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George Eliot

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George Eliot
Mmádu
ụdịekerenwanyị Dezie
mba o sịUnited Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Dezie
aha n'asụsụ obodoMary Ann Evans, Marian Evans Dezie
Aha ọmụmụMary Anne Evans Dezie
Aha enyereGeorge, Marian, Mary Ann, Mary Anne Dezie
aha ezinụlọ yaEliot, Evans, Cross Dezie
aha pseudonymGeorge Eliot Dezie
ụbọchị ọmụmụ ya22 Novemba 1819 Dezie
Ebe ọmụmụNuneaton Dezie
Ụbọchị ọnwụ ya22 Disemba 1880 Dezie
Ebe ọ nwụrụLondon Dezie
ihe kpatara ọnwụkidney disease Dezie
Ebe oliliHighgate Cemetery Dezie
ŃnàRobert Evans Dezie
ŃnéChristiana Pearson Dezie
Dị/nwunyeJohn Walter Cross Dezie
onye mmekọ na-alụghị alụGeorge Henry Lewes Dezie
Asụsụ obodoBekee Dezie
asụsụ ọ na-asụ, na-ede ma ọ bụ were na-ebinye akaBekee, German Dezie
Asụsụ ọ na-edeBekee Dezie
ebe agụmakwụkwọBedford College, Royal Holloway, University of London Dezie
agbụrụ Dezie
okpukpere chi/echiche ụwaekweghị na Chineke, agnosticism Dezie
Archive naLeeds University Library, Harry Ransom Center Dezie
Ijeliterary realism Dezie
onye nlereranyaHonoré de Balzac, Charles Christian Hennell Dezie
gosiputara yaGeorge Eliot (Mary Ann Cross (née Evans)) Dezie
ikike nwebiisinka dị ka onye okikecopyrights on works have expired Dezie

Mary Ann Evans (22 Nọvemba 1819 - 22 Disemba 1880; ọzọ Mary Anne ma ọ bụ Marian [1] [2]), nke aha ya bụ George Eliot mara, bụ onye edemede Bekee, onye na-ede uri, onye nta akụkọ, onye ntụgharị, na otu n'ime ndị edemede bụ isi.  nke oge Victoria.[3]  O dere akwụkwọ akụkọ asaa: Adam Bede (1859), The Mill on the Floss (1860), Silas Marner (1861), Romola (1862–1863), Felix Holt, the Radical (1866), Middlemarch (1871–1872) na Daniel  Deronda (1876).  Dị ka Charles Dickens na Thomas Hardy, o si n'ógbè England pụta;  Ọtụtụ ọrụ ya ka edobere n'ebe ahụ.  A maara ọrụ ya maka eziokwu ha, nghọta nke uche, echiche nke ebe na nkọwa zuru ezu nke ime obodo.

Onye edemede bụ Virginia Woolf akwụkwọ Middlemarch dị ka "otu n'ime akwụkwọ akwụkwọ Bekee ole na ole e dere maka ndị toro eto" [1] na Martin Amis [2] na Julian Barnes [3] dị ka akwụkwọ akwụkwọ ,  akwụkwọ Bekee.

. [1]Mary Ann Evans na Nuneaton, Warwickshire, England, na South Farm na Arbury Hall estate.  [1] Ọ bụ nwa nke atọ nke Robert Evans (1773–1849), onye njikwa Arbury Hall estate, na Christiana Evans ( née Pearson, 1788–1836), ada nke onye nwe igwe.  Ụmụnne ya zuru oke bụ Christiana, nke a maara dị ka Chrissey (1814–59), Isaac (1816–1890), na ike ejima ndị ọnwụ ụbọchị ole na ole ka amuchara na Ma ọchịchị 1821. O nwanne nwanne nne, Robert Evans (1802).  –64), na nwanne nwanne, Frances "Fanny" Evans Houghton (1805–82), site na alụm di na eje nke nna ya na Harriet Poynton (1780–1809).  Ná ngosi 1820, aha ahụ kwagara n'otu ụlọ aha ya bụ Griff House, n'etiti Nuneaton na Bedworth.

