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Great Green Wall (Africa)

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Mpaghara Sahel (na-acha nchara nchara), Great Green Wall (akwụkwọ ndụ akwụkwọ ndụ), na mba ndị sonyere (acha ọcha)
Foto Satellite nke Sahara

ma ọ bụ Great Green Wall nke Sahara na Sahel (French: Grande Muraille Verte pour le Sahara et le Sahel; Arabic: السور الأخضر العرية, : ) bụ ọrụ nke African Union nabatara na 2007, nke e bu ụzọ chepụta dị ka ụzọ iji lụso ọzara ọgụ na mpaghara Sahel ma gbochie mgbasawanye nke ọzara Sahara, site n'ịkụ mgbidi osisi na-agbasa na Sahel dum site na Djibouti, Djiboute, Senegal ruo Djibout. E mere atụmatụ na akụkụ mbụ nke "mgbidi" ahụ ga-adị kilomita 15 (9 mi) n'obosara na kilomita 7,775 (4,831 mi) n"ogologo, mana mmemme ahụ agbasaala iji gụnye mba ndị dị n'ebe ugwu na ọdịda anyanwụ Afrịka. Mgbidi ahịhịa ndụ nke oge a agbanweela ka ọ bụrụ mmemme na-akwalite usoro owuwe ihe ubi mmiri, nchedo ahịhịhịa na imeziwanye usoro iji ala eme ihe, nke e mere iji mepụta mosaic nke ahịhịrị ndụ na nke na-arụpụta ihe gafee North Africa.[1] Ebumnuche na-aga n'ihu nke ọrụ ahụ bụ iweghachi 100 nde hekta (250 ) nke ala mebiri emebi ma weghara nde tọn carbon dioxide 250 ma mepụta nde ọrụ 10 na usoro ahụ niile site na 2030.

Ọrụ a bụ nzaghachi maka mmetụta jikọtara ọnụ nke mmebi ihe onwunwe na ụkọ mmiri ozuzo n'ime ime obodo. Ọ na-achọ inyere obodo aka ibelata ma mee mgbanwe ihu igwe yana imeziwanye nchekwa nri. A na-atụ anya na ọnụ ọgụgụ ndị bi na Sahel ga-eji okpukpu abụọ ka ọ na-erule 2039, na-emesi ike mkpa ọ dị ịnọgide na-emepụta nri na nchedo gburugburu ebe obibi n'ógbè ahụ.[2]

Akụkọ ihe mere eme[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

N'afọ 1950, onye Britain na-eme nchọpụta Richard St. Barbe Baker mere njem nlegharị anya na Sahara. N'oge njem St. Barbe nke 40,000 kilomita (25,000 mi) ọ tụrụ aro "ihu ahịhịa" iji rụọ ọrụ dị ka ihe mgbochi osisi miri emi 50 kilomita (30 mi) iji gbochie ọzara na-agbasawanye.[3] Echiche ahụ pụtara ọzọ na 2002, na nnọkọ pụrụ iche na N'Djamena, isi obodo Chad, n'oge World Day to Combat Desertification and Drought. [citation needed] Nzukọ nke ndị isi na ndị isi nke mba ndị so na Community of Sahel-Saharan States kwadoro ya n'oge nnọkọ nke asaa ha na Ouagadougou, isi obodo Burkina Faso, na June 2005. [1] African Union kwadoro ya na 2007 dị ka Great Green Wall for the Sahara and the Sahel Initiative (GGWSSI).[4]

Ihe mmụta ndị a mụtara site na Algeria Green Dam na Green Wall nke China dugara n'usoro jikọtara ọtụtụ ngalaba.[5] Na mbụ, ọrụ ịkụ osisi, ọrụ ahụ ghọrọ ngwá ọrụ mmemme mmepe. N'afọ 2007, CHSG [citation needed] duziri ọrụ ahụ iji dozie mmetụta mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya, akụ na ụba na gburugburu ebe obibi nke mmebi ala na ọzara. Mba ndị Burkina Faso, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sudan na Chad mgbe nke ahụ gasịrị mepụtara Ụlọ Ọrụ Panafrican nke Great Green Wall (PAGGW). [1] [citation needed]

A nabatara usoro mpaghara kwekọrọ ekwekọ na Septemba 2012 site na African Ministerial Conference on Environment (AMCEN).[6] Dị ka AMCEN si kwuo, Great Green Wall bụ mmemme dị mkpa nke ga-enye aka na ebumnuche nke United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, ma ọ bụ RIO+20, nke "ụwa na-anọpụ iche na-emebi ala".[7]

N'afọ 2014, European Union na United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, na mmekorita ya na ndị mmekọ mpaghara ndị ọzọ, malitere mmemme Action Against Desertification iji wulite na GGWSSI.[8] Naịjirịa mepụtara ụlọ ọrụ na-anọchi anya iji kwado mmepe GGW.[9]

Kemgbe afọ 2014, Ecosia na ndị bi n'ógbè ahụ na Burkina Faso na-arụkọ ọrụ.[10] Ecosia gbasaa mkpọsa ya na Ethiopia na 2017 na Senegal n'afọ sochirinụ.[11][12]

