Donetsk

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Donetsk

Àtụ:Infobox settlement Donetsk UK UK : / dɒ ˈnjətsk / don - don-, US : / də ˈn ( j ) ɛ t sk / də-N (Y)ETSK ; ] Ukrainian  [doˈnɛtsʲk] ( </img> , Russian  [dɐˈnʲetsk] ), nke a na-akpọbu Aleksandrovka, Yuzivka (ma ọ bụ Hughesovka ), Stalin na Stalino ( leekwa: aha ndị ọzọ nke obodo ), bụ obodo mepere emepe na ọwụwa anyanwụ Ukraine nke dị n'akụkụ osimiri Kalmius na mpaghara Donetsk na esemokwu. Mgbe mba ụwa ghọtara dị ka na Ukraine, obodo bụ n'okpuru de facto ochichi nke Donetsk People's Republic, nke na-azọrọ na ya dị ka isi obodo. E mere atụmatụ na ọnụ ọgụgụ ndị bi na 905,364 (2021 est.) na isi obodo, yana ihe karịrị nde 2 na mpaghara mepere emepe (2011). Dị ka ọnụ ọgụgụ ndị Ukraine 2001 si kwuo, Donetsk bụ obodo nke ise nke kachasị na Ukraine. [1]

Donetsk

Na nchịkwa, Donetsk abụrụla etiti mpaghara Donetsk, ebe akụkọ ihe mere eme, ọ bụ isi obodo na-akwadoghị na obodo kachasị ukwuu nke akụ na ụba na ọdịbendị ka ukwuu Donets Basin ( Donbas ) mpaghara. Donetsk dị n'akụkụ isi obodo ọzọ, Makiivka, yana obodo ndị ọzọ gbara ya gburugburu na-etolite nnukwu obodo mepere emepe na mkpọmkpọ ebe na mpaghara ahụ. Donetsk abụrụla nnukwu ebe akụ na ụba, ụlọ ọrụ mmepụta ihe na sayensị nke Ukraine nwere nnukwu ụlọ ọrụ dị arọ yana ndị ọrụ nwere nkà. Ọnụ ọgụgụ nke ụlọ ọrụ dị arọ (nke kachasị mmepụta ígwè, ụlọ ọrụ kemịkalụ, na ngwuputa coal) kpebiri ọnọdụ ebe obibi na-ama aka nke obodo ahụ. N'afọ 2012, otu akụkọ UN depụtara Donetsk n'etiti obodo ndị mmadụ na-ebi ngwa ngwa n'ụwa. [2]

Ebe obibi mbụ dị na ndịda nke akụkụ Europe nke Alaeze Ukwu Russia bụ nke mbụ a kpọrọ Aleksandrovka na 1779, n'oge ọchịchị nke Empress Catherine the Great. . N'afọ 1869, onye ọchụnta ego Welsh bụ John Hughes tọrọ ntọala ụlọ ọrụ nchara na ọtụtụ ebe a na -egwupụta coal na mpaghara ahụ, a na-akpọkwa obodo ahụ Hughesovka ma ọ bụ Yuzovka (Юзовка) n'ihi ọrụ ya ("Yuz" bụ mkpokọta asụsụ Russian nke Hughes ). N'oge Soviet, ụlọ ọrụ ígwè nke obodo ahụ gbasaa. Na 1924, Yuzovka gbanwere aha Stalin. Na 1929 Stalin e renamed Stalino, na 1932 obodo ghọrọ etiti nke Donetsk mpaghara. A kpọgharịrị aha Donetsk (nakwa Donetske, dị ka akwụkwọ akụkọ Kharkiv ) na 1961, obodo taa ka bụ ebe etiti maka ngwupụta kol na ụlọ ọrụ nchara .

Kamgbe April 2014 Donetsk na gburugburu ya bụ otu n'ime isi saịtị nke ọgụ na-aga n'ihu Donbas War, dị ka pro-Russian separatist agha agha Ukraine agha agha maka ịchịkwa obodo na gburugburu ebe. N'ime agha ahụ niile, obodo Donetsk a na-elekọta ndị agha pro-Russian separatist dị ka etiti nke Donetsk People's Republic (DPR), na mpaghara ndị dịpụrụ adịpụ nke mpaghara Donetsk kewara n'etiti akụkụ abụọ ahụ. [3] Ọdụ ụgbọ elu mba ụwa Donetsk ghọrọ ebe mbụ agha ahụ ji ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ otu afọ na-alụ ọgụ nke butere oke ọnwụ n'etiti ndị nkịtị na mbibi nke mpaghara ugwu ọdịda anyanwụ nke obodo

As of July 2021, the DPR has full control of the city, with Ukrainian and DPR forces still engaging in combat outside of the city.

Akụkọ ihe mere eme[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ntọala[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ụlọ a bụbu ụlọ akwụkwọ na-asụ Bekee maka ndị Britain na Yuzovka
A ahịa na isi okporo ámá nke Novyi Svet ngalaba nke Yuzovka. (1887)

Otu n'ime ndị mbụ Ngwuputa obodo na ókèala Donetsk bụ Aleksandrovka [ ru ] . Achọpụtara ịdị adị nke Aleksandrovskaya Cossack Sloboda n'ọnọdụ ya na 1779. N'ikpeazụ, Aleksandrovsky coal mine [ ru ] ka e meghere ebe ahụ.

E hiwere obodo Donetsk na 1869 mgbe onye ọchụnta ego Welsh bụ John Hughes na-arụ ọrụ nchara na ọtụtụ ogbunigwe na Aleksandrovka. Nkwa nke onye ọrụ na ụlọ ọrụ ahụ jikọtara Aleksandrovka ma kpọọ ebe ahụ Yuzovo, emesịa Yuzovka ( Russian ), mgbe Hughes gasịrị. [4] N'oge mmalite ya, ọ natara ndị si Wales, ọkachasị n'obodo Merthyr Tydfil . [5] Ka ọ na-erule mmalite nke narị afọ nke 20, Yuzovka nwere ihe dị ka mmadụ 50,000, [6] wee nweta ọkwa obodo na 1917. [7] A na-akpọ isi mpaghara Yuzovka English Colony, na mmalite obodo Britain na-egosipụtakwa na nhazi ya na nhazi ya.

