Kale

Shí Wikipedia, njikotá édémédé nke onyobulạ
Kale
vegetable, taxon
subclass nkevegetable, leaf vegetable Dezie
aha taxonBrassica oleracea var. sabellica Dezie
ọkwa taxonvariety Dezie
nne na nna taxonBrassica oleracea Dezie
aha a na-akpọkari taxon绿花菜, 彩叶甘蓝 Dezie
taxon synonymBrassica oleracea var. acephala Dezie
oge obidoro4. century BCE Dezie
mbumputauwa nke taxonBrassica napus subsp. napus var. pabularia, Lacinato kale Dezie
GRIN URLhttps://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=319629 Dezie

 

Kale (/keɪl/), ma ọ bụ akwụkwọ cabbage, bụ nke otu cabage (Brassica oleracea) nke a na-akụ maka akwụkwọ ha a na-eri eri, ọ bụ ezie na a na-eji ụfọdụ dị ka ihe ịchọ mma. Osisi Kale na-acha akwụkwọ ndụ akwụkwọ ndụ ma ọ bụ anụnụ anụnụ akwụkwọ ndị dị n'etiti anaghị eme isi (dị ka cabbage nwere isi). A na-ewere Kales dịka ihe kachasị dị nso cabage ọhịa karịa ọtụtụ n'ime ụdị Brassica oleracea.[1]

Mmalite[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Kale sitere na Northern Middle English cale (iji ya tụnyere Scots kail na German Kohl) maka ụdị cabbages dị iche iche. Mmalite kachasị bụ Latin caulis 'cabbage'.[2]

Akụkọ ihe mere eme[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ụmụaka na-ewekọta akwụkwọ nke kale Russia na-acha uhie uhie (Brassica napus L. subsp. napus var. Pabularia (DC.) Alef.) n'ogige akwụkwọ nri ezinụlọ

Kale malitere n'ebe ọwụwa anyanwụ Mediterenian na Anatolia, ebe a na-akụ ya maka nri malite n'afọ 2000 BCE na nke kachasị ọhụrụ.[3] Ụdị cabbage nwere akwụkwọ rọgọrọ arọgọ adịlarị na ụdị dị larịị na Gris kamgbe senchiri nke anọ BC. A na-ewere ụdị ndị a, nke ndị Rom na-akpọ Sabellian kale, dị ka ndị nna nna nke kales nke dị oge a.

Ihe ndekọ mbụ nke cabbages n'ebe ọdịda anyanwụ Europe bụ nke cabbage siri ike na senchiri nke irí na atọ.[3] Ihe ndekọ na senchiri nke iri na anọ na England na-eme ka ọdịiche dị n'etiti cabbage siri ike na kale nwere akwụkwọ.[3]

Ndị ahịa Russia webatara kale Russia na Canada, wee banye na United States, site n'aka ndị ahịa Russia na senchiri nke irí na itoolu.[3] A na-ekwu na onye botanist USDA David Fairchild na-ewebata kale (na ọtụtụ ihe ọkụkụ ndị ọzọ) nye ndị America, ebe ọ si Croatia weghachite ya, ọ bụ ezie na Fairchild n'onwe ya enweghị mmasị na cabbages, gụnyere kale.[4][5][5][5] N'oge ahụ, a na-akụ kale n'ọtụtụ ebe na Croatia karịsịa n'ihi na ọ dị mfe ịzụlite ma dị ọnụ ala, ma nwee ike iwepụ nnu n'ala.[5] Maka ihe ka ukwuu na senchiri nke iri abụọ, a na-ejikarị kale eme ihe na United States maka ebumnuche ịchọ mma; ọ ghọrọ ihe a ma ama dị ka akwụkwọ nri a na-eri eri na 1990s n'ihi uru nri ya.[5]

N'oge agha ụwa nke abụọ, a kwalitere ịzụlite kale (na akwụkwọ nri ndị ọzọ) na UK site na mkpọsa Dig for Victory.[6] Akwụkwọ nri ahụ dị mfe ịzụlite ma nye ihe oriri dị mkpa na-efu na nri n'ihi rationing.[7]

Ịkọ ugbo[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Kale na-abụkarị osisi na-eto kwa afọ nke a na-akụ site na mkpụrụ nwere okpomọkụ dịgasị iche iche.[8] Ọ na-eguzogide ma na-eto eto n'oge oyi, ma nwee ike ịdị ndụ na okpomọkụ dị ala dị ka -15.0° Celsius.[8] Kale nwere ike ịghọ ihe na-atọ ụtọ mgbe nnukwu oyi gasịrị.[9]

