Edward Abbey

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Edward Abbey
Mmádu
ụdịekerenwoke Dezie
mba o sịNjikota Obodo Amerika Dezie
Aha enyereEdward Dezie
aha ezinụlọ yaAbbey Dezie
ụbọchị ọmụmụ ya29 Jenụwarị 1927 Dezie
Ebe ọmụmụHome, Indiana Dezie
Ụbọchị ọnwụ ya14 Maachị 1989 Dezie
Ebe ọ nwụrụTucson Dezie
asụsụ ọ na-asụ, na-ede ma ọ bụ were na-ebinye akaBekee Dezie
Asụsụ ọ na-edeBekee Dezie
ụdị ọrụ yanchekwa okike, natural environment, literary activity, belletristic literature Dezie
onye were ọrụUniversity of Arizona Dezie
ebe agụmakwụkwọUniversity of Edinburgh, University of New Mexico, University of New Mexico, Yale University, University of Pennsylvania Dezie
ngalaba aghaUnited States Army Dezie
Ọrụ ama amaThe Monkey Wrench Gang, Desert Solitaire Dezie
Ijegburugburu ebe obibi, green anarchism Dezie
ụdịedemede, nature writing, akwụkwọ akụkọ Dezie
onye nlereranyaAldo Leopold, Henry David Thoreau, Gary Snyder, Peter Kropotkin, A. B. Guthrie Jr. Dezie
Ihe nriteGuggenheim Fellowship Dezie

 

Edward Paul Abbey (January 29, 1927 - March 14, 1989) bụ onye edemede America na onye edemede ama ama maka nkwado ya maka nsogbu gburugburu ebe obibi, nkatọ nke iwu ala ọha na eze, na echiche ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị anarchist. Ọrụ ya a ma ama gụnyere akwụkwọ akụkọ The Monkey Wrench Gang, nke e depụtara dị ka ihe na-akpali akpali site n'aka ndị otu gburugburu ebe obibi siri ike, na ọrụ na-abụghị akụkọ ifo Desert Solitaire.

Mbido ndụ na agụmakwụkwọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A mụrụ Abbey na Pennsylvania" id="mwFA" rel="mw:WikiLink" title="Indiana, Pennsylvania">Indiana, Pennsylvania na Jenụwarị 29, 1927 na Mildred Postlewait na Paul Revere Abbey. Mildred bụ onye nkuzi ụlọ akwụkwọ na onye na-akpọ ụbọ akwara na chọọchị, ma nye Abbey ekele maka egwu na akwụkwọ ọdịnala. Paul bụ onye na-akwado ọchịchị onye kwuo uche ya, onye na-emegide ọchịchị, na Onye na-ekweghị na Chineke nke echiche ya nwere mmetụta siri ike na Abbey.[1]

Abbey gụsịrị akwụkwọ na ụlọ akwụkwọ sekọndrị na Indiana, Pennsylvania, na 1945. Ọnwa asatọ tupu afọ iri na asatọ ya, mgbe a ga-eche ya ihu na a ga-edebanye aha ya na Ndị agha United States, Abbey kpebiri inyocha ndịda ọdịda anyanwụ America. Ọ na-eji ụkwụ, bọs, Ịgba ịnyịnya ígwè, na ụgbọ okporo ígwè na-ebu ibu. [2]N'oge njem a, ọ hụrụ ala Ọzara nke mpaghara Four Corners n'anya. Abbey dere, sị: "[...] ugwu na elu nke nkume gba ọtọ, etiti gbara ọchịchịrị nke ugwu mgbawa oge ochie, nnukwu ihe efu na-agba ọkụ na okpomọkụ, agba, na ihe a na-apụghị ịghọta aghọta, n'elu nke obere igwe ojii dị ọcha, doro anya, siri ike. Na nke mbụ, echere m na m na-eru nso n'ebe ọdịda anyanwụ nke echiche m miri emi, ebe ihe a na ya na akụkọ ifo ghọrọ otu ihe ahụ. "[3][4][5]