Dị ka Ecosia si kwuo, ọ kụrụ ihe karịrị osisi 15,117,046 na e weghachiri hekta 14,137 (34,930 acres) na Burkina Faso; na Senegal ọ kụrụ karịa 1,424,748 ma weghachite hekta 300 (740 acres) ma kụọ ihe karịrị osisi 9,963,757 ma weghachie 3,609 (8,920 acres) na Ethiopia ka ọ na-erule Septemba 2021.[10][12][11]

Drylands Monitoring Week (2015) nyochara ọnọdụ nke nyocha ala kpọrọ nkụ ma malite imekọ ihe ọnụ maka nnukwu nlekota zuru oke.[13]

Atụmatụ (gụnyere nhọrọ nke ahịhịa na ọrụ na ndị bi n'ógbè ahụ) na ihe ọkụkụ / mweghachi ala sochiri (gụnyere na Ethiopia, Senegal, Nigeria na Sudan).[14][15]

N'afọ 2016, mba iri abụọ na otu nwere ọrụ ndị metụtara GGW, gụnyere mmelite okike nke ndị ọrụ ugbo kwadoro.[16]

E gosipụtara mweghachi ala na Burkina Faso n'ụzọ gara nke ọma, ọ bụ ezie na nchekwa bụ nsogbu n'ihu ọrụ ndị na-eyi ọha egwu.[17]

Na Septemba 2017, BBC kọrọ na ọganihu kachasị mma na Senegal.[18]

Ka ọ na-erule n'ọnwa Machị 2019, pasent 15 nke mgbidi ahụ zuru ezu na nnukwu mmeri e nwetara na Naịjirịa, Senegal na Etiopia.[19] Na Senegal, a kụrụ ihe karịrị nde osisi iri na otu. Naịjirịa eweghachila nde hekta 4.9 (12 nde acres; 49,000 km2) nke ala mebiri emebi na Etiopia enwetaghachila nde hectare 15 (37 nde acres; 150,000 km2).[2]

N'oge ncheta nke iri na ise nke mmalite nke mmemme ahụ, United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) nyere iwu ka e bipụta ya na Septemba 7, 2020.[20] A kọrọ na Great Green Wall kpuchiri naanị 4% nke ebe a haziri, na naanị nde hekta 4 (nde 9.8 acres) a kụrụ. Ethiopia enweela ihe ịga nke ọma kachasị na ijeri 5.5 nke mkpụrụ osisi a kụrụ, mana Chad kụrụ naanị nde 1.1 . E welitere obi abụọ banyere ọnụ ọgụgụ dị ndụ nke osisi nde 12 a kụrụ na Senegal.[21]

Na Jenụwarị 2021, ọrụ ahụ nwetara nkwado na One Planet Summit, ebe ndị mmekọ ya kwere nkwa ijeri USD 14.3 ịmalite Great Green Wall Accelerator, nke e mere iji mee ka mmekọrịta na nhazi dị n'etiti ndị na-enye onyinye na ndị metụtara ya gafee mba 11.[22] Na Septemba 2021, Ụlọ Ọrụ Mmepe nke France mere atụmatụ na e weghachiri 20 (49 ) ma mepụta ọrụ 350,000.[23]

Dabere na mbipụta nke abụọ nke Global Land Outlook (GLO2) nke (UNCCD) bipụtara n'ọnwa Eprel nke afọ 2022 otu ihe mere ọrụ ahụ ji nwee ihe ịma aka mmejuputa ihe bụ ihe ize ndụ ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị metụtara itinye ego na mba ndị na-adịghị ike yana eziokwu ahụ bụ na ọtụtụ "ọrụGGW na-emepụta obere ego akụ na ụba ma e jiri ya tụnyere uru dị ukwuu na gburugburu ebe obibi na mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya nke na-enwekarị obere ma ọ bụ enweghị uru ahịa". Ọzọkwa, ndị na-enye onyinye mba ụwa yiri ka ha na-akwado itinye ego na mba ndị kwụsiri ike karị na-ahọrọ ma na-ahọpụta ọrụ ha ga-akwado ma hapụ mba ndị nwere gọọmentị na-adịghị kwụsiri nkwụsi ike n'azụ.

Ndị mmekọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ihe omume ahụ na-eme ka ihe karịrị mba 20, gụnyere Algeria, Burkina Faso, Benin, Chad, Cape Verde, Djibouti, Egypt, Ethiopia, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Somalia, Sudan, Gambia na Tunisia.[24]

Ndị mmekọ mpaghara na nke mba ụwa gụnyere:  

Ụkpụrụ Ndị Dị Mkpa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ọrụ ahụ gụnyere mpaghara Sahara, ókèala ugwu na ndịda, gụnyere oases na enclaves nke Sahara.