Osisi ndị a na-akụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Otu onye nwere ike ịmata ndịiche dị n'etiti ụdị kale dị iche iche dabere na obere, etiti, ma ọ bụ ogologo ogologo nke ogwe osisi ahụ, yana ụdị akwụkwọ dị iche iche. Agba akwụkwọ ya sitere na akwụkwọ ndụ akwụkwọ ndụ ruo na akwụkwọ ndụ nweturu ucha anụnụ anụnụ

Nchịkọta site na ụdị akwụkwọ:

  • Akpụkpọ akwụkwọ rọgọrọ arọgọ (Scots kale, blue curled kale)
  • Bumpy-leaf (kọbish ojii, nke a maara nke ọma site na nsụgharị Italian ya 'cavolo nero', a makwaara dị ka Tuscan Cabbage, Tuscan Kale, lacinato na dinosaur kale)
  • Akwụkwọ dị larịị (ụdị akwụkwọ dị larịụ dị ka red Russian na white Russian kale)
  • Akwụkwọ na ube, ma ọ bụ ụdị akwụkwọ nwere nku (nke dị n'etiti akwụkwọ na akwụkwọ dị nro)
  • Ihe ịchọ mma (akwụkwọ na-adịchaghị ụtọ na nke siri ike)
Ihe ịchọ mma na-acha ọcha na lavender

N'ihi na kale nwere ike itolite nke ọma n'oge oyi, a na-akpọ otu ụdị rape kale "oghere agụụ" mgbe oge oyi gasịrị n'ọrụ ugbo ọdịnala mgbe obere ihe ọzọ nwere ike ịghọrọ. A maara ụdị dị oke elu dị ka Jersey kale ma ọ bụ cabbage ehi. Kai-lan ma ọ bụ Chinese kale bụ ihe a na-ejikarị eme nri ndị China. Na Portugal, a na-akpọkarị kale nwere akwụkwọ ndụ "couve galega" (Galician kale ma ọ bụ Portuguese Cabbage).[10]

Kale eji achọ mma[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A na-akụ ọtụtụ ụdị kale na cabbage karịsịa maka akwụkwọ ịchọ mma na-acha ọcha, ọbara ọbara, uhie ọcha, lavender, anụnụ anụnụ ma ọ bụ violet n'ime rosette. Ụdị dị iche iche nke ihe ịchọ mma bụ peacock kale, coral prince, kamone coral queen, color up kale na chidori kale.[11] Kale ịchọ mma bu nke a na-eri dị ka ụdị ọ bụla ọzọ, mana ọ gaghị adị ka ihe na-atọ ụtọ. A na-ejikarị akwụkwọ osisi dị ka ihe eji eme ihe maka akwụkwọ nri na akwụkwọ agbamakwụkwọ.[12][13]

Uru nri na-edozi ahụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Àtụ:Nutritional value

Àtụ:Nutritional value

Kale esibeghị esi nwere mmiri dị pasent ịrị asatọ na ano, carbohydrates dị pasent itoolu, protein dị pasent anọ na abụba dị otú pasent (tebụl). Na 100g (3½ oz) kale esibeghị esi na-enye 207 kilojoules (49 kilocalories) nke ike nri na nnukwu vitamin K na ihe karịrị ugboro atọ kwa ụbọchị (DV) (tebụl). Ọ bụ isi iyi bara ọgaranya (20% ma ọ bụ karịa nke DV) nke vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin B6, folate, na manganese (lee tebụl "Kale, raw"). Kale bụ ezigbo isi iyi (10 - 19% DV) nke thiamin, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, vitamin E na ọtụtụ mineral nri, gụnyere iron, calcium, magnesium, potassium, na phosphorus (lee tebụl "Kale, raw"). Ịsi kale esi na-ebelata ọtụtụ n'ime ihe ndị a, ebe uru maka vitamin A, C, na K, na manganese ka dị ukwuu (lee tebụl "Kale, esiri esi").

Phytochemicals[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Kale bụ isi iyi nke carotenoids, lutein na zeaxanthin (tebụl).[14] Dị ka ọ dị na broccoli na akwụkwọ nri ndị ọzọ na-acha uhie uhie, kale nwere glucosinolate compounds, dị ka glucoraphanin, nke na-enye aka n'ịmepụta sulforaphane, ihe dị n'okpuru nnyocha mbụ maka ikike ya imetụta ahụike mmadụ n'ụzọ bara uru.[15][16]

Ịsị kale esi na-ebelata ọkwa nke glucosinate compounds, ebe ịsi ya obere oge n'ọkụ, microwaving ma ọ bụ ịghe ya eghe anaghị akpata nnukwu mfu.[17] Kale nwere oxalic acid dị ukwuu, nke enwere ike ibelata site na isi ya esi.[18]