N'ime ndị agha, Abbey tinyere akwụkwọ maka ọkwa odeakwụkwọ mana kama ọ rụrụ ọrụ afọ abụọ dị ka onye uwe ojii ndị agha na Ịtali. A kwalitere Abbey n'ọchịchị ugboro abụọ mana n'ihi nkà ya maka imegide ikike, e wepụrụ ya ugboro abụọ ma chụpụ ya n'ụzọ nkwanye ùgwù dị ka onye nkịtị. [2]Ahụmahụ ya na ndị agha hapụrụ ya na enweghị ntụkwasị obi maka nnukwu ụlọ ọrụ na ụkpụrụ nke metụtara ederede ya n'oge niile ọ na-arụ ọrụ, ma mee ka nkwenkwe anarchist ya sie ike.[6]

Mgbe ọ laghachiri na United States, Abbey jiri ohere nke G.I. Bill gaa Mahadum nke New Mexico, ebe ọ nwetara B.A. na nkà ihe ọmụma na Bekee na 1951, na nzere masta na nkà ihe mere eme na 1956. [2][7][8]N'oge ọ nọ na kọleji, Abbey kwadoro onwe ya site n'ịrụ ọrụ n'ọtụtụ ọrụ, gụnyere ịbụ onye nta akụkọ akwụkwọ akụkọ na onye na-ere mmanya na Taos, New Mexico. N'oge a, o nwere ndị enyi nwoke ole na ole mana ya na ọtụtụ ụmụ nwanyị nwere mmekọrịta chiri anya. Obere oge tupu ya enweta nzere bachelọ ya, Abbey lụrụ nwunye mbụ ya, Jean Schmechal (nwa akwụkwọ UNM ọzọ). [9]Mgbe ọ na-agụ akwụkwọ, Abbey bụ onye nchịkọta akụkọ nke akwụkwọ akụkọ ụmụ akwụkwọ ebe o bipụtara otu isiokwu akpọrọ "Some Implications of Anarchy". Nkwupụta mkpuchi nke isiokwu ahụ, "nke a na-ekwu na ọ bụ Louisa May Alcott" kwuru na "Mmadụ agaghị enwere onwe ya ruo mgbe a ga-egbu eze ikpeazụ na eriri afọ nke onye ụkọchukwu ikpeazụ. "Ndị ọrụ mahadum weghaara akwụkwọ niile nke mbipụta ahụ, wee wepụ Abbey na nchịkọta nke akwụkwọ ahụ.[10]

Mgbe ọ natara akwụkwọ nchụpụ ya dị ùgwù, o zighachiri ya na ngalaba ahụ na okwu "Return to Sender". FBI dere ihe ma tinye ihe edeturu na faịlụ ya nke emeghere na 1947 mgbe Edward Abbey mere omume nnupụisi obodo; o biputere akwụkwọ ozi mgbe ọ nọ na kọleji na-agba ndị mmadụ ume iwepụ onwe ha na kaadị ha. [11]Abbey nọ na ndepụta ndị FBI kemgbe ahụ ma na-ele ya anya n'oge ndụ ya niile. N'afọ 1952, Abbey dere akwụkwọ ozi megide draft ahụ n'oge udo ma FBI mara ọzọ na-ede, "Edward Abbey na-emegide agha na ndị agha. "N'oge ndụ ya niile, FBI dere ihe na-ewulite profaịlụ banyere Abbey, na-elegharị anya na mmegharị ya ma na-agba ọtụtụ ndị maara ya ajụjụ ọnụ. Ka ọ na-erule n'akụkụ ikpeazụ nke ndụ ya, Abbey mụtara banyere mmasị FBI nwere n'ebe ọ nọ wee sị "A ga-akparị m ma ọ bụrụ na ha anaghị ele m anya".[6]

Mgbe ha gụsịrị akwụkwọ, Schmechal na Abbey gara Edinburgh, Scotland, ebe Abbey nọrọ otu afọ na Mahadum Edinburgh dị ka Onye ọkà mmụta Fulbright. [9][7][9]N'oge a, Abbey na Schmechal kewara ma kwụsị alụmdi na nwunye ha. [9]N'afọ 1951, Abbey malitere iso Rita Deanin, onye ga-abụ nwunye ya nke abụọ n'afọ 1952 mgbe ya na Schmechal gbara alụkwaghịm. [12]Deanin na Abbey nwere ụmụ abụọ, Joshua N. Abbey na Aaron Paul Abbey.[13]