Soviet Union[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ihe ncheta maka ndị nnwere onwe nke Donbas, nke a raara nye ndị agha napụtara Donbas n'aka ndị Nazi n'oge Agha Ụwa nke Abụọ .

Mgbe agha obodo Russia dara, Yuzovka bụ akụkụ nke Donetsk-Krivoy Rog Soviet Republic site na nkwupụta nke nnwere onwe na 12 February 1918. Ebisara Republic na 2nd All-Ukrainian Congress of Soviets na 20 Maachị 1918, mgbe e kwupụtara nnwere onwe nke Ukrainian Soviet Republic . Ọ dabara nke ọma, ma mba ụwa ma ọ bụ site na Russian SFSR, ma kagburu ya n'okpuru Nkwekọrịta nke Brest-Litovsk .

Na 1924, n'okpuru ọchịchị Soviet, a gbanwere aha obodo ahụ ka ọ bụrụ Stalin . N'afọ ahụ, ọnụ ọgụgụ ndị bi n'obodo ahụ ruru 63,708, na n'afọ na-esote, 80,085. Na 1929–31 a gbanwere aha obodo ahụ ka ọ bụrụ Stalino . [8] Obodo ahụ enweghị usoro mmiri ọṅụṅụ ruo 1931, mgbe 55.3 km (34.4 mi) usoro e tọrọ n'okpuruala. Na July 1933, obodo ahụ ghọrọ ebe nchịkwa nke Donetsian Oblast nke Ukrainian SSR . [7] Na 1933, 12 nke mbụ arụnyere sistemu nsị, na ojiji nke gas malitere n'afọ ọzọ. Ebe ụfọdụ  kwuru na a kpọchara obodo ahụ Trotsk n’oge dị mkpirikpi—mgbe Leon Trotsky gasịrị—ruo ọnwa ole na ole ná ngwụsị 1923.

A German map nke obodo na 1943, rịba ama na niile n'okporo ámá e nyere German aha.

Ná mmalite nke Agha Ụwa nke Abụọ, ndị bi na Stalino dị 507,000; Mgbe agha ahụ gasịrị, 175,000. Mwakpo nke ndị Nazi Germany fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ ibibi obodo ahụ kpam kpam. Ndị agha German na Ịtali were ya dị ka akụkụ nke Reichskommissariat Ukraine n'etiti 16 Ọktoba 1941 na 5 Septemba 1943. E wughachiri ya n'ọ̀tụ̀tụ̀ buru ibu mgbe agha ahụ gasịrị.

Na 1945, ụmụ okorobịa na ụmụ agbọghọ ndị dị afọ 17 ruo 35, sitere na obodo Danube Swabian <i id="mwoQ">(Schwowe)</i> nke Yugoslavia, Hungary na Romania ( Batschka na Banat ), ezigara Russia n'ike dị ka Allied "nkwụghachi ụgwọ agha", na-arụ ọrụ dị ka ọrụ ohu iji wughachi Stalino na ịrụ ọrụ na ogbunigwe ya. Ọnọdụ ndị ahụ dara nke ukwuu nke na ọtụtụ ndị nwụrụ n'ihi ọrịa na erighị ihe na-edozi ahụ. [9]

N'oge ebili mmiri nke abụọ nke Nikita Khrushchev nke mbibi na Nọvemba 1961, a kpọgharịrị obodo ahụ Donetsk, aha Osimiri Seversky Donets, nke dị na Don [7] iji mee ka ọ dịpụrụ adịpụ na onye ndu mbụ Joseph Stalin .

Na 1965, na Donetsk Academy nke Sciences e guzobere dị ka akụkụ nke Academy nke Sciences nke Ukraine SSR .

Ukraine nọọrọ onwe ya[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Mgbe ọ nwesịrị oge siri ike na 1990s, mgbe ọ bụ ebe etiti agha ndị otu maka ịchịkwa ụlọ ọrụ mmepụta ihe,, Donetsk mere ngwa ngwa, nke ukwuu n'okpuru nduzi nke nnukwu ụlọ ọrụ.

Na 1994, e mere referendum na Donetsk Oblast na Luhansk Oblast, na gburugburu 90% kwadoro nkwenye nke Russian dị ka asụsụ gọọmentị n'akụkụ Ukraine., na maka Russian na-bụ nanị ukara asụsụ na a mpaghara larịị; otu o sila dị, ndị ọchịchị Kyiv kagburu referendum ahụ. [10] [11]  ]

N'afọ ndị 1990 na oge 2000, e gburu ọtụtụ narị n'ime ogbunigwe i na Donetsk na mpaghara ahụ. Ndị a gụnyere mkpọmkpọ coal nke Ukraine n'afọ 2008, ọdachi ogbunigwe Zasyadko nke afọ 2007, na ọdachi ahụ mere n'afọ 2015 nke Zasyadko . Ukraine enweela ọtụtụ ihe mberede n'ịgbapụta ihe kemgbe ọdịda Soviet Union na 1991, otu ihe kpatara ya bụ njikọ nke ụgwọ ọrụ nke ndị na-egwuputa ihe na mmepụta ihe, bụ ihe mkpali ileghara usoro nchebe anya nke na-ebelata mmepụta ihe. [12]

Na nzuko e nwere na Moscow na 2008, a ghọtara Donetsk dị ka obodo kacha mma na Commonwealth of Independent States maka atụmatụ mmepe ya etinyere.[13] na 2012 na 2013 Donetsk ghọtara dị ka ebe kacha mma maka azụmahịa na Ukraine . [14] [15] [16]

Ka ọ na-enweta otuto maka ikike azụmahịa ya, Donetsk nwetakwara nkatọ maka njikọ mafia siri ike nke oligarchy ya na-eto eto, yana maka ọnụ ọgụgụ ịda ogbenye na-abawanye. [17] Ụfọdụ ndị nyocha dọrọ aka ná ntị banyere ọdịda Donetsk ogologo oge; na na ọ nwere ike ịkekọrịta ọnọdụ ọjọọ Detroit n'ihi ọdịda ya ịlụso mpụ na ịda ogbenye ọgụ [18] 

Donetsk People's Republic (2014-dị ugbu a)[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Referendum nke ndị nnupụisi haziri. Ahịrị iji banye ebe ntuli aka, Mee 11, 2014
Russian flag being raised in Donetsk, 1 March 2014

Mgbe Onye isi ala Yanukovych gbapụrụ na Ukraine ịchọ mgbaba na Russia, ndị na-agbachitere Russia na-akwado weghaara Ọchịchị Oblast State Administration [ uk ] (OSA), isi ụlọ ọrụ gọọmentị, na Donetsk. Ndị uwe ojii enyeghị mmegide. [19] Mgbe e mesịrị na izu ndị ọchịchị nke Donetsk disallowed a referendum na ọnọdụ nke mpaghara [20] na uwe ojii retook Donetsk OSA ụlọ. [21] [22] Donetsk ghọrọ otu n'ime ndị emmepe nke 2014 pro-Russian esemokwu na Ukraine .

