Khadija bint Khuwaylid

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Khadija bint Khuwaylid
TitleÀtụ:Ubl
Khadija bint Khuwaylid
Mmádu
ụdịekerenwanyị Dezie
aha n'asụsụ obodoخديجة بنت خويلد Dezie
Aha enyereKhadija Dezie
aha njirimaraꠈꠣꠖꠤꠎꠣ Dezie
Ụbọchị ọmụmụ ya6. century Dezie
Ebe ọmụmụMecca Dezie
Ụbọchị ọnwụ ya619 Dezie
Ebe ọ nwụrụMecca Dezie
ŃnàKhuwaylid ibn Asad Dezie
ŃnéFatima bint Za'idah Dezie
nwanneHizam ibn Khuwaylid, Awwam ibn Khuwaylid, Halah bint Khuwailid, Nawfal ibn Khuwaylid Dezie
Dị/nwunyeMuhammad Dezie
asụsụ ọ na-asụ, na-ede ma ọ bụ were na-ebinye akaClassical Arabic Dezie
Ọrụ ọ na-arụonye ọchụnta ego, wholesale merchant Dezie
okpukpere chi/echiche ụwaOkpukpere Alakụba Dezie

Khadijah bint Khuwaylid (Arabic: خَدِيجَة بِنْت خُوَيْلِد, : Khadīja bint Khuwayled, c. 555 - November 619 OA) bụ nwunye mbụ na onye na-esọ ụzọ onye amụma Islam Muhammad.[1] Khadija bụ nwa nwanyị nke Khuwaylid ibn Asad, onye ama ama nke agburu Quraysh na Makkah na onye ahịa na-ga nke ọma.

Ndị Alakụba na-akpọkarịKhadija "Nne nke ndị kwere ekwe". Na Islam, ọ bụ nwanyị dị mkpa dị ka otu n'ime 'ndị inyom anọ nke eluigwe', n'akụkụ Asiya, Maryam, na nwa ya nwanyị Fatimah.[2] Muhammad lụrụ ya naanị otu nwanyị ruo afọ iri abụọ na ise.

Ndị nna nna nke onye amụma Alakụba Muhammad na nwunye ya, Khadija bint Khuwaylid

Nne Khadija, Fatima bint Za'idah, onye nwụrụ na 575, bụ onye otu Amir ibn Luayy nke Quraysh na nwa nwanne nne nke atọ nke nne Muhammad.[3][4][5][6]

Nna Khadija, Khuwaylid ibn Asad, bụ onye ahịa na onye ndú.[7] Dị ka ụfọdụ akụkọ si kwuo, ọ nwụrụ n'ihe dị ka na Agha Sacrilegious, mana dị ka ndị ọzọ si kwuo, a ka dị ndụ mgbe Khadija lụrụ Muhammad na 595.[8][9] Khuwaylid nwekwara nwanne nwanyị aha ya bụ Ume Habib binte Asad.[10]

Ọrụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Khadija bụ onye ahịa na-aga nke ọma. A na-ekwu na mgbe ndị njem azụmahịa nke ndị Quraysh gbakọtara iji malite njem oge okpomọkụ ha gaa Siria ma ọ bụ njem oyi ha gaa Yemen, ndị njem Khadija hà ka ndị ahịa ndị ọzọ niile nke ndị Quraish gbakọtakọrọ.[11] E nyere Khadija ọtụtụ nsọpụrụ, gụnyere 'Onye nsọpụrụ', 'Princess of Quraysh' (Ameerat-Quraysh), na 'Khadija the Great' (Khadija al-Kubra).[12] A na-ekwu na ọ na-enye ndị ogbenye nri ma na-eyi uwe, na-enyere ndị ikwu ya aka n'ụzọ ego, ma na-enye akụkụ alụmdi na nwunye maka mmekọrịta ọjọọ.[12] A na-ekwu na Khadija ekweghị ma ọ bụ na-efe arụsị, nke na-adịghị ahụkebe maka ọdịbendị ndị Arab tupu Islam.[13]

Khadija esoghị ndị ahịa ya mee njem; kama nke ahụ, ọ were ndị ọzọ n'ọrụ ka ha zụọ ahịa maka ya maka ọrụ. N'afọ 595 Khadija chọrọ onye ọrụ ibe ya maka azụmahịa na Siria. Ọ were Muhammad ibn Abdullah, onye dị afọ iri abụọ na ise n'oge ahụ, n'ọrụ maka azụmahịa na Siria, na-eziga ozi na ọ ga-akwụ ụgwọ iji okpukpu abụọ nke ọrụ ya.[14] Site na ikike nke Abu Talib ibn Muttalib, nwanne nna ya, e zigara Muhammad na otu n'ime ndị na-ejere Khadija ozi na Siria. Ahụmahụ a mere ka Muhammad nweta nsọpụrụ nke al-Sadiq ('Onye[15] Eziokwu') na al-Amin ('Onye A Tụkwasịrị Obi' ma ọ bụ 'Onye Nsọpụrụ').