Akwụkwọ edemede Abbey nyochara anarchism na omume nke ime ihe ike, na-ajụ ajụjụ abụọ ahụ: "Ruo ókè njikọ dị ugbu a n'etiti anarchism da ime ihe ike kwesịrị ekwesị?" na "Ruo n'ókè njikọ ahụ dị mma, olee arụmụka ndị anarchists gosipụtara, n'ụzọ doro anya ma ọ bụ n'ụzọ na-apụtaghị ìhè, iji kwado iji ime ihe ike?". [14]Mgbe ọ natasịrị nzere masta ya, Abbey nọrọ na 1957 na Mahadum Stanford na Wallace Stegner Creative Writing Fellowship.[7]

Ọrụ maka National Park Service[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Abbey nọrọ oge dị ka onye na-elekọta ogige ntụrụndụ n'ihe ghọrọ Arches National Park dị nso na Moab, Utah

N'afọ 1956 na 1957, Abbey rụrụ ọrụ dị ka onye na-elekọta oge maka United States National Park Service na Arches National Monument (nke bụzi ogige ntụrụndụ mba), nso obodo Moab, Utah. Abbey nọ n'ọkwa ahụ site n'April ruo Septemba kwa afọ, n'oge ahụ ọ na-elekọta ụzọ, na-ekele ndị ọbịa, ma na-anakọta ụgwọ ogige. Ọ biri n'ụlọ na-adọkpụ ụgbọala nke ndị na-ahụ maka ogige ntụrụndụ nyere ya, yana n'ụlọ o wuru n'onwe ya. N'oge ọ nọrọ na Arches, Abbey chịkọtara nnukwu ihe edeturu na eserese nke mesịrị bụrụ ntọala nke ọrụ mbụ ya na-abụghị akụkọ ifo, Desert Solitaire. [15]A mụrụ nwa nwoke nke abụọ nke Abbey bụ Aaron na 1959, na Albuquerque, New Mexico.[16]

N'afọ ndị 1960 Abbey rụrụ ọrụ dị ka onye na-elekọta ogige ntụrụndụ n'oge na Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, n'ókè Arizona na Mexico.   N'afọ 1961, ihe nkiri nke akwụkwọ akụkọ ya nke abụọ, The Brave Cowboy, nke Dalton Trumbo dere, bụ nke Kirk Douglas gbara na New Mexico, onye zụrụ ikike ihuenyo nke akwụkwọ akụkọ ahụ ma na-emepụta ma na-eme ihe nkiri ahụ, nke e wepụtara na 1962 dị ka Lonely Are the Brave. [citation needed]Douglas kwuru n'otu oge na mgbe Abbey gara ihe nkiri ahụ, ọ lere anya ma kwuo okwu dị ka enyi ya Gary Cooper nke na Douglas nwere mgbagwoju anya. Otú ọ dị, ihe karịrị afọ 25 ka e mesịrị mgbe Abbey nwụrụ, Douglas dere na ya 'enwetụbeghị' ya. [17]N'afọ 1981, e mekwara akwụkwọ akụkọ ya nke atọ, Fire on the Mountain, ka ọ bụrụ ihe nkiri TV site n'otu aha ahụ.[17]

N'abalị iri na isii n'ọnwa Ọktoba n'afọ 1965, Abbey lụrụ Judy Pepper, onye sooro Abbey dị ka onye na-elekọta ogige ntụrụndụ na Florida Everglades, wee bụrụ onye na-ele ọkụ na Lassen Volcanic National Park. [18]Judy kewapụrụ na Abbey ruo ogologo oge mgbe ọ gara Mahadum Arizona iji nweta nzere masta ya. N'oge a, Abbey na ụmụ nwanyị ndị ọzọ na-ehi ụra - ihe Judy ji nwayọọ nwayọọ mara, na-eme ka alụmdi na nwunye ha taa ahụhụ. [19]N'August 8, 1968 Pepper mụrụ nwa nwanyị, Susannah "Susie" Mildred Abbey. Ed zụrụ ezinụlọ ahụ ụlọ na Sabino Canyon, na mpụga Tucson. [20]Judy nwụrụ na ọrịa leukemia na July 11, 1970, ihe omume nke kụrisịrị Abbey, na-eme ka ọ banye "n'ọnọdụ ịda mbà n'obi na owu ọmụma" ruo ọtụtụ afọ. Ọ bụ Judy ka ọ raara akwụkwọ ya Black Sun nye. Otú ọ dị, akwụkwọ ahụ abụghị akwụkwọ akụkọ banyere mmekọrịta ya na Judy. Kama nke ahụ, ọ bụ akụkọ banyere otu nwanyị Abbey na ya nwere mmekọahụ na 1963. Abbey dechara edemede mbụ nke Black Sun na 1968, afọ abụọ tupu Judy anwụọ, ọ bụkwa "ọkpụkpụ nke esemokwu n'alụmdi na nwunye ha".[21][22]