Na 7 April 2014, pro-Russian ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị weghaara ikike nke Donetsk OSA ma kwupụta " Donetsk People's Republic ", na-arịọ maka enyemaka Russia. [23]

Na 11 May 2014, a Donetsk ọnọdụ referendum, 2014 e ẹkenịmde ke Donetsk nke ndị ntuli aka nwere ike họrọ ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị nnwere onwe. Onye isi kọmishọna nhoputa ndi ochichi nke kpọsara onwe ya Donetsk People's Republic, Roman Lyagin, kwuru na ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ pasent 90 nke ndị mere ntuli aka na mpaghara Donetsk kwadoro nnwere onwe ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị site na Kyiv . Ukraine anaghị aghọta referendum, mgbe EU na US kwuru na ntuli aka bụ iwu na-akwadoghị. [24]

Mgbọ ogbunigwe nke ndị agha Yukren na ndị otu ndị agha akpatala ọnwụ ndị nkịtị na Donetsk. [25] [26] Human Rights Watch akpọkuola akụkụ abụọ ahụ na-alụ ọgụ ka ha kwụsị iji ogbunigwe BM-21 Grad na-adịghị eduzi n'ebe ndị mmadụ bi, ma kwuo na iji usoro ngwa agha ndị a bụ mmebi iwu mba ụwa na ọ nwere ike bụrụ mpụ agha . Ọ kpọkukwara ndị ọgbaghara ahụ ka ha zere ibunye ha n'ebe ndị mmadụ juru. [27]

2015 IIHF World Championship Division I, Group A bụ ndokwa maka 18 ruo 24 April 2015 na Donetsk, ma Ukraine wepụrụ dị ka ndị ọbịa n'ihi esemokwu na-aga n'ihu na mba ahụ. [28] Kama Donetsk, a haziri asọmpi ahụ na Kraków, Poland. N'ikpeazụ, Ukraine kwadoro 2017 IIHF World Championship Division I, ọzọ Group A, ma na isi obodo ya, Kyiv .

Geography[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Atụmatụ nkwata ihe n'akụkụ Kalmius . N'azụ bụ Chervonohvardiyskyi raion nke Makiivka

Donetsk lina na steppe odida obodo, gbara ya gburugburu gbasasịrị woodland, ugwu nta, nkwata Atụmatụ, osimiri na ọdọ mmiri . A na-ejikarị mpụga ugwu eme ọrụ ugbo. Osimiri Kalmius jikọtara obodo ahụ na Oké Osimiri Azov, nke bụ 95 km (59 mi) n'ebe ndịda, yana mpaghara ntụrụndụ ama ama maka ndị bi na Donetsk. Ogologo eriri nke ala ubi gbara obodo ahụ gburugburu.

Obodo ahụ ruru 28 km (17 mi) site n'ebe ugwu ruo na ndịda na 55 km (34 mi) from east to west. Enwere ọdọ mmiri abụọ dị nso: Nyzhnekalmius (60 ha ), na "Oké Osimiri Donetsk" (206). ha). Osimiri 5 na-agafe n'obodo ahụ, gụnyere Kalmius, Asmolivka (13 km), Cherepashkyna (23 km), Skomoroshka na Bakhmutka. Obodo nwekwara ngụkọta nke 125 ndụmọdụ nkwata. [29]

Ihu igwe[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ihu igwe nke Donetsk bụ kọntinent na- ekpo ọkụ n'oge okpomọkụ ( Köppen : Dfb ). [30] Nkezi okpomọkụ bụ −4.1 Celsius C (25 Celsius F) na Jenụwarị na 21.6 Celsius C (71 °F) na Julaị. Nkezi ọnụọgụ mmiri ozuzo kwa afọ na-agbakọta ụbọchị 162 na ruo 556 millimeters kwa afọ. [31]Àtụ:Weather box

Government and administrative divisions[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

City centre

Ebe ọ bụ na 7 April 2014 Donetsk bụ de facto nke Donetsk Ndị mmadụ Republic na- achị dị ka isi obodo ya. The Donetsk Ndị mmadụ Republic na- adịghị ghọtara mba na ihe niile UN so na- aghọta na obodo dị ka Ukraine. South Ossetia, obodo ọzọ nwere oke ude, ghọtara Donetsk People's Republic dị ka onye nwe obodo yana Donetsk dị ka isi obodo ya. [32]

A na-ekewa ókèala Donetsk n'ime 9 nhazi raions (mpaghara), onye ọchịchị obodo na-elekọta site na raion kansụl, bụ ndị nọ n'okpuru Donetsk City Council.

# Raions Mpaghara Ndị mmadụ
1 Budyonny Raion 25 km2 100,300
2 Voroshylov Raion 10 km2 97,300
3 Kalinin Raion 19 km2 109,700
4 Kyiv Raion 33 km2 143,700
5 Kirov Raion 68 km2 171,700
6 Kuibyshev Raion 51 km2 120,800
7 Lenin Raion 37 km2 107,800
8 Petrovsky Raion 57 km2 88,600
9 Ndị Proletarian Raion 58 km2 102,800

Ọnụọgụ mmadụ[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Lee akụkọ: Ndị Russia nọ na UkraineÀtụ:Historical populations

Ụbọchị mmeri na Mee 9, 2013

Donetsk nwere ihe karịrị mmadụ 985,000 bi na 2009[33] na ihe karịrị 1,566,000 bi n'ógbè mepere emepe na 2004. Ọ bụ obodo nke ise kasị ibu na Ukraine[1]

