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Demotic (Egypt)

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Demotic (Egypt)
logographic writing system, natural writing system, unicase alphabet
Oge/afọ mmalite650 BCE Dezie
aha njirimaraEgyptian demotic, démotique égyptien Dezie
dabere naEgyptian hieratic Dezie
derivative workCoptic script Dezie
mba osiIjipùtù Ọkpụ Dezie
oge ngwụcha5. century Dezie
ụdị asụsụverb–subject–object, fusional language Dezie
script directionalitybi-directional text Dezie
ndị n'eme yademotist Dezie
Contract-IMG 6282.

 

Demotic(si dēmotikós, 'ewu ewu') bụ edemede Ijipt oge ochie ewepụtara site n'ụdị ugwu nke hierate ejiri mee ihe na Nile Delta. Ọkọ akụkọ ihe mere eme nke Gris bụ Herodotus ji nke mbụ mee ihe iji mata ọdịiche dị na ya na script hieratic na hieroglyphic. Site na mgbakọ , okwu ahụ bụ "Demotic" bụ isi n'isi iji mata ọdịiche dị na ya na demotic Greek.

Ihe odide[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ndị Ijipt zoro aka na edemede Demotic dị ka 'ihe odide ederede', nke onye ọkà mmụta narị afọ nke abụọ Clement nke Aleksandria kpọrọ ἐπιστολογραφική 'ide akwụkwọ ozi', ebe ndị ọkà mmụta ọdịda anyanwụ mbụ, karịsịa Thomas Young, kpọrọ ya "Enchorial Egyptian". E ji edemede ahụ mee ihe ihe karịrị otu puku afọ, n'oge ahụ, ọtụtụ usoro mmepe mere. A na-ede ya ma na-agụ ya site n'aka nri gaa n'aka ekpe, ebe a na-ede ihe odide mbụ site n'elu gaa n'ala, aka ekpe gaa n'ebe aka nri, ma ọ bụ aka nri gaa n"aka ekpe. [1] ji mkpụrụedemede cypher dee akụkụ nke Demotic Greek Magical Papyri.

Demotic mbụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Demotic mbụ (nke a na-akpọkarị okwu German Frühdemotisch) mepụtara na Lower Egypt n'oge akụkụ ikpeazụ nke Dynasty nke iri abụọ na ise, karịsịa nke a hụrụ na steles sitere na Serapeum nke Saqqara. A na-ede ya n'ozuzu n'etiti 650 na 400 , ebe ọ bụ na ọtụtụ ederede e dere na Early Demotic bụ nke Twenty-sixth Dynasty na ọchịchị sochirinụ dị ka satrapy nke Alaeze Ukwu Achaemenid, nke a maara dị ka Twenty naventh Dynasty.  Mgbe e jikọtara Ijipt n'okpuru Psamtik I, Demotic nọchiri Abnormal Hieratic na Upper Egypt, ọkachasị n'oge ọchịchị Amasis II, mgbe ọ ghọrọ akwụkwọ nchịkwa na iwu. N'oge a, a na-eji Demotic eme ihe naanị maka ederede nchịkwa, iwu, na azụmahịa, ebe a na-edebe ihe odide na hieratic maka ederede okpukpe na akwụkwọ.

Middle Demotic[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Middle Demotic (c. 400-30 BC) bụ ọkwa ederede eji eme ihe n'oge Alaeze Ptolemaic. Site na narị afọ nke anọ gaa n'ihu, Demotic nwere ọnọdụ dị elu, dịka a pụrụ ịhụ site na ojiji ya na-arịwanye elu maka akwụkwọ na akwụkwọ okpukpe.  Ka ọ na-erule ngwụcha narị afọ nke atọ , Koine Grik dị mkpa karị, ebe ọ bụ asụsụ nchịkwa nke mba ahụ; nkwekọrịta Demotic tụfuru ọtụtụ ikike iwu ha ọ gwụla ma e nwere ihe edeturu na Grik nke edebanye aha ya na ndị ọchịchị.   