O zigara otu n'ime ndị na-ejere ya ozi, Maysarah, iji nyere ya aka. Mgbe ọ laghachiri, Maysarah nyere akụkọ banyere ụzọ dị ùgwù nke Muhammad ji mee azụmahịa ya, na-eweta uru okpukpu abụọ karịa ka Khadija tụrụ anya ya.[16]

Echiche dị iche iche banyere alụmdi na nwunye gara aga[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Nsụgharị Shia[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ibn Shahrashub hotara site na al-Sayyid al-Murtada na al-Shafi na al-Tusi na al-Talkhis, na Khadija bụ nwa agbọghọ na-amaghị nwoke mgbe ọ lụrụ Muhammad.[17] N'ịtụle ọnọdụ ọdịbendị na ọgụgụ isi na Hijaz, na ọnọdụ dị elu na ọnọdụ Khadija al-Kubra nwere, n'etiti ndị ọzọ, o yighị ka ọ lụrụ ndị ikom si Banu Tamim ma ọ bụ Banu Makhzum (ebo abụọ 'dị ala').[18] Ụfọdụ kwenyere na ụmụ abụọ a na-ekwu na Khadija bụ ụmụ Hala, ụmụnne Khadija. Mgbe di Hala nwụsịrị, Khadija lekọtara Hala na (mgbe Hala nwụsịrị) ụmụ Hala.[19]

Nsụgharị Sunni[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Khadija lụrụ di ugboro atọ ma mụọ ụmụ site n'alụmdi na nwunye ya niile. Ọ bụ ezie na a na-arụrịta ụka banyere usoro alụmdi na nwunye ya, a na-ekwere n'ozuzu ya na ọ lụrụ Atiq ibn 'A'idh ibn' Abdullah Al-Makhzumi, Malik ibn Nabash ibn Zargari ibn at-Tamimi sochiri ya.[20] Na Atiq, Khadija mụrụ nwa nwanyị aha ya bụ Hindah. Alụmdi na nwunye a hapụrụ Khadija dị ka nwanyị di ya nwụrụ.[21] Ya na Malik, o nwere ụmụ nwanyị abụọ, ndị aha ha bụ Hala na Hind. Malik hapụkwara Khadija dị ka nwanyị di ya nwụrụ, ọ nwụrụ tupu azụmahịa ya agaa nke ọma.[22] Khadija mechara rịọ Muhammad arịrịọ.[16]

Alụmdi na nwunye na Muhammad[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Khadija nyere enyi ya aha ya bụ Nafisa ka ọ bịakwute Muhammad ma jụọ ma ọ ga-atụle ịlụ di.[23] Mgbe Muhammad nwere obi abụọ n'ihi na o nweghị ego iji kwado nwunye ya, Nafisa jụrụ ma ọ ga-atụle ịlụ nwanyị nwere ihe iji kwado onwe ya.[24] Muhammad kwetara izute Khadija, mgbe nzukọ a gasịrị, ha gakwuuru ụmụnne nna ha. Ụmụnne nna kwetara na alụmdi na nwunye ahụ, ụmụnne nna Muhammad sonyeere ya ka ha rịọ Khadija arịrịọ.[16] A na-arụ ụka ma ọ bụ Hamza ibn Abdul-Muttalib, Abu Talib, ma ọ bụ ha abụọ sonyeere Muhammad na njem a.[21] Nwanne nna Khadija nabatara arịrịọ ahụ, alụmdi na nwunye ahụ wee mee. N'oge alụmdi na nwunye ahụ, Muhammad dị ihe dị ka afọ 23 ruo 25.[25][26][27][28] Khadija dị afọ iri anọ n'oge ahụ dịka ụfọdụ akwụkwọ si kwuo.[29][30][31][32] Otú ọ dị, akwụkwọ ndị ọzọ na-ekwu na ọ dị ihe dị ka afọ 28 ma ọ bụ 30 n'oge alụmdi na nwunye ahụ.[33][34]

Ụmụaka[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  Muhammad na Khadija nwere ike inwe ụmụ isii ma ọ bụ asatọ.[22] (Isi mmalite ekwekọrịtaghị banyere ọnụ ọgụgụ ụmụaka: Al-Tabari aha asatọ; akụkọ ndụ mbụ nke Muhammad site na Ibn Ishaq, aha ụmụaka asaa; ọtụtụ isi mmalite na-akọwa naanị isii).[20]