Desert Solitaire, akwụkwọ nke anọ nke Abbey na ọrụ mbụ na-abụghị akụkọ ifo, e bipụtara na 1968. N'ime ya, ọ kọwara oge ọ nọrọ na canyonlands nke ndịda ọwụwa anyanwụ Utah site na 1956-1957. [23]A na-ewere Desert Solitaire dị ka otu n'ime Akụkọ ọdịdị kachasị mma na akwụkwọ America, a na-ejikwa ya tụnyere Aldo Leopold's A Sand County Almanac na Thoreau's Walden.  [24]N'ime ya, Abbey na-akọwa n'ụzọ doro anya ọdịdị ala nke Southern Utah ma na-atọ ụtọ na nnọpụiche ya dị ka onye na-elekọta ogige ntụrụndụ, na-akọ akụkọ ihe mere eme na mba canyon na ugwu dị nso. Ọ na-awakpo ihe ọ na-akpọ "njem ụlọ ọrụ" na mmepe na ogige ntụrụndụ mba ("ebe a na-adọba ụgbọala mba"), okporo ụzọ megide Glen Canyon Dam, ma kwuo okwu na isiokwu ndị ọzọ dị iche iche.   N'afọ 1973, Abbey lụrụ nwunye ya nke anọ Renee Downing. [citation needed]Otú ọ dị, Abbey na-apụ mgbe niile ya mere ha gbara alụkwaghịm mgbe afọ anọ nke alụmdi na nwunye gasịrị.[25]

Ndụ e mesịrị[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Abbey zutere nwunye ya nke ise na nke ikpeazụ, Clarke Cartwright na 1978, wee lụọ ya na 1982. [26][27]Ha nwere ụmụ abụọ, Rebecca Claire Abbey na Benjamin C. Abbey. [28]N'afọ 1995, a mụrụ nwa nwa Abbey, Sophia Abbey-Kuipers.

N'afọ 1984, Abbey laghachiri na Mahadum Arizona iji kụzie ihe ọmụmụ na edemede na nlekọta ile ọbịa. N'oge a, ọ gara n'ihu na-arụ ọrụ n'akwụkwọ ya Fool's Progress .[29]

N'ọnwa Julaị n'afọ 1987, Abbey gara n'ụwa nke mbụ! Nzukọ na North Rim nke Grand Canyon. Mgbe ọ nọ n'ebe ahụ, ọ sonyere na arụmụka kpụ ọkụ n'ọnụ banyere echiche ya banyere mbata na ọpụpụ na otu ndị Kọmunist anarchist a maara dị ka Alien Nation. [30]Abbey wepụtara otu isi n'akwụkwọ ya Ndụ Hayduke Lives maka ihe ndị mere na Rendezvous. [31]N'oge mgbụsị akwụkwọ nke afọ 1987, Utne Reader bipụtara akwụkwọ ozi sitere n'aka Murray Bookchin nke kwuru na Abbey, Garrett Hardin, na ndị otu Earth First! bụ ndị na-akpa ókè agbụrụ na ndị na-eyi ọha egwu. Abbey were iwe nke ukwuu, ma chọọ mgbaghara n'ihu ọha, na-ekwu na ọ bụghị onye na-akpa ókè agbụrụ ma ọ bụ onye na-akwado iyi ọha egwu. Mmadụ atọ n'ime ndị Bookchin kpọrọ "ndị agbụrụ" megidere mbata iwu na-akwadoghị na United States, na-ekwu na mmụba nke ọnụ ọgụgụ mmadụ ga-akpatakwu mmerụ ahụ na gburugburu ebe obibi. Banyere ebubo nke "eco-terrorism", Abbey zaghachiri na usoro ọ kwadoro bụ ịnwa ịgbachitere megide iyi ọha egwu ọ chere na gọọmentị na ụlọ ọrụ mere ya megide ndị dị ndụ na gburugburu ebe obibi.[32]

