Ebe dị iche iche dị iche iche

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Russian Museum of Biodiversity Hotspots.jpg
Eastern Afromontane Biodiversity Hotspot (cropped).png

Ebe dị iche iche dị iche iche bụ mpaghara biogeographic nwere ọkwa dị ukwuu nke ụdị dị iche iche nke ebe obibi mmadụ na-eyi egwu.[1][2] Norman Myers dere banyere echiche ahụ na isiokwu abụọ na The Environmentalist na 1988 na 1990, mgbe nke ahụ gasịrị, e dezigharịrị echiche ahụ na-esochi nyocha zuru oke site na Myers na ndị ọzọ n'ime "Hotspots: Earth's Biologically Richest and Most Endangered Terrestrial Ecoregions" na akwụkwọ e bipụtara na akwụkwọ akụkọ Nature, ha abụọ na 2000.[3][4][5]

Iji ruo eruo dị ka ebe dị iche iche dị iche iche na mbipụta Myers nke 2000 nke map hotspot, mpaghara ga-ezute ụkpụrụ abụọ siri ike: ọ ga-enwe ọ dịkarịa ala ụdị osisi vascular 1,500 (ihe karịrị 0.5% nke ngụkọta ụwa) dị ka ndị a na-ahụkarị, ọ ga-efunahụkwa ọ dịkarịrị 70% nke ahịhịa ya.[5] N'ụwa niile, mpaghara 36 ruru eru n'okpuru nkọwa a.[6] Ebe ndị a na-akwado ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ 60% nke osisi, nnụnụ, anụ na-enye nwa ara, anụ na anụ na-akpụ akpụ, na oke nke ụdị ndị ahụ dị ka ndị a na ya. Ụfọdụ n'ime ebe ndị a na-ekpo ọkụ na-akwado ihe ruru ụdị osisi 15,000, ụfọdụ efunahụwokwa ihe ruru 95% nke ebe obibi ha.[6]

Ebe dị iche iche dị iche iche na-akwado usoro okike ha dị iche iche naanị na 2.4% nke mbara ala.[2] Myer chọpụtara ebe iri na mbụ; 36 dị ugbu a na-ekpuchi ihe karịrị 15.7% nke ala niile mana ha efunahụla ihe dị ka 85% nke mpaghara ha.[1][7] Mfu nke ebe obibi a bụ ihe mere ihe dịka 60% nke ndụ ụwa ji ebi naanị na 2.4% nke ala. Agwaetiti Caribbean dị ka Haiti na Jamaica na-eche nnukwu nrụgide ihu na ọnụ ọgụgụ nke osisi na anụ ndị nwere azụ n'ihi mgbukpọ ọhịa ngwa ngwa. Ebe ndị ọzọ gụnyere Tropical Andes, Philippines, Mesoamerica, na Sundaland, nke, n'okpuru ọkwa dị ugbu a nke mgbukpọ ọhịa na-eme, ga-efunahụ ọtụtụ ụdị osisi na anụmanụ ha.[8]

Mgbalị ndị a na-eme iji chekwaa ebe okpomọkụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Naanị obere pasent nke ala niile dị n'ime ebe dị iche iche dị iche iche na-echebe ugbu a. Ọtụtụ òtù mba ụwa na-arụ ọrụ iji chekwaa ebe dị iche iche dị iche iche.

  • Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund (CEPF) bụ mmemme zuru ụwa ọnụ nke na-enye ego na enyemaka teknụzụ maka òtù ndị na-abụghị gọọmentị iji chebe mpaghara kachasị baa ọgaranya n'ụwa nke osisi na anụmanụ dị iche iche, gụnyere ebe dị iche iche dị iche, ebe ọzara dị elu na mpaghara mmiri dị mkpa.
  • World Wide Fund for Nature chepụtara usoro a na-akpọ "Global 200 Ecoregions", nke ebumnuche ya bụ ịhọrọ mpaghara ecoregions dị mkpa maka nchekwa site na ụdị ala iri na anọ, mmiri atọ, na ụdị ebe obibi mmiri anọ. A na-ahọrọ ha maka ọgaranya nke ụdị, endemism, ịdị iche iche nke taxonomic, ihe ndị a na-adịghị ahụkebe na gburugburu ebe obibi ma ọ bụ evolushọn, na ụkọ zuru ụwa ọnụ. Ebe niile dị iche iche nwere ọ dịkarịa ala otu Global 200 Ecoregion.
  • Birdlife International achọpụtala 218 "Endemic Bird Areas" (EBAs) nke ọ bụla n'ime ha nwere ụdị nnụnụ abụọ ma ọ bụ karịa a na-ahụtụbeghị ebe ọzọ. Birdlife International achọpụtala ihe karịrị 11,000 Ebe Nnụnụ Dị Mkpa n'ụwa niile.
  • Ndụ osisi International na-ahazi mmemme na-achọ ịchọpụta na ijikwa mpaghara osisi dị mkpa.
  • Alliance for Zero Extinction bụ atụmatụ nke òtù sayensị na ndị na-echekwa ihe na-arụkọ ọrụ ọnụ iji lekwasị anya na ụdị ndị kachasị egwu n'ụwa. Ha achọpụtala ebe 595, gụnyere ọtụtụ ebe nnụnụ dị mkpa.
  • National Geographic Society akwadebewo map ụwa nke hotspots na ArcView shapefile na metadata maka Biodiversity Hotspots gụnyere nkọwa nke anụmanụ nọ n'ihe ize ndụ na hotspot ọ bụla, nke dị na Conservation International.[9][10][11]
  • Compensatory Afforestation Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA) na-achọ ịchịkwa mbibi nke oké ọhịa na India.

Nkesa site na mpaghara[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ebe dị iche iche dị iche iche. Atụmatụ mbụ na akwụkwọ ndụ akwụkwọ ndụ, na mpaghara agbakwunyere na-acha anụnụ anụnụ.[12]

Ọtụtụ ụdị dị iche iche dị n'ime ebe okpomọkụ; n'otu aka ahụ, ọtụtụ ebe dị iche iche na-ekpo ọkụ dị n'etiti ebe okpomogolo.[13] N'ime 36 biodiversity hotspots, 15 na-ekewa dị ka ochie, nke nwere ihu igwe, ala na-adịghị mma (OCBILs).[14] E kewapụrụ mpaghara ndị a n'akụkọ ihe mere eme site na mmekọrịta ya na mpaghara ihu igwe ndị ọzọ, mana mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya na mmegide emeela ka ebe ndị a dị nchebe n'akụnụ ihe mere eme nọrọ n'ihe ize ndụ. OCBILs anọwo na-eyi egwu site na ịkwaga nke ndị otu ụmụ amaala na ọrụ agha dịka ala na-adịghị amị mkpụrụ emeela ka ndị mmadụ kwụsị.[15] Nchekwa nke OCBILs n'ime ebe dị iche iche dị iche iche amalitela ịdọrọ uche n'ihi na echiche ndị dị ugbu a kwenyere na saịtị ndị a na-enye ọ bụghị naanị ọkwa dị elu nke ụdị dị iche iche, kamakwa ha nwere usoro ọmụmụ siri ike na ikike maka ọkwa dị elu n'ọdịnihu. N'ihi na ebe ndị a kwụsiri ike, enwere ike ịhazi ha dị ka ebe mgbaba.[16]

Ebe Ugwu na Ebe Etiti America

  • Ógbè Floristic nke California (8)
  • Osisi pine-oak nke Madrean (26)
  • Mesoamerica (2)
  • Ala Dị larịị nke North America (36)[17][18]

Oké Osimiri Caribbean

  • Agwaetiti Caribbean (3)