Nwa mbụ ha bụ Qasim, onye nwụrụ mgbe ọ gachara ụbọchị ọmụmụ ya nke atọ (ya mere aha Muhammad bụ Abu Qasim).[35][36] Khadija wee mụọ ụmụ ha nwanyị Zaynab, Ruqayyah, Kulthum na Fatima; na n'ikpeazụ nwa ha nwoke Abd Allah. A maara Abd Allah dị ka at-Tayyib ('Onye Ọma') na at-Tahir ('Onye Dị Ọcha'). Abd-Allah nwụkwara n'oge ọ bụ nwata.[22]

Ụmụaka abụọ ọzọ bikwa n'ụlọ Khadija: Ali ibn Abi Talib, nwa nwanne nna Muhammad; na Zayd ibn Harithah, nwa nwoke si n'ebo Kalb nke a tọọrọ ma ree ka ọ bụrụ ohu. Zayd bụ ohu n'ụlọ Khadija ruo ọtụtụ afọ, ruo mgbe nna ya bịara Mecca iji kpọrọ ya laa n'ụlọ. Muhammad siri ọnwụ na a ga-enye Zayd nhọrọ banyere ebe ọ bi, Zayd wee kpebie ịnọ ebe ọ nọ, mgbe nke ahụ gasịrị Muhammad nabatara Zayd n'ụzọ iwu dị ka nwa ya nwoke.[21]

Ịghọ onye mbụ na-eso Muhammad[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ihe nrite efu nke Khadijah nke a hụrụ na Promptuarii iconum insigniorum - 1553

Dị ka akụkọ ọdịnala Sunni si kwuo, mgbe Muhammad kọrọ mkpughe mbụ ya site n'aka mmụọ ozi Gabriel (Jibril), Khadija bụ onye mbụ nabatara Al-Haqq The Truth i.e. ọ nabatara Islam.[37] Mgbe ahụmahụ ya n'ọgba Hira gasịrị, Muhammad laghachiri n'ụlọ Khadija n'ọnọdụ egwu, na-arịọ ya ka o kpuchie ya na blanket. Mgbe ọ kwụsịrị, ọ kọwaara Khadija ihe ahụ zutere, onye kasiri ya obi na okwu ahụ bụ na Allah ga-echebe ya pụọ n'ihe ize ndụ ọ bụla, ọ gaghịkwa ekwe ka onye ọ bụla mebie ya dịka ọ bụ nwoke udo na ime udo ma na-agbatị aka ọbụbụenyi nye mmadụ niile mgbe niile.[22] Dị ka ụfọdụ akwụkwọ si kwuo, ọ bụ nwa nwanne Khadija, Waraqah ibn Nawfal, kwadoro amụma Muhammad n'oge na-adịghị anya.[38]

A na-ekwu na Yahya ibn Chaninfeef na-ekwu n'otu oge, n'oge Jahiliyyah (tupu ọbịbịa nke Islam), na Mecca ka 'Abbas ibn 'Abd al-Muttalib, otu n'ime ụmụnne nna Muhammad a kpọtụrụ aha n'elu, nọrọ na ya. 'Mgbe anyanwụ malitere ịpụta,' ka o kwuru, 'Ahụrụ m nwoke si n'ebe na-adịghị anya site na anyị, chee ihu na Kaaba wee malite ikpe ekpere ya. Ọ na-esiri ya ike tupu otu nwata nwoke guzo n'akụkụ aka nri ya esonyere ya, mgbe ahụ otu nwanyị guzo n"azụ ha. Mgbe o gbadatara ala, nwata nwoke ahụ na nwanyị ahụ gbadatara, mgbe o guzoro ọtọ, ha onwe ha mekwara otu ihe ahụ. Mgbe o dinara ala, ha onwe ha dinara ala.' O kwupụtara ijuanya ya na nke ahụ, na-agwa Abbas, sị: 'Nke a bụ ihe ijuanya, O Abbas!' 'Ọ bụ n'ezie?' ka al-Abbas zaghachiri. 'Ị maara onye ọ bụ?' Abbas jụrụ onye ọbịa ya, onye zaghachiri na-adịghị mma. 'Ọ bụ Muhammad ibn Abdullah, nwa nwanne m. Ị maara onye nwata nwoke ahụ bụ?' ọ jụrụ ọzọ. 'Ee e, n'ezie,' zara onye ọbịa ahụ. 'Ọ bụ Ali nwa Abu Talib. Ị maara onye nwanyị ahụ bụ?' Azịza ya bịara ọzọ na-adịghị mma, nke Abbas kwuru, 'Ọ bụ Khadija bint Khuwaylid, nwunye nwa nwanne m.' A gụnyere ihe omume a n'akwụkwọ Ahmad ibn Hanbal na Al-Tirmidhi, onye ọ bụla na-akọwa ya n'ụzọ zuru ezu na Ṣaḥīḥ nke ya.