Ọnwụ na olili ozu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  Edward Abbey nwụrụ na Machị 14, 1989, mgbe ọ dị afọ 62, n'ụlọ ya na Tucson, Arizona. [33]Ọnwụ ya bụ n'ihi nsogbu sitere na ịwa ahụ; ọ tara ahụhụ ụbọchị anọ nke ọbara ọgbụgba, n'ihi varices esophageal, nke bụ nsogbu na-apụta ugboro ugboro na otu ìgwè akwara. [34]N'igosi mmetụta ọchị ya, ọ hapụrụ ozi maka onye ọ bụla jụrụ maka okwu ikpeazụ ya: "Ọ dịghị nkọwa. " Abbey hapụkwara ntụziaka maka ihe ọ ga-eme na ozu ya: Abbey chọrọ ka e buru ozu ya n'ihe ndina nke ụgbọala, ma chọọ ka e lie ya ozugbo o kwere mee. Ọ chọghị ka a gbasie ya ma ọ bụ tinye ya n'ime igbe ozu. Kama nke ahụ, ọ họọrọ ka etinye ya n'ime akpa ụra ochie, ma rịọ ka ndị enyi ya leghara iwu niile gbasara olili ozu anya. "Achọrọ m ka ahụ m nyere aka mee ka osisi cactus ma ọ bụ nkume rose ma ọ bụ sagebrush ma ọ bụ osisi too". Maka olili ozu ya, Abbey kwuru "Ọ dịghị okwu ọ bụla a chọrọ, ọ bụ ezie na onye nwụrụ anwụ agaghị etinye aka ma ọ bụrụ na mmadụ nwere mkpali ahụ. Mana mee ka ọ dị mfe ma dị mkpirikpi. "Ọ rịọrọ ka a gbaa égbè na egwu, na-atọ ụtọ ma na-eme mkpọtụ, "[a] a]nd a flood of beer and booze! Ọtụtụ of singing, dancing, talking, hollering, laughing, and lovemaking. "[34][35]

  • Cactus Chronicles nke Orion Magazine bipụtara, Jul-Aug 2006 (adịghịzi arụ ọrụ,)
  • Postcards si Ed (akwụkwọ) Halo Postcards sitere na Ed: Dispatches and Salvos from an American Iconoclast (2006) (ISBN 1-57131-284-6)
  • Slumgullion Stew: Onye na-agụ akwụkwọ Edward Abbey (1984)
  • The Best of Edward Abbey (1984)
  • Agwọ nke Paradaịs: Onye Na-agụ Akwụkwọ (1995)

