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Asụsụ Ndebele nke Ebe Ugwu

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Asụsụ Ndebele nke Ebe Ugwu
asụsụ, modern language
obere ụdị nkeNguni languages, Zunda Dezie
mba/obodoZimbabwe, Botswana Dezie
ụmụ amaala kaCentral District, Bulawayo Province, Midlands Province, Matabeleland North Province, Matabeleland South Province Dezie
dị na ngalaba nhazi mpagharaMatabeleland North Province, Matabeleland South Province Dezie
usoro ederedeLatin script Dezie
Ọkwa asụsụ Ethnologue3 Nkwukọrịta sara mbara Dezie

 

IsiNdebele akwụkwọ ọkọwa okwu, 1910

Northern Ndebele (English), nke a na-akpọkwa Ndebele, IsiNdebele saseNyakatho, Zimbabwean Ndebele[1] ma ọ bụ North Ndebele,[2][3] nke jikọtara ya na okwu Matabele, bụ Asụsụ Bantu nke ndị Northern Ndebele na-asụ nke so n'òtù asụsụ Nguni.

Ndebele bụ okwu a na-eji ezo aka na nchịkọta nke ọtụtụ ọdịbendị Africa dị iche iche na Zimbabwe. Ikekwe site [4] ndabara ọ ghọrọ 'asụsụ' (n'ihi enweghị okwu ka mma) [nkọwa dị mkpa] nke ụmụ Mzilikazi na-asụkarị.  Dị ka asụsụ, ọ dịghị ka asụsụ Ndebele a na-asụ na kwaNdebele na South Africa ọ bụ ezie na, dị ka ọtụtụ olumba Nguni, a ga-ekerịta okwu ụfọdụ. Ọtụtụ n'ime ụmụ amaala ndị Matabele chịrị n'ime alaeze Mzilikazi iji mepụta ụdị isiZulu. Ndị Matebele nke Zimbabwe sitere na ndị na-eso ụzọ onye ndu Zulu Mzilikazi (otu n'ime ndị ọchịagha Zulu King Shaka), onye hapụrụ Alaeze Zulu na mmalite narị afọ nke 19, n'oge Mfecane, rutere na Zimbabwe nke oge a na 1839.

[5] bụ ezie na e nwere ụfọdụ ọdịiche na ụtọ asụsụ, okwu na ụda olu n'etiti Zulu na Northern Ndebele, asụsụ abụọ ahụ na-ekerịta ihe karịrị 85% nke okwu ha. Nye ndị ọkà mmụta asụsụ Nguni a ma ama dị ka Anthony Trevor Cope na Cyril Nyembezi, Northern Ndebele bụ olumba nke Zulu. Nye ndị ọzọ dị ka Langa Khumalo, ọ bụ asụsụ. [6] [7][8] dị n'etiti asụsụ na olumba maka ụdị asụsụ ndị yiri ya siri ike, na mkpebi na-adabere na ọ bụghị na njirimara asụsụ kama na echiche ndị ọzọ, na-abụkarị nke ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị.

Northern Ndebele na Southern Ndebele (ma ọ bụ Transvaal Ndebele), nke a na-asụ na South Africa, bụ asụsụ dị iche iche ma nwee njikọ ụfọdụ nke nghọta, ọ bụ ezie na nke mbụ nwere njikọ chiri anya na Zulu. [9] Ndebele, mgbe ọ na-anọgide na-enwe mgbọrọgwụ Nguni, Asụsụ Sotho enweela mmetụta.

Ọmụmụ ụdaolu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Mkpụrụ okwu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