South America

  • Oké ọhịa Atlantic (4)
  • mechiri emechi (6)
  • Mmiri ozuzo n'oge oyi nke Chile-Ọhịa Valdivian (7)
  • Tumbes-Chocó-Magdalena (5)
  • Ebe okpomọkụ Andes (1)

Europe

  • Mmiri Mediterenian (14)

Afrịka

  • Ógbè Cape Floristic (12)
  • Oké ọhịa ndị dị n'ụsọ oké osimiri nke Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ Afrịka (10)
  • Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ Afromontane (28)
  • Oké ọhịa Guinea nke West Africa (11)
  • Horn nke Africa (29)
  • Madagascar na agwaetiti ndị dị n'Oké Osimiri India (9)
  • Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany (27)
  • Karoo na-atọ ụtọ (13)

Ebe Etiti Eshia

  • Ugwu nke Central Asia (31)

Ndịda Eshia

  • Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ Himalaya (32)
  • Indo-Burma, Bangladesh, India na Myanmar (19)
  • Western Ghats na Sri Lanka (21)

Ndịda Ọwụwa Anyanwụ Eshia na Eshia-Pacific

  • Agwaetiti Ọwụwa Anyanwụ Melanesia (34)
  • New Caledonia (23)
  • New Zealand (24)
  • Philippines (18)
  • Polynesia-Micronesia (25)
  • Oké ọhịa ndị dị n'Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ Australia (35)
  • Ndịda Ọdịda Anyanwụ Australia (22)
  • Sundaland, Indonesia na agwaetiti Nicobar nke India (16)
  • Wallacea nke Indonesia (17)

Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ Eshia

  • Japan (33)
  • Ugwu nke Southwest China (20)

Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ Eshia

  • Caucasus (15)
  • Iran-Anatolian (30)

Nkatọ nke "Hotspots"[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Nkọwa dị elu nke ụdị dị iche iche nke ihe ndị dị ndụ emeela ka ụfọdụ nkatọ. Akwụkwọ ndị dị ka Kareiva & Marvier (2003) ekwuola na ebe dị iche iche dị iche iche:[19]

  • Egbochighị ụdị ndị ọzọ nke ọgaranya ụdị (dịka ọgaranya zuru oke ma ọ bụ ọgaranya dị egwu).
  • A naghị anọchite anya taxa ndị ọzọ karịa osisi vascular (dịka vertebrates na fungi).
  • Ejila ebe ndị dị obere na-aba ụba.
  • Ekwela ka e nye ya ikike maka ịgbanwe usoro iji ala eme ihe. Hotspots na-anọchite anya mpaghara ndị nwere nnukwu mbibi ebe obibi, mana nke a apụtaghị na ha na-enwe mbibi ebe ndụ na-aga n'ihu. N'aka nke ọzọ, mpaghara ndị na-enweghị nsogbu (dịka ọdọ mmiri Amazon) enweela obere mfu ala, mana ugbu a na-efunahụ ebe obibi na nnukwu ọnụego.
  • Echekwala ọrụ gburugburu ebe obibi.
  • Echegbula ụdị dị iche iche nke phylogenetic.[20]

Usoro akwụkwọ ndị na-adịbeghị anya ekwuola na ebe dị iche iche dị iche iche (na ọtụtụ mpaghara ndị ọzọ dị mkpa) anaghị ekwu maka echiche nke ọnụahịa.[21] Ebumnuche nke ebe dị iche iche dị iche iche abụghị naanị ịchọpụta mpaghara ndị nwere nnukwu uru dị iche iche, kama iji mee ka mmefu nchekwa dị mkpa. Mpaghara ndị a chọpụtara gụnyere ụfọdụ n'ime mba ndị mepere emepe (dịka California Floristic Province), yana ndị ọzọ nọ n'ụwa ndị na-emepe emepe (e.g. Madagascar). Ọnụ ego ala nwere ike ịdịgasị iche n'etiti mpaghara ndị a site n'usoro nke ịdị ukwuu ma ọ bụ karịa, mana aha ebe dị iche iche anaghị atụle mkpa nchekwa nke ọdịiche a. Otú ọ dị, ihe onwunwe ndị dịnụ maka nchekwa na-adịgasị iche n'ụzọ a.

Hụkwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

 

Ihe odide[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Biodiversity Hotspots in India. www.bsienvis.nic.in. Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; name "hotspots" defined multiple times with different content
  2. 2.0 2.1 Why Hotspots Matter. Conservation International. Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; name "conservation" defined multiple times with different content
  3. Myers (1988). "Threatened biotas: "Hot spots" in tropical forests". Environmentalist 8 (3): 187–208. DOI:10.1007/BF02240252. PMID 12322582. 
  4. Myers, N. The Environmentalist 10 243-256 (1990)
  5. 5.0 5.1 Myers (2000). "Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities". Nature 403 (6772): 853–858. DOI:10.1038/35002501. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 10706275.  Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; name "MyersMittermeier2000" defined multiple times with different content
  6. 6.0 6.1 Biodiversity hotspots defined. Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund. Conservation International. Retrieved on 10 August 2020.
  7. Biodiversity Hotspots. www.e-education.psu.edu.
  8. Brooks (August 2002). "Habitat Loss and Extinction in the Hotspots of Biodiversity". Conservation Biology 16 (4): 909–923. DOI:10.1046/j.1523-1739.2002.00530.x. ISSN 0888-8892. 
  9. Conservation International. The Biodiversity Hotspots (2010-10-07). Archived from the original on 2012-03-27. Retrieved on 2012-06-22.
  10. Conservation International. The Biodiversity Hotspots (2010-10-07). Archived from the original on 2012-03-20. Retrieved on 2012-06-22.
  11. Resources. Biodiversityhotspots.org (2010-10-07). Archived from the original on 2012-03-24. Retrieved on 2012-06-22.
  12. Biodiversity Hotspots. GEOG 30N: Environment and Society in a Changing World. John A. Dutton e-Education Institute, College of Earth and Mineral Sciences, Pennsylvania State University. Retrieved on 3 August 2022.
  13. Harvey (2020-12-11). "The evolution of a tropical biodiversity hotspot" (in en). Science 370 (6522): 1343–1348. DOI:10.1126/science.aaz6970. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 33303617. 
  14. Error on call to Template:cite web: Parameters url and title must be specified. academic.oup.com. Retrieved on 2023-03-23.
  15. Hopper (2016-06-01). "Biodiversity hotspots and Ocbil theory" (in en). Plant and Soil 403 (1): 167–216. DOI:10.1007/s11104-015-2764-2. ISSN 1573-5036. 
  16. Hopper (2009-09-01). "OCBIL theory: towards an integrated understanding of the evolution, ecology and conservation of biodiversity on old, climatically buffered, infertile landscapes" (in en). Plant and Soil 322 (1): 49–86. DOI:10.1007/s11104-009-0068-0. ISSN 1573-5036. 
  17. North American Coastal Plain. Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund. Retrieved on 7 February 2019.
  18. Noss (2015). "How global biodiversity hotspots may go unrecognized: lessons from the North American Coastal Plain". Diversity and Distributions 21 (2): 236–244. DOI:10.1111/ddi.12278. 
  19. Kareiva (2003). "Conserving Biodiversity Coldspots: Recent calls to direct conservation funding to the world's biodiversity hotspots may be bad investment advice". American Scientist 91 (4): 344–351. DOI:10.1511/2003.4.344. ISSN 0003-0996. Retrieved on 10 May 2022. 
  20. Daru (2014). "Spatial incongruence among hotspots and complementary areas of tree diversity in southern Africa". Diversity and Distributions 21 (7): 769–780. DOI:10.1111/ddi.12290. 
  21. Possingham (August 2005). "Turning up the heat on hotspots" (in en). Nature 436 (7053): 919–920. DOI:10.1038/436919a. ISSN 1476-4687. PMID 16107821. Retrieved on 10 May 2022. 

Ịgụ ihe ọzọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]