Ndị Samburu nke etiti Kenya, Chamus, nke a na-asụ n'ebe ndịda na ndịda ọwụwa anyanwụ nke Ọdọ Mmiri Baringo (mgbe ụfọdụ a na-ewere ya dị ka olumba Samburu); na Parakuyu nke Tanzania. Ndị Maasai, Samburu, il-Chamus na ndị Parakuyu nwere njikọ n'akụkọ ihe mere eme ma ha niile na-ezo aka n'asụsụ ha dị ka ɔl Maa. N'ikwu okwu n'ụzọ ziri ezi, "Maa" na-ezo aka n'asụsụ na ọdịbendị na "Maasai" na-ekwu maka ndị "na-asụ Maa".

Ọmụmụ ụdaolu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

yywwwu<wp">o">m">i id="mwl">d Mn">k">a nke <s ab="#mwt" data-mw='"par":[{"template":{"targ":{"wt":"lang","h":"./Template:Lang"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"mas"},"2":{"wt":"ɔl Maa"}},"i":0}}]}' data-ve-no-generated-contents="tru" id="mwj" title="Masai-language text" typeof="mw:Transclusion">Ọla Maa dị ka a ''na'-asụ na Ọdịdị [./Ke<i id= ny" id="mwKQ" rel="mw:WikiLink" title="Kenya">Kenya] na Tanzania nwere ụda 30 dị i'ch' iche, nke enwere ike ịnọchite anya ya ma hazie ya dị ka ndị a: a, b, ch (ụdị 'sh'), d, e, ɛ, g, h, i, ɨ, j, k, l, m, n, ny, o, ɔ, p, r, rr, s, sh (na ụdị ch), ŋ, u, w, yi (ma Ọ bụ y, na nkwụsị glottal ʔ).

Ụda ahụ dị oke mkpa iji gosipụta ihe ziri ezi ọ pụtara.

Mkpụrụ okwu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Na tebụl nke ụdaume dị n'okpuru ebe a, a na-eji akara IPA na-anọchite anya ụdaume. Mgbe mgbakọ IPA dị iche na akara ndị a na-ejikarị eme ihe, a na-enye nke ikpeazụ na oghere oghere.

Maka ụfọdụ ndị na-ekwu okwu, ụdaume nkwụsị a na-ekwupụta anaghị emebi emebi (dịka IlKeekony Maaokie), mana maka ndị ọzọ, ha na-emebi emebi ma ọ bụ nwee akụkụ glottalic (dịka Parakuyo Maa). N'asụsụ Arusha Maa, a na-ahụkarị /p/ dị ka fricative na-enweghị olu, mana n'okwu ụfọdụ, ọ nwere ike ịbụ trill a na-ekwupụta. Ọ dịkarịa ala n'okwu Maa, [tʃ] na [ʃ] na-apụta na nkesa na-akwado, na nke mbụ na-apụtara kpọmkwem mgbe ụdaume gasịrị na nke ikpeazụ n'ebe ndị ọzọ.

Akpụkpọ ahụ Alveolar Alveopalatal/ palatal
ire ụtọ
Velar Mkpịsị aka
Ụgbọ imi m n NkọwaNkọwaỌdịdị __ibo____ibo____ibo__ ŋ'ihi na ọ bụ n'ihi naN'ihi ya, ọ ga-abụrịrị na ọ ga-adịỌdịdị
Plosive akpa ume p t k ʔ na-akpọ yaỌdịdị a na-akpọ
implosive ɓ ka Ọdịdị __ibo____ibo__ Aha a na-akpọ ChinaNkọwaỌdịdị
Ihe na-esiri ike s ʃ h
Rhotic tap __ibo____ibo____ibo__ ɾ'ihi na ọ bụ n'ihi na__ibo__ NkọwaỌdịdị
trill N'ihi ya, ọ ga-abụr na ọ ga-adịỌdịdị n'anya
N'akụkụ l
Glide Lenni w __ibo__ j'ihi ya, ọ ga-abụrịrị na ọ ga-adịNa-ekwu maka yaỌdịdị
ebe ndị agha __ibo__ nke a na-akpọ__ibo__ Ihe omuma di iche icheỌdịdị 意__ibo__ Ihe omuma nke aỌdịdị

Mkpụrụedemede[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Dị ka asụsụ ndị ọzọ Maa, Maasai nwere nkwekọrịta ụdaume mgbọrọgwụ asụsụ dị elu. [2] nwere ụdaume itoolu dị iche iche, na ụdaume /a/ bụ "na-anọpụ iche" maka nkwekọrịta.