ike ịhazi aha n'ime klas aha, nke a na-agụ n'usoro, iji mee ka ọ dịkwuo mfe iji ya tụnyere asụsụ ndị ọzọ nkeMkpụrụ okwu Ndebele nke Ebe Ugwu
Bilabial Ezé egbugbere ọnụ<br id="mwVA"> Ezé / alveolar
Post-alveolar<br id="mwWw">/Palatal
<b id="mwYA">Velar</b> Mkpịsị aka
etiti n'akụkụ
Ụgbọ imi ala dị larịị __ibo__ m'ihi ya, ọ bụNkọwaỌdịdị n'ihi ya__ibo__ NkọwaỌdịdị NkọwaNkọwaỌdịdị __ibo____ibo__ ŋ'ihi na ọ bụ n'ihi naN'ihi ya, ọ bụỌdịdị
ịda mbà n'obi mɦ'ihi ya, ọ ga-abụrịrị na ọ ga-adịNkọwaỌdịdị nɦ'ihi ya, ọ bụ__ibo__ NkọwaỌdịdị N'ihi ya, ọ bụ n'ihi ya ka a na-akpọNkọwaỌdịdị __ibo__ ŋɦ bụ otú e si eji ya eme iheN'ihi ya, ọ bụỌdịdị
Plosive ejective pʼ'ihi ya, ọ ga-abụrịrị na ọ bụ n'afọ ndị ọzọNkọwaỌdịdị __ibo__ tʼ'ihi ya, ọ ga-abụrịrị na ọ ga-adịIhe omuma aỌdịdị kʼ'ihi ya, ọ bụ n'ihi ya ka a na-akpọNkọwaỌdịdị
kwuru okwu b b b bNkọwaỌdịdị __ibo__ d'ihi ya, ọ bụ n'ihi ya ka a na-akpọNkọwaỌdịdị ɡọ a na-akpọ "Oké Anyanwụ"__ibo__ NkọwaỌdịdị
aspirated NkọwaAkwụkwọ bụ̣̣̣́ nke a na-akpọỌdịdị th'ihi yaNkọwaỌdịdị __ibo____ibo____ibo__ Akụrụngwa__ibo____ibo__ Akwụkwọ bụ̣̣̣́ nke a na-akpọ "Spanish"Ọdịdị
tupu ịlụ di ma ọlị mp'ihi ya, ọ ga-abụrịrị na ọ ga-adị__ibo__ NkọwaỌdịdị nt'ihi yaIhe omuma aỌdịdị Nkwupụta__ibo____ibo__ NkọwaỌdịdị
prensalized (vd.) __ibo__ mb'ihi ya, ọ bụ n'ihi ya ka a na-akpọN'ihi ya, ọ bụỌdịdị nd'ihi ya, ọ ga-abụrịrị na ọ ga-adịNkọwaỌdịdị __ibo____ibo__ ŋɡ'ihi ya, ọ bụ n'ihi ya ka a na-akpọN'ihi ya, ọ bụỌdịdị
Africate ejective N'ihi ya, ọ bụ n'ihi ya ka a na-akpọNkọwaỌdịdị __ibo__ ỌdịdịỌdịdị n'anya Akụkọ banyere yaAkụkọ a na-akpọ "Spanish"Ọdịdị
aspirated na-agụnye__ibo____ibo____ibo__ Akwụkwọ NsọỌdịdị __ibo__ Ọdịdị
kwuru okwu __ibo____ibo____ibo__ dʒ'ihi ya, ọ bụ__ibo__ Ihe omuma di iche icheỌdịdị
pre-nasalised ejective N'ihi ya, ọ ga-abụrịrị na ọ ga-adị__ibo__ N'ihi ya, ọ bụỌdịdị ɲtʃʼỌdịdị N'ihi ya, ọ ga-abụrịrị na ọ ga-anọ n'ụlọ__ibo__ NkọwaỌdịdị
a na-ekwupụta ya ɲdʒ__ibo__ NkọwaỌdịdị
Ihe na-esiri ike ala dị larịị __ibo____ibo____ibo__ f'ihi ya__ibo__ Akwụkwọ bụ̣̣̣́ nke a na-akpọỌdịdị SINAIhe omuma aỌdịdị __ibo____ibo__ Asụsụ ɬ n'Otu__ibo__ ỊhọrọỌdịdị __ibo____ibo____ibo__ Nkọwa__ibo__ NkọwaỌdịdị __ibo__ N'ih ya, ọ ga-abụrịrị na ọ ga-adịNkọwaỌdịdị
olu (depr.) βɦ'ihi ya, ọ ga-abụrịrị na ọ ga-adịAkwụkwọ bụ́ "Spanish"Ọdịdị N'ihi ya, ọ ga-abụrịrị na ọ ga-adị__ibo__ NkọwaỌdịdị zɦ'ihi ya, ọ ga-abụrịrị na ọ ga-adịIhe omuma ahuỌdịdị __ibo____ibo__ ʒɦ'ihi ya, ọ bụ n'ihi ya ka a na-akpọ__ibo____ibo____ibo__ Akwụkwọ NsọỌdịdị ɣɦ (N'ihi ya, ọ bụ n'ihi ya ka a na-akpọ (Ọ bụ otú e si akọwapụta)
olu (ọ bụghị nke mbụ) β'ihi ya, ọ ga-abụrịrị na ọ ga-adịAkwụkwọ bụ́ "Spanish"Ọdịdị Akụkụ a na-akpọ__ibo__ N'ihi ya, ọ bụ n'ihi ya ka a na-akpọỌdịdị ɣ (Anya)
tupu ịlụ di ma ọlị Oghere ahụ__ibo__ Ọdịdị ns'ihi ya, ọ ga-abụrịrị na ọ ga-adịNkọwaỌdịdị nɬN'ihi ya, ọ bụỌdịdị
prensalized (vd.) __ibo__ Ọdịdị ya nz'ihi ya, ọ ga-abụrịrị na ọ ga-adị__ibo__ NkọwaỌdịdị N'ihi ya, ọ bụ n'ihi ya ka a na-akpọNkọwaỌdịdị
Ọkụ na-ada ụda ala dị larịị __ibo__ w'ihi ya, ọ ga-abụrịrị na ọ ga-adịIhe omuma ahuỌdịdị __ibo__ Ịnọba__ibo__ NkọwaỌdịdị l'ihi ya, ọ bụ n'ihi ya ka a na-akpọNkọwaỌdịdị __ibo__ j'ihi ya, ọ ga-abụrịrị na ọ ga-adịNa-ekwu maka yaỌdịdị
ịda mbà n'obi wɦ'ihi ya, ọ bụIhe omuma ahuỌdịdị Ọ bụ n'afọ ndị ọzọ ka a na-akpọNkọwaỌdịdị jɦ'ihi ya, ọ ga-abụrịrị na ọ ga-adịNa-ekwu maka yaỌdịdị