Kale nwere polyphenols dị ukwuu, dị ka ferulic acid, na ọkwa dịgasị iche iche n'ihi ihe ndị metụtara gburugburu ebe obibi na mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa.[19][20]

Ojiji e ji esi nri[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Dị ka ihe oriri[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

E mepụtara "kale chips" na-atọ ụtọ dị ka ihe na-anọchi anya poteto chip.[21]

Ojiji na mpaghara[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Europe[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Na Netherlands, nri ọdịnala nke oge oyi a na-akpọ "boerenkoolstamppot" bụ ngwakọta nke kale rọgọrọ arọgọ na nduku esuru esu, mgbe ụfọdụ na becon e siri esi, ma jiri rookworst ("smoked sausage").[22]

N'ebe ugwu Germany, e nwere omenala oge oyi a maara dị ka "Kohlfahrt" ("njem kale"), ebe otu ìgwè mmadụ ga-aga ije n'ime ọhịa n'ụbọchị tupu ha agbakọta n'ụlọ oriri ma ọ bụ ebe obibi onwe onye ebe a na-enye kale, na-ejikarị becon na Kohlwurst ("kale sausage").[23] A na-ewere Kale dị ka nri dị mkpa na nri ntụsara ahụ nke Northern German.[24]

N'Ịtali, cavolo nero kale bụ ihe eji eme ofe Tuscan ribollita.[25]

Nri ọdịnala Portuguese, caldo verde, na-ejikọta poteto dị ọcha, kale a kwọrọ akwọ nke ọma, mmanụ oliv na nnu.[26] Ihe ndị ọzọ nwere ike ịgụnye broth na sausage na-esi ísì ụtọ.

Na Scotland, kale nyere ntọala dị otú ahụ maka nri ọdịnala nke na okwu ahụ n'asụsụ ụfọdụ nke Scots bụ otu ihe na nri. Ịbụ "onye na-anọghi na kail ya" bụ ọnọdụ mmadụ ịrịa ọrịa nke ukwuu nke bụ na ọ pụghị iri nri.[27]

Na Ireland, a na-agwakọta kale na nduku esuru esu iji mee nri ọdịnala colcannon.[28] Ọ na-ewu ewu na Halloween, mgbe enwere ike inye ya na sausages.[29]

Eshia:

Na Sri Lanka, a maara ya dị ka 'kola gova' ma ọ bụ ela gova. A na-akụ ya maka iji ya eme ihe oriri. A na-eri nri a na-akpọ 'kale mallung' ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ ebe niile n'àgwàetiti ahụ tinyere osikapa.

N'akwụkwọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ụlọ akwụkwọ ndị edemede na Kailyard nke Scotland, nke gụnyere J. M. Barrie (onye kere Peter Pan), bụ ndị edemede dere banyere ndụ ọdịnala ime obodo Scotland (<i id="mwAQU">kailyard</i> = 'ubikale').[30] N'akwụkwọ Cuthbertson bụ Autumn in Kyle and the charm of Cunninghame, o kwuru na Kilmaurs na East Ayrshire bụ ndị a ma ama maka kale ya, nke bụ ihe oriri dị mkpa. A na-akọ akụkọ ebe otu obodo dị nso nyere onyinye ịkwụ ụgwọ dị ukwuu maka ụfọdụ mkpụrụ kale, onyinye dị oke mma ịjụ ajụ. Ndị obodo ahụ kwetara, mana iji nwayọọ sie na shọvel n'elu ọkụ coal mere ka mkpụrụ ahụ ghara itolite.[31]

Ihe ngosi[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Hụkwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Kale Bowen
  • Crambe maritima Oké osimiri
  • Akwụkwọ nri
  • Akara akpa
  • Cabbage