Oge Ochie[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Site na mmalite nke ọchịchị ndị Rom nke Ijipt, a na-eji nwayọọ nwayọọ eme ihe na Demotic na ndụ ọha. Otú dị, e nwere ọtụtụ ederede e dere na Late Demotic (ihe dị ka 30 BC - 452 AD), karịsịa site na narị afọ nke 1 na nke 2 AD, ọ bụ ezie na ọnụ ọgụgụ nke ederede Demotic niile belatara ngwa ngwa na njedebe nke narị afọ nke abụọ.     [2]'adịghị ka ụzọ Latin si kpochapụ asụsụ dị n'akụkụ ọdịda anyanwụ nke Alaeze Ukwu ahụ, Grik anọchighị Demotic kpamkpam. Mgbe nke ahụ gasịrị, a na-eji Demotic eme ihe maka ostraca ole na ole, ndebanye aha na ederede Grik, akara mummy, na graffiti. Ihe atụ ikpeazụ e dere na ya nke ihe odide Demotic bụ ihe e dere na mgbidi nke ụlọ nsọ Isis na Philae, nke e dere na Disemba 12, 452. Ihe odide ahụ [3]-agụ "Petise, nwa Petosiris" - onye Petise bụ amaghị.

Ihe ịrịba ama na transliteration[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Nkọwapụta[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A chọtara Nkume Rosetta na 1799. E dere ya na nkwupụta, nke e dere na mkpụrụedemede atọ: Ihe odide ndị Ijipt, Demotic, na mkpụrụedemedo Grik. E nwere ahịrị 32 nke Demotic, nke bụ etiti nke edemede atọ dị na nkume ahụ. A kọwapụtara Demotic n'ihu ihe odide hieroglyphs, malite na mbọ Antoine Isaac Silvestre de Sacy. Ndị ọkà mmụta mechara nwee ike ịsụgharị ihe odide ndị ahụ site n'iji ha tụnyere okwu Grik, nke enwere ike ịsụgharịrị ngwa ngwa, ma mee ka usoro ahụ sie ike site na itinye ihe ọmụma nke Coptic (asụsụ Coptic sitere na ụdị ndị Ijipt mbụ nke a na-anọchite anya na ederede hieroglyphic). Ndị Egyptologist, ndị ọkà mmụta asụsụ na Ndị na-amụ banyere akwụkwọ papaịrọs bụ ndị ọkachamara n'ịmụ ihe nke usoro Demotic nke edemede Ijipt bụ ndị a maara dị ka ndị Demotists.

Hụkwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Nkọwa nke asụsụ Ijipt oge ochie

Ihe edeturu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. Hans Dieter Betz (1992). The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation, Including the Demotic Spells, Volume 1. University of Chicago Press. 
  2. Haywood (2000). Historical atlas of the classical world, 500 BC–AD 600. Barnes & Noble Books. ISBN 978-0-7607-1973-2. “However, Greek did not take over as completely as Latin did in the west and there remained large communities of Demotic...and Aramaic speakers” 
  3. Cruz-Uribe (2018). "The Last Demotic Inscription", in Donker van Heel: Hieratic, Demotic, and Greek Studies and Text Editions: Of Making Many Books There Is No End. Festschrift in Honour of Sven P. Vleeming. Leiden, 6–8. ISBN 978-9-0043-4571-3. 

Edensibia[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Betrò, Maria Carmela (1996). Hieroglyphics: The Writings of Ancient Egypt. New York; Milan: Abbeville Press (English); Arnoldo Mondadori (Italian), 34–239. ISBN 978-0-7892-0232-1. 
  • Depauw, Mark (1997). A Companion to Demotic Studies, Papyrologica Bruxellensia, No. 28. Bruxelles: Fondation égyptologique reine Élisabeth. 
  • Johnson, Janet H. (1986). Thus Wrote ꜥOnchsheshonqy: An Introductory Grammar of Demotic, Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization, No. 45. Chicago: The Oriental Institute. 
  • Hoffmann (2018). Anthologie der demotischen Literatur, 2, Einführungen und Quellentexte zur Ägyptologie, Berlin: Lit. 

Njikọ mpụga[dezie | dezie ebe o si]