Ihe edeturu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. Mongillo (2001). "Edward Abbey: (1927-1989)", Environmental activists. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-30884-0. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Peterson, David (2003). Confessions of a barbarian: selections from the journals of Edward Abbey. Big Earth Publishing. ISBN 978-1-55566-287-5.  Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; name "peterson-2003-1" defined multiple times with different content
  3. Ronald, Ann (2000). The New West of Edward Abbey. University of Nevada Press. ISBN 978-0-87417-357-4. 
  4. Western Literature Association (1987). "Edward Abbey", A Literary history of the American West. TCU Press. ISBN 978-0-87565-021-0. 
  5. For Abbey's full account of this trip, see his essay "Hallelujah on the Bum"
  6. 6.0 6.1 name="Bishop", [Epitaph For a Desert Anarchist: The Life and Legacy of Edward Abbey], "Macmillan Publishing Company", 1994
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Ronald, Ann (2000). The New West of Edward Abbey. University of Nevada Press. ISBN 978-0-87417-357-4.  Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; name "ronald-2000-p247" defined multiple times with different content
  8. For a detailed discussion of Abbey's college years, see Bishop, James (1995). "The Anarchist Emerges", Epitaph for a desert anarchist: the life and legacy of Edward Abbey. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-684-80439-2. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 Bishop, James (1995). Epitaph for a desert anarchist: the life and legacy of Edward Abbey. Simon & Schuster, 88–89. ISBN 978-0-684-80439-2.  Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Bishop-1995-88-89" defined multiple times with different content
  10. Scheese, Don (2002). Nature writing: the pastoral impulse in America. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-415-93889-1. 
  11. FBI response to Freedom of Information Act request for its file on Abbey
  12. Abbey, Edward (2003). in Peterson, David: Confessions of a barbarian: selections from the journals of Edward Abbey. Big Earth Publishing. ISBN 978-1-55566-287-5. 
  13. (1996) in Macrae, John: The Serpents of Paradise: A Reader. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-8050-3133-1. 
  14. Phillipon, Daniel J. (2005). "Toward Ecotopia: Edward Abbey and Earth First!", Conserving Words: How American Nature Writers Shaped the Environmental Movement. University of Georgia Press, 225–226. ISBN 978-0-8203-2759-4. 
  15. Scheese, Don (1998). "Desert Solitaire: Counter-Friction to the Machine in the Garden", in Glotfelty: The ecocriticism reader: landmarks in literary ecology. University of Georgia Press. ISBN 978-0-8203-1781-6. 
  16. (2006) in Peterson, David: Postcards from Ed: dispatches and salvos from an American iconoclast. Milkweed Editions. ISBN 978-1-57131-284-6. 
  17. 17.0 17.1 Cox. "The fretful Birth of the New Western", The New York Times, 29 July 2012. Retrieved on 29 July 2012.
  18. Loeffler, Jack (2003). Adventures with Ed: A Portrait of Abbey. University of New Mexico Press, 86–87. ISBN 978-0-8263-2388-0. 
  19. Loeffler, Jack (2003). Adventures with Ed: A Portrait of Abbey. University of New Mexico Press, 92. ISBN 978-0-8263-2388-0. 
  20. Loeffler, Jack (2003). Adventures with Ed: A Portrait of Abbey. University of New Mexico Press, 94. ISBN 978-0-8263-2388-0. 
  21. Pozza, David M. (2006). Bedrock and paradox: the literary landscape of Edward Abbey. Peter Lang, 72–73. ISBN 978-0-8204-6330-8. 
  22. Bishop, James (1995). Epitaph for a desert anarchist: the life and legacy of Edward Abbey. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-684-80439-2. 
  23. Pozza, David M. (2006). Bedrock and paradox: the literary landscape of Edward Abbey. Peter Lang. ISBN 978-0-8204-6330-8. 
  24. Olson, Ted (2000). ""In Search of a More Human Nature": Wendell Berry's Revision of Thoreau's Experiment", in Schneider, Richard J.: Thoreau's sense of place: essays in American environmental writing. University of Iowa Press. ISBN 978-0-87745-708-4. 
  25. Scheese, Donald. "Abbey, Edward." Encyclopedia of American Environmental History. Ed. Kathleen A. Brosnan. Vol. 1. New York: Facts on File, 2011. 75-76. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 3 June 2013.
  26. Bishop, James (1995). Epitaph for a desert anarchist: the life and legacy of Edward Abbey. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-0-684-80439-2. 
  27. (2004) "Abbey, Edward", in Oakes, Elizabeth H.: American Authors. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8160-5158-8. 
  28. "Genealogy data", AbbeyWeb
  29. Loeffler, Jack (2003). Adventures with Ed: A Portrait of Abbey. University of New Mexico Press. ISBN 978-0-8263-2388-0. 
  30. Lee, Martha Frances (1995). Earth first!: environmental apocalypse. Syracuse University Press, 105–107. ISBN 978-0-8156-0365-8. 
  31. Lee, Martha Frances (1995). Earth first!: environmental apocalypse. Syracuse University Press. ISBN 978-0-8156-0365-8. 
  32. Loeffler, Jack (2003). Adventures with Ed: A Portrait of Abbey. University of New Mexico Press. ISBN 978-0-8263-2388-0. 
  33. Trimble, Stephen (1995). "Epilogue: Remembering Edward Abbey", Words from the land: encounters with natural history writing. University of Nevada Press. ISBN 978-0-87417-264-5. 
  34. 34.0 34.1 Mongillo (2001). "Edward Abbey: (1927-1989)", Environmental activists. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-30884-0. 
  35. Quammen, David, "Bagpipes for Ed", Outside, April 1989

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