Dị ka ọnụ ọgụgụ e mere n'afọ 2001 si kwuo, ndị si n'ihe karịrị otu agbụrụ 130 bi na Donetsk Oblast.. [34] Ukrainian agbụrụ bụ 56.9% nke ndị bi (2,744,100 ndị mmadụ); agbụrụ Rọshịa bụ 38.2% nke ndị bi (1,844,400 mmadụ). [34] Asụsụ obodo nke 74.9% nke ndị bi na Donetsk mpaghara bụ Russian, ma e jiri ya tụnyere 24.1% Ukraine. [35] 58.7% nke ndị agbụrụ Ukraine na-ewere Russian ka asụsụ obodo ha.[35]

Na 1989 ọ dịghị Ukraine asụsụ ụlọ akwụkwọ na Donetsk..[36]

Ọdịdị nke Donetsk City Municipality site agbụrụ bụ ndị a: [37]

Total: 1,024,678 people, 100.00%

N'afọ 1991, otu ụzọ n'ụzọ atọ nke ndị bi na Russia bụ ndị Russia, otu ụzọ n'ụzọ atọ dị ka Ukraine ebe ihe ka ọtụtụ n'ime ndị ọzọ kwuputara na ha bụ ndị Slav . [36] Obere obere na-agụnye ụfọdụ agbụrụ sitere na South Caucasus na ugwu ọwụwa anyanwụ Anatolia mpaghara, gụnyere ndị Armenia, Azerbaijans, Georgians na Pontic Greek (gụnyere ndị a kọwara dị ka ndị Gris Caucasus ).

Asụsụ obodo nke ndị bi na obodo Donetsk dị ka ọnụ ọgụgụ ndị Ukraine nke 2001 : [38]

  • Russian 87.8%
  • Ukrainian 11.1%
  • Armenian 0.1%
  • Belarusian 0.1%

Akụ na ụba[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ụlọ Nzukọ Congress

Donetsk na ókèala ndị gbara ya gburugburu bụ obodo mepere emepe nke ukwuu ma na-agbakọba n'ime obodo. Ndị ọrụ na-etinye aka nke ukwuu na ụlọ ọrụ dị arọ, ọkachasị ngwuputa kol . Obodo ahụ bụ ebe dị mkpa nke nnukwu ụlọ ọrụ na kol na Donets Basin ( Donbas ). Kpọmkwem n'okpuru obodo dina coal ogbunigwe, nke na-adịbeghị anya hụrụ na-abawanye na Ngwuputa ihe mberede, kasị ọhụrụ mberede bụ na Zasyadko mine, nke gburu ihe karịrị 100 ọrụ. [39]

Donetsk Zasyadko coal mine, aha ọjọọ maka ihe mberede Ngwuputa ya.

Akụ na ụba Donetsk mejupụtara ihe dị ka ụlọ ọrụ mmepụta ihe 200 nwere ngụkọta mmepụta nke ihe karịrị ijeri 120 rubles kwa afọ yana karịa otu 20,000 ọkara-obere nha. Ụlọ ọrụ na -egwupụta kol n'obodo ahụ nwere ebe a na-egwupụta coal 17 na igwe ihe abụọ na-etinye uche; ụlọ ọrụ ọla na-agụnye nnukwu ụlọ ọrụ ọla 5 dị na obodo dum; ahịa injinia mejupụtara ụlọ ọrụ 67, yana ụlọ ọrụ nri - otu 32.

Mgbe ọdịda Soviet Union gasịrị, Donetsk na obodo ndị ọzọ gbara agbata obi nke Donbas tara ahụhụ nke ukwuu, n'ihi na e mechiri ọtụtụ ụlọ ọrụ na ọtụtụ ndị bi na ya funahụrụ ha n'ọrụ. [40] Ihe 412,000 square metres (4,434,731 sq ft) nke ebe obibi, 7.9 km (4.9 mi) nke netwọk gas, na 15.1 km (9.4 mi) nke netwọk mmiri n'ime obodo n'ime 1998-2001.

Obodo ahụ nwekwara ụlọ "Donetsk" mpaghara akụ na ụba pụrụ iche . [41] Donetsk nwere obodo itoolu ugbu a. [42] Obodo German nke Magdeburg nwere mmekọrịta akụ na ụba na Donetsk n'oge 1962–1996. [43] [44]

Na 2012, Donetsk e gosiri obodo kasị mma maka azụmahịa na Ukraine site Forbes . Donetsk topped the rating na ise egosi: mmadụ isi obodo, ikike ịzụrụ ụmụ amaala, ego ọnọdụ, aku na uba kwụsie ike, nakwa dị ka akụrụngwa na nkasi obi . [45]

Ebe ịzụ ahịa n'obodo ahụ gụnyere nnukwu ụlọ ahịa nke Donetsk City .

Donetsk bụ nnukwu ebe egwuregwu, nwere akụrụngwa mepere emepe, ma nweela asọmpi mba ụwa ugboro ugboro - Davis Cup, UEFA Champions League . Ndị nnọchi anya obodo ahụ bụ egwuregwu ndị isi steeti dịka bọọlụ, hockey, basketball, ịkụ ọkpọ, tenis, egwuregwu na ndị ọzọ.

Egwuregwu kachasị ewu ewu na Donetsk bụ football . Donetsk bụ ụlọ abụọ bụ isi ọkachamara football klọb: Shakhtar Donetsk, nke na-egwuri na Donbas Arena tupu 2014 ma ugbu a na-arụ na NSC Olimpiyskiy, na FC Olimpik Donetsk, nke ugbu a na-arụ na Chernihiv Stadium . Ruo 2021, ha abụọ gbara na Ukraine Premier League, mana na 2021, Olimpik weghaara ya na Njikọ Mbụ nke Ukraine . Shakhtar Donetsk meriri Ukrainian Championship na Ukrainian Cup ọtụtụ ugboro, na 2009 ha ghọrọ otu nke abụọ si Ukraine (mgbe FC Dynamo Kyiv ) iji merie asọmpi European, UEFA Cup . Donetsk bụkwa ụlọ nke ndị inyom football club WFC Donchanka, otu n'ime ihe ịga nke ọma klọb na akụkọ ihe mere eme nke Ukrainian Women's League, ma ọ kwụsịrị ọrụ na 2014.

Emeghere ama egwuregwu Donbas Arena na 2009.