. [2]Evans na-eto eto bụ onye na-agụ akwụkwọ nke ukwuu na nke nwere ike isi.  N'ihi na anaghị ele ya anya dị ka onye mara mma, echeghị na Evans nwere ikike dị ukwuu nke ịlụ di na nke a, ndị isi isi ya, mere ka nna ya tinye ego na ike na-nwere enye ikike ụmụ nwanyị di na-egosi  akara.  [1] Site na afọ ise ruo akwụkwọ, ọ nwanne ya nwanne ya Chrissey na ụlọ akwụkwọ Miss Latham na Attleborough, site na ndụ ruo iri na atọ na ụlọ akwụkwọ Mrs. Wallington na Nuneaton, na site na 13 ruo 16 n'  ụlọ akwụkwọ Miss Franklin na Coventry .  N'akwụkwọ akwụkwọ Oriakụ Wallington, onye onye ozi ọma bụ Maria Lewis eje ya ihe—bụ onye e degaara akwụkwọ ozi ndị mbụ dị ndụ ya.  N'ime ọnọdụ eberechi nke ụlọ akwụkwọ Miss Franklin, Evans arịa ọrụ dị na nke njirimara aka ná ntịrị izisa ozi ọma

Mgbe ọ dị afọ iri na isii, Evans nwere obere akwụkwọ akwụkwọ.  [1] N'ihi ọrụ dị mkpa nna ya na-arụ na ala ahụ, e kwere ka ọ banye n'ọbá akwụkwọ nke Arbury Hall, bụ nke nyere aka n'ịmụ onwe ya na ukwuu.  Ọzụzụ oge ochie ya akara ya;  Christopher Stray mgbasala na " akpị akwụkwọ George Eliot na- nnukwu akwụkwọ na akwụkwọ ndị Gris (naanị otu n'ime akwụkwọ ya ka a na-azụ nke ọma n'ejighị ụdị ederede Grik ), na-enwe ike m nke ndị Gris"  .  [2] Ọbịbịa ọ na-eleta ala ahụ ugboro ugboro kwekwara ya ka ọ akụ na-ahụ nke onye nwe obodo bi na ndụ ndị ogbenye na- aha n'iche ahụ, na ndụ dị iche iche bi na ya ga-ama ụzo n  'ọtụtụ ọrụ ya.  Ihe ọzọ dị mkpa ná ndụ ya ná akụkụ bụ ndị.  A Shore ya n'ime mpaghara Anglican nke ụka dị ala, mana n'oge ahụ Midlands bụ mpaghara nwere ọnụ ọgụgụ na-arị elu nke ndị na-azụ ahịa.

Na 1836, nne ya nwụrụ na Evans (mgbe ahụ 16) la iche n'iche ka ọ onye ọrụ dị ka onye ụlọ ụlọ, ma ọ oriọna na-edegara onye akwụkwọ ya Maria Lewis akwụkwọ.  Mgbe ọ dị afá 21, nwanne ya nwoke Isaacì ma weghara ihe ya, ya mere Evans na nna ya kwagara Foleshill dị nso na Coventry .  Ịdị nso na obodo Coventry wetara mgbochi, anyị nke Charles na Cara Bray.  Charles Bray mmetụta dị ka onye na-ahụ rịbọn ma jiri akụ na mụrụ ya na-ewu ụlọ akwụkwọ na ihe ndị ọzọ na-eme ebere.  Evans, onye na-agbasi mgba ike na obi abụọ na- ruo oge ụfọdụ, ụfọdụ enyi na-akpachi anya ya na ndị na-egosi mmetụta, Brays nwere onwe ha, nwere echiche efu ọrụ na-eke [1] na ụlọ "Rosehill  " bụ ebe nchekwa maka ndị na-ejide ma na-arụ ụka.  echiche radical.  Ndị mmadụ nọ n'ahụ ahụ zutere n'ihe egwu Brays Robert Owen, Herbert Spencer, Harriet Martineau, na Ralph Waldo Emerson .  Site na ọha mmadụ a ewebata Evans na nkà pastọ na-emesapụ aka na nke ụmụ na Chineke na ndị edemede dị ka David Strauss na Ludwig Feuerbach, bụ ndị mere ka e nwee obi abụọ na eziokwu nke akwụkwọ n'ụzọ.  N'ezie, akwụkwọ mbụ ya bụ akara Bekee nke Strauss's Das Leben Jesu kristisch bearbeitet dị ka The Life of Jesus, Critically Examined (1846), nke ọ dechara Elizabeth mgbe "Rufa" Brabant Louis ya ike ezu.  "Rosehill Circle".

