Jordan (Arabic: الأردن, romanized: al-ʾUrdunn [al.ʔur.dunː]), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan,[lower-alpha 1] is a country in West Asia. It is situated at the crossroads of Asia, Africa, and Europe, within the Levant region, on the East Bank of the Jordan River. Jordan is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the south and east, Iraq to the northeast, Syria to the north, and the Palestinian West Bank and Israel to the west. The Dead Sea is located along its western border and the country has a 26 km (16 mi) coastline in its southwest on the Gulf of Aqaba's Red Sea, which separates Jordan from Egypt. Amman is Jordan's capital and largest city, as well as its economic, political, and cultural centre.
.Ndị mmadụ bi na Jọdan nke oge a kemgbe oge Paleolithic. Ala-eze atọ putara n'ebe ahu na njedebe nke oge Bronze: Amon, Moab na Edom. Na narị afọ nke atọ BC, ndị Arab Nabataeans hiwere Alaeze ha na Petra dị ka isi obodo. Ndị ọchịchị mechara na mpaghara Transjordan gụnyere ndị Asiria, Babilọn, Roman, Byzantine, Rashidun, Umayyad, Abbasid, na alaeze ukwu Ottoman. Mgbe Great Arab nnupụisi megide Ottomans na 1916 n'oge Agha Ụwa Mbụ, Britain na France kewara Greater mpaghara Syria. Ndị Hashemite hibere Emirate nke Transjordan na 1921, mgbe ahụ Emir, Abdullah I, na Emirate ghọrọ onye nchekwa Britain. Na 1946, Jordan nwetara nnwere onwe wee bụrụ onye amara aha ya na Arabic dị ka ala eze Hashemite nke Jọdan. Mba ahụ weghaara ma weghaara West Bank n'oge agha Arab-Israel nke 1948 ruo mgbe Israel weghaara ya na 1967. Jordan jụrụ nzọrọ ya na ókèala ahụ na 1988, ghọrọ obodo Arab nke abụọ bịanyere aka na nkwekọrịta udo na Israel na 1994, na ebe ọ bụ na-akwado ndị Palestine steeti n'ime a abụọ-ala ngwọta.
The sovereign state is a constitutional monarchy, but the king holds wide executive and legislative powers. Jordan is a founding member of the Arab League and the Organisation of Islamic Co-operation. The country has a high Human Development Index, ranking 102nd, and is considered an upper middle income economy. The Jordanian economy, one of the smallest economies in the region, is attractive to foreign investors based upon a skilled workforce. The country is a major tourist destination, also attracting medical tourism due to its well developed health sector. Nonetheless, a lack of natural resources, large flow of refugees, and regional turmoil have hampered economic growth.
The oldest known evidence of hominid habitation in Jordan dates back at least 200,000 years. Jordan is a rich source of Paleolithic human remains (up to 20,000 years old) due in part to its location within the Levant (where various migrations of hominids out of Africa converged) and in part to its more humid climate during the Late Pleistocene, which resulted in the formation of numerous remains-preserving wetlands in the region. Past lakeshore environments attracted different groups of hominids, and several remains of tools dating from the Late Pleistocene have been found there. Scientists have found the world's oldest known evidence of bread-making at a 14,500-year-old Natufian site in Jordan's northeastern desert. During the Neolithic period (10,000–4,500 BC), there was a transition there from a hunter-gatherer culture to a culture with established populous agricultural villages. 'Ain Ghazal, one such village located at a site in the eastern part of present-day Amman, is one of the largest known prehistoric settlements in the Near East. Dozens of plaster statues of the human form, dating to 7250 BC or earlier, have been uncovered there; they are "among the earliest large-scale representations of the human form" ever found. Other than the Chalcolithic (4500–3600 BC) villages such as Tulaylet Ghassul in the Jordan Valley, There is a series of circular stone enclosures in the eastern basalt desert; archaeologists continue to be baffled as to their purpose.
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