Donetsk bụ ụlọ egwuregwu bọọlụ Donbas Arena, nke mepere na 2009. Ọ ghọrọ ámá egwuregwu mbụ dị na Eastern Europe e mere ma wuo ya dịka ụkpụrụ UEFA maka egwuregwu egwuregwu nke "Elite" si dị. Mgbe mba Poland na Ukraine meriri nkwekọrịta nkwonkwo maka UEFA Euro 2012, a họpụtara Donetsk's Donbas Arena dị ka ebe maka egwuregwu atọ Group D, otu egwuregwu nkeji iri na ise, na otu egwuregwu ọkara ikpeazụ. [46] A họpụtara ama egwuregwu RSK Olimpiyskyi ka ọ bụrụ ama egwuregwu idobere. [47]

Donetsk, yana Mariupol dị nso, bụ obodo ndị ọbịa nke asọmpi UEFA European Under-19 2009 . Ama egwuregwu ndị na-akwado ihe omume ahụ n'aha Donetsk bụ RSC Olimpiyskiy (nke kwadoro ikpeazụ) na Metalurh Stadium .

Donetsk bụ ụlọ nke ice hockey club HC Donbass, na-egwu egwu na Druzhba Arena kemgbe 2011 (ma ịkwụsị ọrụ bụ 2014 wee na-akwaga Druzhkivka na 2015), nke meriri 2011 Ukrainian Hockey Championship, na nke bụ naanị otu ndị ọkachamara na-eme ihe nkiri. obodo. Mgbe ọ gbasịrị otu oge na Russian Major League, klọb ahụ kwalitere ebe egwuregwu ya na ụkpụrụ Njikọ Hockey Kontinental, wee sonye na otu na 2012. Mgbe ị na-akwaga na KHL, ụlọ ọrụ ahụ kere ụlọ ọrụ ugbo mpaghara ka ọ na-egwu na Ukrainian Championship n'okpuru aha HC Donbass-2, nke meriri 2012 na 2013 mba aha. Na 2013 Donetsk nọ na-akwado 2012-13 IIHF Continental Cup ice hockey Super Final, nke HC Donbass meriri, na 2013 IIHF World Championship Division I - Group B, ebe Ukraine kwụsịrị 1st wee nweta nkwalite na Group A (ha abụọ kwadoro na Druzhba Arena ). Mgbe otu ahụ maliteghachiri ọrụ na 2015, ọ kwụsịrị na KHL, na-ejedebe na Njikọ Hockey nke Ukraine, ebe ọ meriri anọ n'ime asọmpi ise ikpeazụ.

Donetsk bụkwa ebe obibi nke bọọlụ basketball BC Donetsk, bụ nke na-egwuri egwu na Ukrainian Basketball Super League, wee nweta aha mmeri 2012. Klọb a na-egwuri egwu na Druzhba Arena, a họpụtara Donetsk ka ọ bụrụ otu n'ime obodo 6 nke Ukraine iji kwado FIBA EuroBasket 2015 . Otú ọ dị, ụlọ ọgbakọ ahụ kwụsịrị egwuregwu mgbe 2014 gasịrị n'ihi agha na-aga n'ihu, na asọmpi 2015 FIBA ga-ebupụ na mba ahụ.

Obodo a bụbu ebe obibi nke ole na ole ama ama n'oge ahụ ma ugbu a, klọb na-adịghị arụ ọrụ. MFC Shakhtar Donetsk club meriri Ukrainian futsal Championship ugboro ise, ma etisasịwo na January 2011 n'etiti oge n'ihi nsogbu ego (n'oge - ndị kasị titled club na Ukraine ). Otu n'ime ndị otu egwuregwu volleyball Soviet kachasị elu n'oge ahụ, VC Shakhtar Donetsk, bụ ndị otu ikpeazụ meriri Soviet Volleyball Championship, na 1992. Ndị otu ahụ meriri asọmpi abụọ mbụ na Njikọ nke Ukraine kwụụrụ onwe ya, na 1992 na 1993 (1992 Ukraine Championship e mere na Donetsk), wee merie Ukraine Cup na 1993, mana mgbe enwere okwu gbasara ego, ọgbakọ ahụ wepụrụ na 1997. ma mgbe otu oge gachara na akwa nke abụọ, e mechiri ya.

Akpụrụ akpụ nke pole vault legend Serhii Bubka nke guzo na Donetsk nso RSC Olimpiyskiy .

Donetsk kwadoro asọmpi Tenis USSR na 1978, 1979 na 1980, wee kwado ụfọdụ egwuregwu tennis nke 2005 Davis Cup . Donetsk bụ ebe obibi nke Alexander Kolyaskin Memorial, nke e mere n'etiti 2002-2008 na akụkụ nke ATP Challenger Series, na Donetsk bụ ebe obibi nke iko nwanyị Viccourt, nke a na-ekewa dị ka ITF Women's Circuit wee malite na 2012.

Donetsk na-abụkarị ebe egwuregwu dị mkpa, na-anabatakwa mmemme dị iche iche. Donetsk bụ otu n'ime obodo ndị ọbịa maka asọmpi egwuregwu 1978 na 1980 Soviet, ma bụrụ naanị obodo ndị ọbịa na mmemme ahụ na 1984. Donetsk kwadokwara asọmpi egwuregwu ụmụaka nke 1977 nke Europe . Ama egwuregwu eji eme mmemme egwuregwu ahụ bụ RSC Olimpiyskiy (n'oge a na-akpọ RSC Lokomotiv).

N'etiti egwu egwu na egwuregwu ubi dị iche iche, Donetsk karịsịa nwere nnukwu aha na ikpo okwu . Serhii Bubka, nke ọtụtụ ndị na-ewere dị ka nnukwu pole vaulter na akụkọ ihe mere eme, tolitere n'obodo ahụ, ma malitekwa na 1992 ihe omume ịkwanye osisi pole kwa afọ na Donetsk, nke a na-akpọ Pole Vault Stars . Bubka n'onwe ya debere ndekọ ime ụlọ ụwa na ihe omume ahụ ugboro atọ (1990, 1991, 1993). Ndekọ ọnụ ụlọ ya dị mita 6.15, nke edobere na ama egwuregwu Olympic nke Donetsk na 21 February 1993, agbajighị ruo 2014. Onye uwe ojii Russia bụ Yelena Isinbayeva debere ndekọ ụwa ọhụrụ na mmemme ahụ kwa afọ n'etiti 2004 na 2009.

2015 IIHF World Championship Division I ice hockey asọmpi ka akwadoro maka 18 ruo 24 Eprel 2015 na Donetsk mana emechara kwaga Kraków, Poland n'ihi agha na-aga n'ihu.