. [3]Dị ka Ntụgharị nke ọbụbụenyi ha, Bray ụfọdụ ụfọdụ n'ime akwụkwọ mbụ Evans, dị ka ihe, n'akpa ya bụ Coventry Herald and Observer .  [1] Ka Evans mgbasa ozi nke ya, nna ya yiri egwu pụpụ ya n'ihe, ma eghị ihe iyi egwu ya.  Kama, o ji akara gaa igodo ma, na-edobere ya ụlọ ruo mgbe ọ nwụrụ na 1849, mgbe ọ dị afọ 30. àmà ise mgbe olili nna ya nchebe, ọ gara Switzerland na Brays.  O ihe onye na-ahụ na Geneva onwe ya, biri na mbụ n'odo mmiri dị na Plongeon (n' video ụlọ ndị nke United Nations nke oge a) wee mee n'okpukpu nke abụọ nke ụlọ ndị enyi ya François na Juliet d'Albert Durade nwere  na rue de.  Chanoines (ugbu a rue de la Pelisserie).  O ji obi ụtọ na "mmadụ na-enwe ike na akwụkwọ dara ada n'elu osisi ochie dị mma".  A na-eji ihe ngosi dị n'ahụ na-echeta ya.  Mgbe ọ nọ n'ebe ahụ, akwụkwọ akụkọ nke ọma ma gaa ogologo ije n'ime ime obodo Switzerland mara mma, nke bụụrụ ya nnukwu mkpali.  François Durade sekwara ihe ọrụ ya ebe ahụ.

. [4] [5]Mgbe ọ la n'Ịngland n'afọ na-esote (1850), ọ kwagara London na mmalite nke ọmụmụ onye edemede, ọkwara ihe onwe ya Marian Evans.  [1] Ọ mbụ n'iche John Chapman, onye onye na-akpa ike nke ọ zutere na na Rosehill na onye ngwaọrụ Strauss ya.  O wee sonye na Chapman's ménage-à-trois ya na nyere ya na nne ya ukwu.  [2] Chapman akwụkwọ n'oge na-adịbeghị anya mgbasa ozi, akwụkwọ aka ekpe The Westminster Review .  Evans nchịkọta onye nchịkọta akụkọ gbara ya na 1851 mgbe ọ hụrụ otu afụ gara aga.  Edemede Evans maka akwụkwọ ọmụmụ ahụ bụ nsogbu echiche ya gbasara nsogbu mmadụ na ụzọ echiche Victoria.  [3] Ọ nwere ihe n'ebe ndị klaasị nọ n'okpuru ma katọọ ndị a haziri hazi n'ime , diski ike ya wee kwuo echiche ndị dị ugbu a nke oge ahụ.  [4] Ọtụtụ n'ime ihe ndị sitere n'ahụmahụ na ihe ya wee jiri nke a katọọ echiche na otu ndị ọzọ.  Nke a mere ka a na-ele ihe odide ya anya dị ka nke bụ eziokwu na nke ma ọ bụghị nke doro anya na ọ bụ echiche.  Evans lekwasịrị anya n'ụdị azụmahịa nke Nyochaa na mbọ iji njikwa nhazi ya na imewe ya.  [5] Ọ bụ ebe na Chapman bụ onye nchịkọta akụkọ, ọ bụ Evans bụ onye na-enye ọtụtụ ọrụ nke akwụkwọ akụkọ ahụ, na-enye ọtụtụ edemede na ndị agha na-achị January 1852 wee gaa n'ihu ruo ike nke ọrụ ya na  Review na ọkara mbụ nke 1854. [6] Eliot nwere ike na mmalite nke 1848 na kọntinent Europe niile, na-atụkwa anya na ndị Ịtali ga- amịpụ "ndị Austria na-adịghị mma" na Lombardy nakwa na "ndị eze rere ure  " ga- akwụsị ezumike nká, n'agbanyeghị na ọ na-enyere aka igbochi ihe mgbochi nsogbu na eze kacha mma.  England