Ọtụtụ ụda ụda nwere ike ịkpata ịda mbà n'obi (ma ọ bụ iku ume). Alveolar cond="mwAao">t, t, d, na n, nwere ike ịnwe dentalized allophones nke [t̪ʼ, d̪, n̪]. Mk k na h nwere ike ịpụta na allophones nke [ɣ, ɣʱ] na [ɦ].

Ihe Nlereanya[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ọnwa na Northern na Southern Ndebele

Bekee Northern Ndebele (Zimbabwe) Ndịda Ndebele (South Africa) Zulu (South Africa)
Jenụwarị uZibandlela Tjhirhweni uMasingane
Febụwarị Nhlolanja uMhlolanja Nhlolanja
Njem Umbimbitho uNtaka uNdasa
Eprel Omabasa uSihlabantangana UMbasa
May UNk kpakpando uMrhayili UNhlaba
June Nkọwa uMgwengweni UNhlangulana
Julaị Ntulikazi uVelabahlinze Ntulikazi
Ọgọstụ Nucwabakazi Rhoboyi UNcwaba
Septemba Ompandula uKhukhulamungu Mandula
Ọktoba uMfumfu uSewula uMfumfu
Nọvemba Lwezi uSinyikhaba Lwezi
Disemba uMpalakazi uNobayeni uZibandlela

Asụsụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Asụsụ Ndebele yiri nke Zulu, na ụfọdụ ọdịiche dị iche iche. Northern Ndebele bụ asụsụ Nguni ma ruo n'ókè ụfọdụ ya na Swati na Xhosa na-aghọta ibe ha, nwere ọtụtụ ụda click nke asụsụ ndịda Afrịka bụ asụsụ kachasị na Eastern Cape.

Aha[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Aha Northern Ndebele nwere akụkụ abụọ dị mkpa, prefix na stem. N'iji prefixes, enwere ike ịhazi aha n'ime klas aha, nke a na-agụ n'usoro, iji mee ka ọ dịkwuo mfe iji ya tụnyere asụsụ ndị ọzọ nke Bantu.

Tebụl na-esonụ na-enye nkọwa zuru ezu nke klas aha Northern Ndebele, nke a haziri dịka otu abụọ.

Klas Otu Ọtụtụ
1/2 um (u) -1 aba-, abe-
1a/2a u- o-
3/4 um (u) -1 imi-
5/6 i-, ili- Ama-
7/8 bụ (i) - iz (i) -
9/10 N'ihi ya, iziN-
11/10 u-, ulu-
14 ubu-, ub-, utsh-
15 uku-
17 uku-

1 umu- na-anọchi um- n'ihu ogwe osisi monosyllabic, dịka mmadụ (Onye).