Ndị otu egwuregwu ọkachamara[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ndị na-esonụ bụ ndepụta nke otu egwuregwu ndị ọkachamara dị adị, yana ndị ama ama (na-emeri aha) klọb arụrụ arụ. Ọ dịghị nke klọb ugbu a na-egwu n'ime obodo n'ihi agha Donbas .

Omenala[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ebe nkiri[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

First Line Avenue (Artema Street)[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Donetsk Shevchenko Cinema na Artema Street

First Line Avenue, nke a makwaara dị ka Artema Street, ka a na-ewere dị ka akụkụ bụ isi nke Donetsk. Ọ na-arụkarị ọrụ dị ka ebe kacha mma ịmalite maka njem nlegharị anya ọ bụla na gburugburu obodo. Okporo ámá ahụ nwere ngwakọta nke ihe owuwu ọhụrụ na nke ochie yana obere ogige ntụrụndụ, ụlọ oriri na ọṅụṅụ, ebe ịzụ ahịa na ụlọ oriri na ọṅụṅụ. Saịtị ndị ama ama gụnyere Lenin Square, Opera & Ballet Theatre, Ncheta nke Coalminers na Donetsk Drama Theatre.

Panorama nke Artema Street

Ihe oyiyi nke Artyom (Fyodor Sergeyev)[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ihe oyiyi a dị mita isii n'ogologo na Artema Street bụ ụtụ maka onye ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị Soviet Fyodor Sergeyev .

Donetsk Opera na Ballet Ụlọ ihe nkiri[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ewubere na 1936, Donetsk State Academic Opera na Ballet Theatre abụrụla ụlọ ọrụ Donetsk Ballet kemgbe 1946.

Donetsk Opera Ụlọ ihe nkiri, 2002

Donbass Palace[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ụlọ oriri na ọṅụṅụ 5-kpakpando a dị n'etiti Donetsk bụ nanị ụlọ oriri na ọṅụṅụ nke Ukraine sonyere The Leading Hotels of the World na bụ ụlọ oriri na ọṅụṅụ na-eduga na Ukraine dịka World Travel Awards Association si kwuo. E wuru ya na 1938 site n'iwu Shuvalova na Rechanikov. N'oge ndị Nazi na-arụ ọrụ Donetsk, ndị Gestapo nwere ụlọ nkwari akụ dị ka isi ụlọ ọrụ; Ebibiri ụlọ ahụ n'oge agha ahụ. Emepeghachiri ụlọ oriri na ọṅụṅụ ahụ mgbe arụgharịrị ya na 2004.

Donbass Palace, 2008

Pushkin Boulevard[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Pushkin Boulevard n'abalị

A 2 km (1.24 mi) ogologo ụzọ ndụ ndụ nke nwere isi iyi, cafes, na ọtụtụ ihe oyiyi dị ka ihe ncheta nke Taras Shevchenko . Ọkpụrụkpụ nkwụ Mertsalov dịkwa na Pushkin Boulevard. N'ịbụ nke e mepụtara maka ihe ngosi na 1896 site n'aka Aleksei Mertsalov, onye na-ese ihe n'ógbè ahụ, site na otu ụgbọ okporo ígwè, ọ pụtara iji gosipụta nkà na ike nke ụlọ ọrụ dị arọ na Czarist Russia.

Ihe ncheta nke John Hughes[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Nke a 2001 akpụrụ akpụ dị n'ihu Donetsk National Technical University asọpụrụ ọrụ nke Welsh obodo nchoputa John James Hughes, onye wuru obodo Yuzovka Steel Plant nke nyere Donetsk ya ulo oru akụkọ ihe mere eme.

Ogige ihe onyonyo akpara akpa[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Emeghere Forged Figures Park na 2001. Ememme Smithcraft nke mba ụwa na-eme na ogige ahụ kwa afọ. Ụfọdụ ọrụ na-enweta ihe nrite na-enye obodo ukwu ma na-anọ n'ogige ahụ, na-abawanye ọnụ ọgụgụ ihe ọkpụkpụ oge ụfọdụ.

Aqua ogige[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Donetsk Aquapark "Royal Marine" e meghere na Scherbakova Park na mbubreyo 2012. Dome na-akwụghị ụgwọ, nke ejiri usoro aluminom truss mee, bụ 26 metres (85 ft) dị elu nwere dayameta nke 85 metres (279 ft), ma na-egosipụta ihe a na-emegharị emegharị nke na-emepe slide iji kpughee ihe ruru 50% nke ihe owuwu ahụ na ìhè anyanwụ. Mpaghara 5,700-square-metre (61,000 sq ft) aqua park, otu n'ime ogige mmiri ime ụlọ kacha ibu n'ụwa, bụ ụlọ ọrụ Canada bụ OpenAire, Inc. [48] rụrụ.

IAlley nke mmụọ ozi[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ogige ndị mmụọ ozi dị na Donetsk bụ ihe ncheta ụmụaka gburu n'oge agha Donbas .

Nhazi[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Velikobritaniya ( English: ) Ụlọ oriri na ọṅụṅụ bụ otu n'ime ụlọ kacha ochie na Donetsk, nke e wuru na 1883.

Donetsk, n'oge ahụ Yuzovka, kewara ụzọ abụọ: n'ebe ugwu na n'ebe ndịda. N'akụkụ ndịda bụ ụlọ ọrụ obodo, ọdụ ụgbọ oloko, ụlọ telegraph, ụlọ ọgwụ na ụlọ akwụkwọ. N'ebe na-adịghị anya na ụlọ ọrụ mmepụta ihe bụ ógbè Bekee ebe ndị injinia na ndị ọrụ nlekọta bi. Mgbe e wuchara ebe obibi John Hughes na ogige dị iche iche maka ndị ọrụ si mba ọzọ, e wuru akụkụ ndịda obodo ahụ n'ụzọ bụ isi n'ụdị Bekee.