N'ihu Central Ịlaghachi azụ
Elu i u
__ibo____ibo__ ɪ'ihi ya, a na-akpọ yaNkọwaỌdịdị N'ihi ya, ọ ga-abụrịrị na ọ ga-adịN'ihi ya, ọ bụỌdịdị
N'etiti na o
Ọ bụ n'ihi ya ka a na-akpọIhe omuma ahuỌdịdị Ọ bụ n'ihi ya ka a na-akọIhe omuma aỌdịdị
Ala Dị Ala a

Nchịkọta okwu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Usoro okwu na-abụkarị ngwaa-isiokwu-ihe, mana ọ nwere ike ịdịgasị iche n'ihi na ụda bụ ihe ngosi kachasị mkpa nke isiokwu na ihe. Ihe na-ekpebi usoro na ahịrịokwu bụ topicality ebe ọ bụ na usoro ahụ, na ahịrị okwu kachasị mfe, nwere ike ibu amụma dịka usoro nhazi ozi: [Verb - Most.Topical - Less.Topical]. Ya mere, ọ bụrụ na ihe ahụ bụ ihe a na-ahụkarị n'okwu ahụ (dịka nnọchiaha onye mbụ), na isiokwu ahụ abụghị ihe a na'ahụkarị, ihe ahụ na-apụta ozugbo ngwaa na tupu isiokwu ahụ.

Asụsụ Maasai nwere naanị okwu abụọ zuru oke mana enwere ike iji "aha mmekọrịta", yana okwu kachasị n'ozuzu, iji kọwaa echiche ụfọdụ. Okwu aha na-amalite site na prefix ngosi ma ọ bụ prefix nke ọnụọgụ okike, na-esote aha na-akọwa ma ọ bụ aha isi ọzọ. Ndị ọzọ na-agbanwe agbanwe na-agbaso aha isi, gụnyere ahịrịokwu ndị nwere onwe ha.

N'asụsụ Maasai, ọtụtụ morphemes bụ usoro ụda. Ụkpụrụ ụda na-emetụta ikpe, olu na akụkụ nke okwu, dịka na ihe atụ dị n'okpuru:

 

Ndị na-eme ihe nkiri

Ọ bụ ihe a na-eme

3P-remove.one.by.one-IPFV.MID

Eze

Mkpesa (HL)

DEF.FEM.SG-pot (NOM)

(Ọdịdị elu)

(Ọdịdị)

 

Ndị isi nwanyị

Ọ bụ n'ihi na a na-akpọ ya

3P-remove.one.by.one-IPFV.MID DEF.FEM.SG-pot (NOM)

[3][4]"A na-eme ka ite ahụ ghara inwe anụ".

Asụsụ Maasai nwere ụdị aha nwoke na nwanyị atọ; nwanyị, nwoke, na ebe. Ndị na-asụ asụsụ ahụ na-etinye prefix nwoke na nwanyị na aha. Ihe aha ahụ pụtara n'ihe gbara ya gburugburu na-ezo aka na okike ya. Aha na-etinye okike dị ka ndị a:

"Ònye bịara?" a ga-ajụ ma ọ bụrụ na amaara nwoke ma ọ bụ nwanyị nke onye ọbịa ahụ. A ga-ebute aha ahụ ụzọ site na prefix gbasara okike. [5] bụrụ na a maghị nwoke ma ọ bụ nwanyị nke onye ọbịa ahụ, "Ọ bụ onye bịara?" ga-abụ ajụjụ [ntụgharị Bekee] n'ụzọ nkịtị.

Adjectives na Maa na-arụ ọrụ naanị iji kọwaa aha ahụ, ha na-agbanwekwa oge dabere na aha ha na-akọwa.

Ndị nnọchianya na Maa na-enyekarị okike (nwoke, nwanyị, ma ọ bụ ebe); ọ bụrụ na a maghị okike, ihe aha ahụ pụtara n'ihe gbara ya gburugburu na-ezo aka na okike. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, ọnọdụ nke nwanyị nwere ike ịgụnye ịrụ ọrụ n'ụlọ, a ga-egosikwa nwoke ma ọ bụrụ na omume ahụ na-ezo aka n'ọrụ n'èzí ụlọ. Maasai na-eji ebe dị ka nnọchiaha onwe onye n'ihi na ebe nwere ike inyere aka ịmata nwoke ma ọ bụ nwanyị (ya bụ, ihe omume na-eme n'ụlọ ga-abụ nke nwanyị ga-eme mgbe niile). [5]

Ụda na-enyere aka igosi nkwekọrịta ngwaa-isiokwu.

Oge dị ugbu a na Maasai gụnyere omume ndị a na-emekarị, dị ka "M na-eteta" ma ọ bụ "M na'isi nri ụtụtụ". Oge gara aga [6]-ezo aka naanị n'omume gara aga, ọ bụghị n'oge ma ọ bụ ebe a kapịrị ọnụ.