GGWSSI na-ezube iwusi usoro ndị dị ugbu a ike (dị ka Comprehensive African Agricultural Development Program, Environmental Program (CAADP) nke New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD), mpaghara, mpaghara, na mmemme ọrụ mba iji lụso ọzara ọgụ) iji melite arụmọrụ ha site na ọrụ mmekọrịta na nhazi.

The Regional Harmonised Strategy na-emesi mmekọrịta dị n'etiti ndị nwere mmasị, njikọta n'ime mmemme ndị dị ugbu a, ịkekọrịta mmụta mmụta mmụta mmụta (karịsịa site na South-South mmekorita na nnyefe teknụzụ), itinye aka na ikike nke omume na ịzụlite atụmatụ jikọtara ọnụ na nke ụwa.

Ọrụ $ 8 ijeri na-ezube iweghachi 100 nde hekta (250 nde acres; 1 nde km2) nke ala mebiri emebi ka ọ na-erule 2030, nke ga-emepụta ọrụ 350,000 n'ime ime obodo ma mịkọrọ 250 nde tọn (250 nde ogologo; 280 nde tọn mkpirikpi) nke CO2 site na ikuku.[2]

Hụkwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Three-North Shelter Forest Program, mmemme mgbochi ọzara nke China malitere na 1978
  • Great Green Wall nke Aravalli, 1,600 kilomita n'ogologo na 5 kilomita n'obosara green ecological corridor nke India
  • Great Hedge nke India, ókèala omenala dị n'ime ala nke akụkọ ihe mere eme

Ihe odide[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. Morrison. The "Great Green Wall" Didn't Stop Desertification, but it Evolved Into Something That Might (en). Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved on 2021-05-01.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Puiu (2019-04-03). More than 20 African countries are planting a 8,027-km-long 'Great Green Wall' (en-US). ZME Science. Retrieved on 2019-04-16.
  3. Paul Mantle (1 September 2014). The Man of the Trees and the Great Green Wall: A Baha'i's Environmental Legacy for the Ages. Wilmette Institute. Archived from the original on 23 November 2015.
  4. Action Against Desertification. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the UN. Retrieved on 1 September 2019.
  5. Saifi (2015). "The Green Dam in Algeria as a tool to combat desertification". Planet@Risk 3 (1): 68–71. ISSN 2296-8172. 
  6. 14th Ordinary Session of the AMCEN. United Nations Environment Programme. UNEP. Archived from the original on 24 November 2015. Retrieved on 24 November 2015.
  7. Report of the ministerial segment held from 12 to 14 September 2012. African Ministerial Conference on the Environment. Archived from the original on 9 March 2015.
  8. Background. Action Against Desertification. FAO. Archived from the original on 23 November 2015.
  9. Nigeria creates agency for 'Great Green Wall' project. Premium Times (9 September 2014). Retrieved on 1 September 2019. “The Federal Government has approved the establishment of the Interim Office of the National Agency for the Great Green Wall, GGW.”
  10. 10.0 10.1 Re-greening the Desert. Ecosia. Retrieved on 2 July 2020.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Regenerating Diverse Landscapes. Ecosia. Retrieved on 2 July 2020.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Trees Against Poverty and Malnutrition. Ecosia. Retrieved on 2 July 2020.
  13. Drylands Monitoring Week Establishes Network for Sustainable Management of Drylands. IISD Reporting Service. International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD). Archived from the original on 23 November 2015.
  14. Background documents. Action Against Desertification. FAO. Archived from the original on 16 January 2016.
  15. The Great Green Wall for the Sahara and the Sahel Initiative. The Global Mechanism. United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD). Archived from the original on 23 November 2015. Retrieved on 22 November 2015.
  16. Jim Morrison (23 August 2016). The "Great Green Wall" Didn't Stop Desertification, but it Evolved Into Something That Might. Smithsonian.com. Smithsonian. Retrieved on 1 September 2019.
  17. In Burkina Faso, the Great Green Wall is taking shape. Action Against Desertification. FAO (7 May 2019). Retrieved on 1 September 2019. “Now, the soil takes up enough water again and crops are growing. “This plot has been restored,” Sawadogo says.”
  18. Martyn-Hemphill. "Why is Africa building a Great Green Wall?", BBC World Hacks, 2017-09-26.
  19. Corbley. "Dozens of Countries Have Been Working to Plant 'Great Green Wall' – and It's Holding Back Poverty", Good News Network, 2019-03-31.
  20. The Great Green Wall: Implementation status & way ahead to 2030 (en). UNCCD (2020-09-07).
  21. Jonathan Watts. "Africa's Great Green Wall just 4% complete halfway through schedule", The Guardian, 7 September 2020. Retrieved on 2020-09-07.
  22. Green Wall Accelerator (en). UNCCD. Retrieved on 2023-04-07.
  23. Lamoureux. "La « Grande muraille verte », une utopie qui commence à sortir de terre", La Croix, 2021-09-04. Retrieved on 2023-04-07. (in fr-FR)
  24. Great Green Wall for the Sahara and the Sahel initiative: The African Wall. FAO. AU-FAO-GM UNCCD-EU. Archived from the original on 21 February 2017. Retrieved on 12 March 2017.

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