Onye ọkà ihe ọmụma na onye nkatọ George Henry Lewes (1817–78) zutere Evans na 1851, na 1854 ha kpebiri ibikọ ọnụ. Lewes alụọlarị Agnes Jervis, ọ bụ ezie na alụmdi na nwunye mepere emepe . Na mgbakwunye na ụmụaka atọ ha nwere ọnụ, Agnes nwekwara ụmụ anọ site na Thornton Leigh Hunt . [6] Na July 1854, Lewes na Evans gara Weimar na Berlin ọnụ maka ebumnuche nyocha. Tupu ọ gawa Germany, Evans gara n'ihu n'ọrụ nkà mmụta okpukpe ya na nsụgharị nke Feuerbach's The Essence of Christianity, na mgbe ọ nọ ná mba ọzọ, o dere edemede ma rụọ ọrụ na nsụgharị ya nke Baruch Spinoza 's Ethics, nke ọ dechara na 1856, ma nke a na-ebipụtaghị na ya. oge ndụ ya n'ihi na onye gaje ibipụta akwụkwọ jụrụ ịkwụ £75 ahụ a rịọrọ. [7] Na 1981, nsụgharị Eliot nke Spinoza's Ethics bụ Thomas Deegan mechara bipụta ya, ma kpebisie ike ịnọ na mpaghara ọha na 2018 ma George Eliot Archive bipụtara ya. [8] Princeton University Press bipụtaghachiri ya na 2020. [9]

Ọrụ Thomas Carlyle nwere mmetụta miri emi Eliot. N'ihe dị ka n'afọ 1841, ọ kpọrọ ya "ezigbo ọkacha mmasị m", na nrụtụ aka banyere ya jupụta n'akwụkwọ ozi ya sitere na 1840 na 1850. Dị ka prọfesọ Mahadum Victoria bụ Lisa Surridge si kwuo, Carlyle "kpaliri mmasị Eliot n'echiche German, gbaa ya ume ka o si na okpukpe Ndị Kraịst gbanwee, ma kpụzie echiche ya banyere ọrụ, ọrụ, ọmịiko, na mgbanwe nke onwe." [10] Isiokwu ndị a batara n'ime akwụkwọ akụkọ mbụ zuru oke nke Evans, Adam Bede (1859). Ọ bụ ihe ịga nke ọma ozugbo, ma kpalie ọchịchọ ịmatakwu onye odee: e nwere ọbụna onye na-eme ka onye dere ya bụ Joseph Liggins. Mmasị ọhaneze a mechara mee ka Marian Evans Lewes kweta na ọ bụ ya guzoro n'azụ pseudonym George Eliot. A maara Adam Bede maka ịnakwere ezigbo ihe ịchọ mma sitere n'ike mmụọ nsọ Dutch. [11]

Na 16 Mee 1880, ọnwa iri na asatọ ka Lewes nwụsịrị, Eliot lụrụ John Walter Cross (1840–1924) [12] wee gbanwee aha ya ọzọ, oge a ka ọ bụrụ Mary Ann Cross. Ọ bụ ezie na alụmdi na nwunye ahụ nwere esemokwu n'ihi ọdịiche dị n'afọ ndụ, ọ masịrị nwanne ya nwoke bụ Isaac, bụ onye kewapụrụ mmekọrịta ya na ya mgbe ya na Lewes malitere ibi, ma ugbu a zitere ekele. Mgbe di na nwunye ahụ nọ na-ekpori ndụ na Venice, Cross, na mgbalị igbu onwe ha, si na mbara ihu ụlọ nkwari akụ banye na Grand Canal . Ọ lanarịrị, ndị lụrụ di na nwunye ọhụrụ laghachiri England. Ha kwagara n'ụlọ ọhụrụ na Chelsea, mana Eliot dara ọrịa akpịrị. Nke a, tinyere ọrịa akụrụ ya na ya na-arịa kemgbe ọtụtụ afọ, dugara n'ọnwụ ya na 22 Disemba 1880 mgbe ọ dị afọ 61. [13] [14]