Rose - akara nke Donetsk City, Forged Figures Park

Ụlọ ndị a na-eji facade nke nwere akụkụ anọ na akụkụ atọ, elu ụlọ akwụkwọ ndụ akwụkwọ ndụ, nnukwu windo, nke nwere akụkụ buru ibu nke ụlọ ahụ, na mbara ihu. N'akụkụ a nke obodo ahụ, okporo ámá ndị buru ibu ma nwee pavement. Mmetụta dị ukwuu na nhazi ụlọ na Donetsk bụ onye na -ese ụkpụrụ ụlọ nke ụlọ ọrụ Novorossiya - Moldingauyer . Ụlọ ndị echekwara na mpaghara ndịda Yuzovka nwere ebe obibi nke John Hughes ( 1891, nke echekwabara ), Bolfur ( 1889 ) na Bosse.

N'ebe ugwu nke Yuzovka, Novyi Svet, ndị na-azụ ahịa, ndị omenkà na ndị ọrụ ụlọ ọrụ. N'ebe a, e nwere ụlọ ahịa ahịa, isi ụlọ ọrụ ndị uwe ojii na Katidral nke Nnwogha nke Jizọs. Okporo ụzọ etiti Novyi Svet na okporo ámá ndị gbara ya gburugburu bụ ụlọ obibi nwere okpukpu abụọ ma ọ bụ okpukpu abụọ, yana ahịa, ụlọ oriri na ọṅụṅụ, ụlọ oriri na ọṅụṅụ, ụlọ ọrụ na ụlọ akụ. Ụlọ a ma ama nke echekwara na mpaghara ugwu Yuzovka bụ ụlọ nkwari akụ Great Britain.

Atụmatụ izugbe mbụ nke Stalino mere na 1932 na Odessa site n'aka onye na-ese ụkpụrụ ụlọ P. Golovchenko. Na 1937, a rụgharịrị ọrụ ahụ n'otu akụkụ. Ọrụ ndị a bụ nke mbụ n'ime akụkọ ihe mere eme ụlọ ọrụ owuwu obodo.

A nnukwu akụkụ nke obodo ụlọ site na nkera nke abụọ nke narị afọ nke 20 e mere site architect Pavel Vigdergauz, nke e nyere Gọọmenti award nke USSR maka ije na obodo Donetsk na 1978.

Okpukpe[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Katidral nke nnwogha nke Jesus nke arụgharịrị arụgharịrị na Donetsk.

Ndị bi na Donetsk so na omenala okpukpe gụnyere Chọọchị Ọtọdọks nke Ọwụwa Anyanwụ [49] Eastern Catholic Churches, Protestantism, na Roman Catholic Church, yana Islam na okpukpe ndị Juu . [50] [51] Otu okpukpere chi nwere ọtụtụ ndị otu bụ Ụka Ọtọdọks nke Ukraine (Moscow Patriarchate) na Ụka Ọtọdọks nke Ukraine nke Kyivan Patriarchate .

N'afọ 2014, e kesara ndị Juu akwụkwọ akụkọ adịgboroja "nke onyeisi oche nke ọchịchị nwa oge Donetsk Denis Pushilin bịanyere aka na ya" n'ememme Ngabiga. Akwụkwọ nta ahụ gwara nwa amaala Juu Donetsk ka ọ deba aha onwe ya, ihe onwunwe ha na ezinụlọ ha n'aka ndị ọchịchị na-akwado Russia. Mpempe akwụkwọ ahụ kwuru na emeghị ihe ọ chọrọ ga-eme ka a napụ ya ikike ịbụ nwa amaala na ịnara ihe onwunwe ya. Akwụkwọ nta ahụ kpalitere ọgba aghara na ụjọ n'etiti ndị Juu Donetsk, bụ ndị hụrụ nkwughachi nke Oké Mgbukpọ ahụ na mpempe akwụkwọ ahụ. [52]

Ihe Mgbasa ozi[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ụlọ ọrụ telivishọn ise na-arụ ọrụ na Donetsk:

  • TRK Ukraine ( Ukrainian ) [53]
  • KRT, Kyivska Rus' ( Ukrainian ) [54]
  • Obodo mbụ ( Russian )
  • Kanal 27 ( Russian )
  • TRK Donbass ( Russian )

Na Donetsk, e nwere ụlọ elu TV nke dị mita 360, otu n'ime ihe owuwu kacha ogologo n'obodo ahụ, nke arụchara na 1992.

Ndị ama ama[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Anatoliy Solovianenko
Natan Sharansky
Lilia Podkopayeva

A na-akpọkarị ụmụ amaala Donetsk Donchyani ( Russian ). Ndị a bụ ndepụta ndị ama ama bụ ndị amụrụ ma ọ bụ zụlitere n'obodo ahụ:

Ụlọ ihe ngosi nka[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Donetsk Regional Museum nke Art

Donetsk bụ ụlọ ihe ngosi nka 140. N'ime ha, abụọ nnukwu obodo ngosi ihe mgbe ochie - Donetsk Region History Museum na Donetsk Regional Art Museum.

Ụlọ ihe ngosi nka Akụkọ ihe mere eme na Donetsk na-ekpughe ezigbo njirimara obodo yana kpuchie obodo niile dị iche iche dịka ọ dị. Ntọala na 1924, ọ na-enye ihe ngosi sara mbara nke nwere ihe ngosi 120,000: site na nchọpụta ihe ochie nke malitere na oge ochie ruo mgbe John Hughes malitere obodo ahụ, mmepe nke ụlọ ọrụ na ngwuputa coal, Agha Ụwa nke Abụọ na oge Soviet. Na 21 Ọgọst 2014, onye isi obodo Donetsk kọrọ na ọkụ ogbunigwe ebibiela ụlọ na mgbidi nke Donetsk Regional History Museum n'isi ụtụtụ ahụ. [55]

E mepere FC Shaktar Museum na 2010. Ụlọ ihe ngosi nka bụ ụlọ ngosi ihe mgbe ochie nke Ukraine nke a ga-ahọpụta maka onyinye ngosi ihe mgbe ochie nke European. [56]

Ụgbọ njem[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ụgbọ njem obodo[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

A Donetsk trolleybus na Katidral nke ngbanwe na ndabere.
Tram LM-2008

Isi ụdị njem n'ime Donetsk bụ: trams, bọs trolley eletriki, bọs na marshrutkas (obere bọs nkeonwe). Usoro njem ọha na eze nke obodo ahụ bụ nke ụlọ ọrụ obodo Dongorpastrans dị n'otu na-achịkwa. Obodo ahụ nwere okporo ụzọ ụgbọ oloko iri na abụọ (~ 130 km), ụzọ ụgbọ oloko iri na asaa (~ 188 km), na ihe dị ka ụzọ ụgbọ oloko iri na ise.[57] Ma usoro ụgbọ oloko na ụgbọ oloko dị n'obodo ahụ na-arụ ọrụ site na ebe nchekwa abụọ nke ọ bụla.[57] Ụzọ njem ọzọ n'ime obodo ahụ bụ ọrụ taxi, nke e nwere 32 na Donetsk.