Ojiji[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ndị Maasai eguzogidewo ụdị ụfọdụ nke ọchịchị na mgbasawanye ọdịda anyanwụ, usoro nkwurịta okwu na mgbanwe ha na-elekwasị anya na azụmahịa n'etiti onwe ha. Otú ọ dị, ụfọdụ mfu nke asụsụ Maasai, ọ bụ ezie na ọ bụghị ngwa ngwa, na-eme n'ihi mmekọrịta chiri anya na agbụrụ ndị ọzọ dị n'Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ Afrịka na ịrị elu nke Swahili na Bekee dị ka asụsụ kachasị. [7] Tanzania, onye bụbu onye isi ala Nyerere gbara ume ka a nabata Swahili dị ka asụsụ gọọmentị iji jikọta ọtụtụ agbụrụ dị iche iche na Tanzania, yana Bekee iji sọọ mpi n'ụwa niile. [6] bụ ezie na asụsụ Maasai, nke a na-akpọkarị Maa, adịgidewo n'agbanyeghị ọtụtụ usoro agụmakwụkwọ Bekee na Swahili, atụmatụ akụ na ụba, na ihe ndị ọzọ, ọnọdụ mmekọrịta ọha na eze na akụ na ụba nke ndị Maasai na-eche ihu n'Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ Afrịka na-edebe ha, na asụsụ ha, dị ka ndị na-anọchite anya ha.

A na-etinye ụzọ ndụ ndị Maasai n'asụsụ ha. N'ụzọ doro anya, usoro akụ na ụba nke azụmahịa nke ndị Maasai na-adabere na ya iji nọgide na-ebi ndụ ha, na-adaberị na ndụ nke asụsụ Maasai, ọbụlagodi na ọnọdụ ya dị nta. Site [8]'ihe ize ndụ nke asụsụ, a ga-anọgide na-eyi ndị Maasai egwu na iguzosi ike n'ezi ihe ọdịbendị ha. Ọnọdụ ndị ka nta nke asụsụ ahụ na-eche ihu ugbu a emeela ka omume ọdịnala ndị Maasai yie egwu. Ìgwè ndị Maasai ole [7] ole na-aga n'ihu na-agagharị agagharị na mpaghara ahụ, na-ahọrọ ibi na obodo ndị dị n'otu iji mee ka asụsụ ha na akụkụ ndị ọzọ nke ọdịbendị ha dị ndụ.

Hụkwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Asụsụ Kwavi
  • Asụsụ Sonjo, asụsụ nke ndị Bantu na mpaghara Maasai
  • Yaaku, ndị fọrọ nke nta ka ha hapụ asụsụ ha kpamkpam maka ndị Maasai
  • Asa, ndị hapụrụ asụsụ ha kpamkpam maka asụsụ Maasai

Edensibia[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

ụfọdụ. Okwu aha na-amalite site na prefix ngosi ma ọ bụ prefix nke ọnụọgụ okike, na-esote aha na-akọwa ma ọ bụ aha isi ọzọ. Ndị ọzọ na-agbanwe agbanwe na-agbaso aha isi, gụnyere ahịrịokwu ndị nwere onwe ha.

  1. Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh
  2. Payne (2008). The Maasai (Maa) Language. Retrieved on 2017-08-02.
  3. "English - Maa". darkwing.uoregon.edu. Retrieved 2020-03-26.
  4. Payne, Thomas E. (1997). Describing morphosyntax: A guide for field linguists. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 20–21
  5. 5.0 5.1 Payne (1998). Maasai gender in typological perspective. University of Oregon and Summer Institute of Linguistics, 160–163. Payne, Doris (1998). Maasai gender in typological perspective (PDF). University of Oregon and Summer Institute of Linguistics. pp. 160–163 – via Studies in African Linguistics Volume 27, Number 2.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Munke (2015). The Maasai Language: an Introduction. IN: Bloomington, 1–15. Munke, David (2015). The Maasai Language: an Introduction. IN: Bloomington. pp. 1–15.
  7. 7.0 7.1 McCabe (Summer 2003). "Sustainability and Livelihood Diversification among the Maasai of Northern Tanzania". Human Organization 62 (2). McCabe, T. (Summer 2003). "Sustainability and Livelihood Diversification among the Maasai of Northern Tanzania". Human Organization. 62 (2).
  8. Nicholson (2005). "Meeting the Maasai". Journal of Management Inquiry 14 (3). 

Akwụkwọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

 

Njikọ mpụga[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

ụfọdụ. Okwu aha na-amalite site na prefix ngosi ma ọ bụ prefix nke ọnụọgụ okike, na-esote aha na-akọwa ma ọ bụ aha isi ọzọ. Ndị ọzọ na-agbanwe agbanwe na-agbaso aha isi, gụnyere ahịrịokwu ndị nwere onwe ha.Àtụ:Languages of KenyaÀtụ:Languages of TanzaniaÀtụ:Eastern Sudanic languages