Nuneaton Museum na Art Gallery, na Riversley Park, ụlọ nke mkpokọta na odee George Eliot

N'ime oge ọrụ ya niile, Eliot ji mkpịsị ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị na-ede akwụkwọ. Site na Adam Bede na Mill na Floss na Silas Marner, Eliot gosipụtara ikpe nke ndị na-elekọta mmadụ na obere mkpagbu. Felix Holt, Radical na The Legend of Jubal bụ ndị ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị doro anya, na nsogbu ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị dị n'etiti Middlemarch, bụ nke ọ na-enye akụkọ banyere ọtụtụ ndị bi n'otu obere obodo Bekee n'abalị nke Ndozigharị Bill nke 1832 ; akwụkwọ akụkọ ahụ ama ama maka nghọta miri emi nke mmụọ na ihe osise agwa ya ọkaibe. Enwere ike ịchọta mgbọrọgwụ nke nkà ihe ọmụma ya na nyocha ya nke John Ruskin 's Modern Painters na Westminster Review na 1856.

  • Adam Bede (1859)
  • The Mill on the Floss (1860)
  • Silas Marner (1861)
  • Romola (1862–1863)
  • Felix Holt, Radical (1866)
  • Middle March (1871–1872)
    • "Quarry for Middlemarch", MS Lowell 13, Houghton Library, Harvard University (A digital facsimile nke ihe odide nke nnyocha ndetu)
  • Daniel Deronda (1876)
  • Ihe ngosi nke ndụ ndị ụkọchukwu (1857)
    • Ụjọ dị mwute nke Rev. Amos Barton
    • Akụkọ ịhụnanya Mr Gilfil
    • Nchegharị Janet
  • Ihe mkpuchi e buliri elu (1859)
  • Nwanna Jekọb (1864)
  • Mmetụta nke Theophrastus dị otú ahụ (1879)
  1. George Eliot Biography – life, childhood, children, name, story, death, history, wife, school, young (en). www.notablebiographies.com. Retrieved on 23 July 2018.
  2. Karl, Frederick R. George Eliot: Voice of a Century. Norton, 1995. p. 31
  3. Hardy, Barbara. George Eliot: A Critic's Biography. Continuum. London: 2006, pp. 42–45.
  4. Fleishman (2010). George Eliot's Intellectual Life. Cambridge University Press, 140–142. 
  5. Szirotny (2015). George Eliot's Feminism: The Right to Rebellion. Springer, 26–28. 
  6. Henry (2008). The Cambridge Introduction to George Eliot. Cambridge: Cambridge. 
  7. Hughes, Kathryn, George Eliot: The Last Victorian, p. 168.
  8. de Spinoza (2018). The Ethics of Benedict de Spinoza, Translated by George Eliot. The George Eliot Archive. Retrieved on 12 June 2022.
  9. Spinoza (2020). in Carlisle: Spinoza's Ethics. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0691193236. 
  10. Surridge (2004). "Eliot, George", in Cumming: The Carlyle Encyclopedia. Madison and Teaneck, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 141–144. ISBN 978-0-8386-3792-0. 
  11. Rebecca Ruth Gould, "Adam Bede's Dutch Realism and the Novelist's Point of View," Philosophy and Literature 36:2 (October 2012), 404–423.
  12. Rosemary Ashton, "Evans, Marian [George Eliot] (1819–1880)", (Later Works) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004
  13. George Eliot. BBC History (15 October 2009). Retrieved on 30 December 2009.
  14. (1893) "George Eliot (Obituary Notice, Friday, December 24, 1880)", Eminent Persons: Biographies reprinted from the Times. London: Macmillan and Co., 232–239. 

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