Obodo nwekwara autostations dị n'ime obodo na ala ịta ahịhịa ya: autostation Yuzhny (South), nke na-eje ozi tumadi ahịrị njem na ndịda, n'ihi ya aha ya; autostation Tsentr (Centre), nke na-eje ozi na njem na ntụziaka nke Marinka na Vuhledar nakwa dị ka intercity iga; na autostation Krytyi rynok (ime ụlọ ahịa), nke na-eje ozi tumadi iga n'ebe ugwu na n'ebe ọwụwa anyanwụ ntụziaka; na autostation Putilovsky, nke na-eje ozi karịsịa n'ebe ugwu na n'ebe ugwu ọdịda anyanwụ ntụziaka njem.

Owuwu nke usoro metro n'obodo ahụ, nke malitere na 1992, gbahapụrụ n'oge na-adịbeghị anya n'ihi enweghị ego. Ọ nweghị ahịrị ma ọ bụ ọdụ ụgbọ elu emechara. [58]

Isi ọdụ ụgbọ oloko Donetsk, nke dị na ugwu obodo ahụ.

Isi ọdụ ụgbọ okporo ígwè Donetsk, nke na-eje ozi ihe dị ka nde ndị njem asaa kwa afọ, dị na mpaghara ugwu nke obodo ahụ.[57] E nwere ụlọ ngosi ihe mgbe ochie dị nso na isi ọdụ ụgbọ okporo ígwè, na-ahụ maka akụkọ ihe mere eme nke ụgbọ okporo ígwè mpaghara ahụ. Ụgbọ okporo ígwè ndị ọzọ bụ: Rutchenkovo, nke dị na Kyivskyi Raion; Mandrykino (Petrovskyi Raion), na Mushketovo (Budionivskyi Raion). Ụfọdụ ụgbọ okporo ígwè ndị njem na-ezere ọdụ Donetsk ma na-eje ozi na ọdụ Yasynuvata, nke dị na mpụga obodo. Ọ bụ ezie na a naghị eji ya eme njem mgbe niile, obodo ahụ nwekwara ụgbọ okporo ígwè ụmụaka. (Dị ka ọ dị na Septemba 2009) a na-eme atụmatụ ụlọ ọrụ ọdụ ụgbọ okporo ígwè ọhụrụ nke ga-agbaso ihe UEFA chọrọ (ebe ọ bụ na Donetsk bụ otu n'ime obodo ndị ọbịa maka UEFA EURO 2012).[59]

Donetsk Oblast bụ ebe njem dị mkpa na Ukraine, ya mere ebe etiti ya bụ Donetsk. Ụgbọ okporo ígwè Donetsk, nke dị na Donetsk, bụ ngalaba ụgbọ okporo ígwè kachasị ukwuu na Republic. Ọ na-arụ ọrụ ugbo na ụlọ ọrụ mmepụta ihe nke mpaghara ahụ, na ndị bi na Donetsk na Lugansk Republics na akụkụ nke Dnipropetrovsk, Zaporizhzhia na Kharkiv oblasts.

Ụgbọ njem okporo ụzọ[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

NkeTabliczka E50.svg</img> okporo ụzọ, akụkụ nke International E-road netwọk, na-agafe n'obodo ahụ na-aga Rostov-on-Don na Russia .

Na mgbakwunye, okporo ụzọ mba ọzọ na-agafe obodo ahụ: M 04. Ọzọkwa, okporo ụzọ mba Ukraine atọ (N 15, N 20, na N 21) na-agafe obodo ahụ.

A ga-arụcha ọkwa nke anọ nke okporo ụzọ okirikiri na-agafe Donetsk n'afọ 2014.[60]

Njem ụgbọelu[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Na mgbakwunye na njem ọha na eze na ụgbọ okporo ígwè, Donetsk nwere ọdụ ụgbọ elu mba ụwa.[61] E wuru ya n'oge mmalite afọ 1940 na mmalite afọ 1950. E wughachiri ya na 1973 na ọzọ site na 2011 ruo 2012. N'ihi ọgụ, emechiri ọdụ ụgbọ elu ahụ na 26 Mee 2014 ma kemgbe ahụ emebiela ọdụ ụgbọ elu ahụ.[62] E mechikwara mbara igwe dị n'elu Donetsk kemgbe ọdachi MH17.

Ụbọchị Physics na Donetsk National University, 2006

Donetsk nwere ọtụtụ mahadum, nke gụnyere mahadum steeti ise, ụlọ akwụkwọ iri na otu, ụlọ akwụkwọ atọ, ụlọ ọrụ teknụzụ iri na anọ, mahadum ise nke onwe, na kọleji isii.

Ụlọ akwụkwọ agụmakwụkwọ kachasị mkpa na ndị a ma ama gụnyere Donetsk National Technical University, nke e hiwere na 1921 ("Donetsk Polytechnical Institute" na 1960–1993), yana Donetsk National University nke e hiwere na 1937.[63][64] National Technical University nwere mmekọrịta chiri anya na Mahadum dị na Magdeburg. Kemgbe 1970, ihe karịrị ụmụ akwụkwọ 100 si Germany (East Germany) agụchaala agụmakwụkwọ ka elu na otu n'ime mahadum abụọ dị na Donetsk. Donetsk bụkwa ebe obibi nke Donetsk National Medical University, nke e hiwere na 1930 wee bụrụ otu n'ime mahadum ahụike kachasị na Soviet Union. E nwekwara ọtụtụ ụlọ ọrụ nyocha sayensị na Mahadum Alakụba n'ime Donetsk.

Donetsk bụkwa ebe obibi nke Prokofiev Donetsk State Music Academy, ụlọ nchekwa egwu nke e hiwere na 1960.

Twinnings[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Donetsk na-ekere òkè na atụmatụ obodo mba ụwa iji kwalite ezi mmekọrịta mba ụwa. Ndị mmekọ gụnyere:

Leekwa[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

 

Ihe edeturu[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

 

Ndetu[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

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