Ngwaa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A na-eji akara ngwaa ndị a na-esonụ n'ụzọ kwekọrọ na aha aha nke isiokwu na ihe ahụ:

Onye/Ụlọ Akwụkwọ
Ihe ịrịba ama Ihe ịrịba ama
Onye nke mbụ na-abụ abụ. ngi- -ngi-
Onye nke abụọ na-abụ abụ. u- -wu-
1st plur. Ọ bụrụ na- -si-
Nke abụọ. li- -li-
1 u- -m (u) -
2 ba- -ba-
3 u- -m (u) -
4 i- -yi-
5 li- -li-
6 a- -wa-
7 Ọ bụrụ na- -si-
8 zi- -zi-
9 i- -yi-
10 zi- -zi-
11 lu- -lu-
14 bu- -bu-
15 ku- -ku-
17 ku- -ku-
Reflection -zi-

[10] bụ ezie na nkwekọrịta isiokwu-okwu bụ iwu, akara ihe abụghị, ọ na-apụta naanị mgbe enyere ihe ahụ n'okwu ahụ. Ihe akara na-ejikọta nso na mgbọrọgwụ ngwaa mgbe ọ na-apụta (na akara ndị a: A - ụdaume mmụba; 1 - akara aha klas 1, wdg; 1s - nkwekọrịta isiokwu klas 1, watau; FUT - ọdịnihu; 1o - akara ihe klas 1, weta):   E nwere ihe akaebe sitere na Zulu na akara ihe bụ mgbanwe nke nnọchiaha iji bụrụ akara nkwekọrịta, [11] nke nwekwara ike ịbụ eziokwu maka Northern Ndebele, n'ihi ọdịdị asụsụ dị n'etiti asụsụ.

Hụkwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

 

  • Matabele
  • Asụsụ Zulu
  • Asụsụ Ndebele nke Ndịda
  • Ógbè ndị dị na Zimbabwe
  • Ebe Ugwu Matabele
  • Matabeleland South
  • Bulawayo

Edensibia[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

ike ịhazi aha n'ime klas aha, nke a na-agụ n'usoro, iji mee ka ọ dịkwuo mfe iji ya tụnyere asụsụ ndị ọzọ nke ike ịhazi aha n'ime klas aha, nke a na-agụ n'usoro, iji mee ka ọ dịkwuo mfe iji ya tụnyere asụsụ ndị ọzọ nke

  1. Mpofu (2011). Sithini isiNdebele?, 1st, Harare, Zimbabwe: Radiant Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-7974-4280-1. OCLC 755905987. 
  2. Documentation for ISO 639 identifier: nde. ISO 639-2 Registration Authority - Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 2017-12-22. Retrieved on 2017-07-04. “Name: North Ndebele”
  3. Documentation for ISO 639 identifier: nde. ISO 639-3 Registration Authority - SIL International. Archived from the original on 2017-11-01. Retrieved on 2017-07-04. “Name: North Ndebele”
  4. Sibanda (2002). Isikithi, 2nd, Harare Zimbabwe: College Press, 7. ISBN 1779001371. 
  5. Langa Khumalo, “Language Contact and Lexical Change: A Lexicographical Terminographical Interface in Zimbabwean Ndebele,” Lexikos 14, no. 108 (2004).
  6. D.K. Rycroft “Ndebele and Zulu: Some Phonetic and Tonal Comparisons,” Zambezia, no. 2 (1980): 109–28.
  7. Nyembezi, C.L.S., 1957.
  8. Anthony Cope, “A Consolidated Classification of the Bantu Languages,” African Studies 30, nos. 3–4 1971): 213–36.
  9. Skhosana, Philemon Buti (2009). "3", The Linguistic Relationship between Southern and Northern Ndebele. 
  10. The timing of agreement and A-movement in Ndebele - lingbuzz/005254. ling.auf.net. Retrieved on 2020-12-04.
  11. Zeller (June 2012). "Object marking in isiZulu" (in en). Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies 30 (2): 219–235. DOI:10.2989/16073614.2012.737600. ISSN 1607-3614. 

Ịgụ ihe ọzọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • (2002) in Bowern: Ndebele. Munich: LINCOM EUROPA. ISBN 3-89586-465-X. 
  •  
  • Hadebe (2002). The Standardisation of the Ndebele Language Through Dictionary-making. University of Zimbabwe - University of Oslo. 
  • Skhosana (2010). The Linguistic Relationship between Southern and Northern Ndebele. University of Pretoria: DLitt Thesis. 

Njikọ mpụga[dezie | dezie ebe o si]