Edensibia[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. Tomar. VK Science – Biology. FK Publications. ISBN 978-81-88597-06-2. 
  2. Kale. Online Etymology Dictionary, Douglas Harper (2016). Archived from the original on 11 September 2016. Retrieved on 16 August 2016.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Perry. Interesting cool crops. University of Vermont Extension, Department of Plant and Soil Science. Archived from the original on 2022-06-19. Retrieved on 5 June 2018. Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; name "PerryCoolCrop" defined multiple times with different content Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; name "PerryCoolCrop" defined multiple times with different content
  4. Diamond. "America's First "Food Spy" Traveled the World Hunting for Exotic Crops", Smithsonian, January 2018. Retrieved on 5 June 2018.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Graber. Meet the Man Who Found, Finagled, and Ferried Home the Foods We Eat Today. Gastropod. Retrieved on 5 June 2018.
  6. Titchmarsh. "Land army: Alan Titchmarsh on how gardening became essential for survival during wartime", The Express, 3 May 2015. Retrieved on 5 August 2017.
  7. Kitchen Memories. The National WWII Museum Blog. National WWII Museum. Retrieved on 24 August 2020.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Growing guide for kale. Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (2006). Archived from the original on 4 November 2016. Retrieved on 7 November 2016.
  9. Watson (1996). Taylor's Guide to Heirloom Vegetables. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 978-0-395-70818-7. “kale frost.” 
  10. Couve Galega (Portuguese Cabbage). myfolia.com. Archived from the original on 28 August 2017. Retrieved on 3 June 2017.
  11. "Is Ornamental Kale Edible? Yes, But Not That Tasty", Garden.eco, 2017-12-14. Retrieved on 2018-03-02. (in en-US)
  12. Larkcom (1 June 2003). The Organic Salad Garden. frances lincoln ltd, 30–32. ISBN 978-0-7112-2204-5. Retrieved on 30 August 2012. 
  13. Jamieson. "Kale, broccoli and cabbage replace traditional flowers as brides opt for vegetable wedding bouquets", The Telegraph, 30 Oct 2015. Retrieved on 25 March 2017.
  14. (2015) "Variation in Carotenoid Content of Kale and Other Vegetables: A Review of Pre- and Post-harvest Effects". J Agric Food Chem 63 (Oct 28): 9677–82. DOI:10.1021/acs.jafc.5b03691. PMID 26477753. 
  15. (1999) "Variation of glucosinolates in vegetable crops of Brassica oleracea". J Agric Food Chem 47 (4): 1541–8. DOI:10.1021/jf980985s. PMID 10564014. 
  16. Houghton (2013). "Sulforaphane: Translational research from laboratory bench to clinic". Nutrition Reviews 71 (11): 709–26. DOI:10.1111/nure.12060. PMID 24147970. 
  17. Nugrahedi (2015). "A mechanistic perspective on process-induced changes in glucosinolate content in Brassica vegetables: A review". Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 55 (6): 823–38. DOI:10.1080/10408398.2012.688076. PMID 24915330. 
  18. Armesto (23 July 2018). "Effects of different cooking methods on the antioxidant capacity and flavonoid, organic acid and mineral contents of Galega kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala cv. Galega)". International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 70 (2): 136–149. DOI:10.1080/09637486.2018.1482530. ISSN 0963-7486. PMID 30037287. 
  19. Korus (2011). "Effect of preliminary processing and method of preservation on the content of selected antioxidative compounds in kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) leaves". Food Chemistry 129 (1): 149–154. DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.04.048. 
  20. Zietz (2010). "Genotypic and Climatic Influence on the Antioxidant Activity of Flavonoids in Kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica)". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 58 (4): 2123–2130. DOI:10.1021/jf9033909. PMID 20095605. 
  21. "A kid-friendly potato chip alternative", The Washington Post, June 23, 2015. Retrieved on April 2, 2017.
  22. Harvard Student Agencies (2013). Let's Go Paris, Amsterdam & Brussels: The Student Travel Guide, Let's go travel guide. Avalon Travel Publishing. ISBN 978-1-61237-028-6. Retrieved on April 2, 2017. 
  23. Bremen's unique tradition | European Traveler. europeantraveler.net. Retrieved on 24 February 2020.
  24. Gorman. "On the kale tour trail in Germany, schnapps in hand", sbs.com.au, 11 April 2016. Retrieved on 24 February 2020. (in en)
  25. Gray (2013). The River Cafe Cookbook. Ebury Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4464-6035-1. Retrieved on April 2, 2017. 
  26. (2010) The Illustrated Cook's Book of Ingredients, The Illustrated Cook's Book of Ingredients. DK Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7566-7673-5. Retrieved on April 2, 2017. 
  27. THE LAZY GARDENER 'Off one's kail' you'll be if you eat these winter beauties (4 December 2009). Archived from the original on 27 August 2017. Retrieved on 3 June 2017.
  28. Wise (1999). The Gardeners' Community Cookbook. Workman Pub.. ISBN 978-0-7611-1772-8. Retrieved on April 2, 2017. 
  29. Rogers (2003). Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-516896-9. Retrieved on April 2, 2017. 
  30. Scott. Scots Word of the Season: Kailyard. arts.gla.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved on 13 June 2017.
  31. Cuthbertson, David Cuningham (1945). Autumn in Kyle and the Charm of Cunninghame. London: Jenkins. Page 186

Njikọ mpụga[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

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