Khadija kwadoro ọrụ amụma Muhammad, na-enyere aka mgbe niile n'ọrụ ya, na-akpọsa ozi ya ma na-eleda mmegide ọ bụla megide amụma ya.[37] Ọ bụ agbamume ya nyeere Muhammad aka ikwere na ọrụ ya ma gbasaa Islam.[39] Khadija tinyekwara akụ na ụba ya na ozi ahụ. Mgbe ndị na-efe ọtụtụ chi na ndị isi nke ndị Quraysh na-enye ndị Alakụba nsogbu, o jiri ego ya gbapụta ndị ohu Alakụba ma nye ndị Alakụbụrụ nri.[40][41]

N'afọ 616, ndị Quraysh kwupụtara na ha ga-egbochi azụmahịa megide ezinụlọ Hashim. Ha wakporo, tụọ ndị Alakụba mkpọrọ ma tie ha ihe, ndị na-aga ọtụtụ ụbọchị n'enweghị nri ma ọ bụ ihe ọṅụṅụ.[42] Khadija gara n'ihu na-elekọta obodo ahụ ruo mgbe a kwụsịrị mmachibido iwu ahụ na ngwụcha 619 ma ọ bụ mmalite 620.[21]

Ọnwụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Mausoleum nke Khadija na Jannatul-Mu'alla na Mecca, tupu mbibi ya site n'aka Ibn Saud na 1920s

Khadija nwụrụ na 'Ramadan nke afọ 10 mgbe Amụma gasịrị', ya bụ, na Nọvemba 619 OA.[43] Muhammad mechara kpọọ afọ nke iri a 'Afọ nke iru uju', ebe nwanne nna ya na onye nchebe ya Abu Talib nwụkwara n'oge a.[44] A na-ekwu na Khadija dị ihe dị ka afọ 65 n'oge ọnwụ ya.[45] E liri ya na ili ozu Jannat al-Mu'alla, na Mecca, Saudi Arabia.

Akụkọ ọzọ sitere n'aka Muhammad bin Ishaq na-ekwu na 'Abu Talib na Khadija bint Khuwaylid nwụrụ n'otu afọ ahụ. Nke a bụ afọ atọ tupu onye ozi Allah (Muhammad) agaa Medina. E liri Khadija na al-Hajun. Onye ozi Allah liri ya n'ili ya. Ọ dị afọ iri anọ mgbe onye ozi Allah lụrụ ya.'[46]

N'ime afọ ndị sochiri ọnwụ Khadija, Muhammad chere mkpagbu ihu site n'aka ndị na-emegide ozi ya nakwa site n'etiti ụfọdụ ndị sochiri ya na mbụ mana ugbu a laghachiri azụ. Agbụrụ ndị na-emegide ya kwara ya emo ma jiri nkume tụgbuo ya.[47] Muhammad kwagara Yathrib (Medina) mgbe ọnwụ Khadija gasịrị.  

Ụmụaka na ndị ikwu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ụmụ nwoke[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Qasim ibn Muhammad, nwụrụ na 601, mgbe ọ gbasịrị ụbọchị ọmụmụ ya nke atọ.
  • Abd Allah ibn Muhammad, nwụrụ n'oge ọ bụ nwata na 615

Ụmụ nwanyị[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Fatimah (605–632), although it is sometimes asserted that she was born during the first year of Muhammad's mission (610–611). She had the by-name 'The mother of her father', as she took over, caring for her father and being a support to her father once her mother died.[48] She married Ali, who became the fourth caliph in 656. (According to early debate after the death of Muhammad, some would argue that Ali would be the proper succession to Muhammad.)[49] Ali and Fatimah moved to a small village in Ghoba after the marriage, but later moved back to Medina to live next door to Muhammad.[50] Muhammad forbade Ali to take additional wives, because 'What caused pain to his daughter grieved him as well.'[51] Fatima died six months after her father died. All of Muhammad's surviving descendants are by Fatima's children. Muhammad loved her two sons Hassan and Husayn, who would continue his heritage.[51]
  • Zaynab (599–629). She married her maternal cousin Abu al-As before al-Hijra.[22] Later lived with Muhammad. Her husband accepted Islam before her death in 629
  • Ruqayyah (601–624). She was first married to Utbah ibn Abi Lahab and then to the future third caliph, Uthman.[22]
  • Umm Kulthum (603–630). She was first married to Utaybah bin Abi Lahab and then, after the death of her sister Ruqayyah, to Uthman. She was childless.

Echiche ndị Sunni[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Onye ọkà mmụta Sunni Yusuf ibn abd al-Barr na-ekwu, sị: "Ụmụ ya a mụrụ na Khadīja bụ ụmụ nwanyị anọ; ọ dịghị ihe dị iche n'echiche banyere nke ahụ. "[52]  

Echiche ndị Shia[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Dị ka ụfọdụ akwụkwọ ndị Shi'ite si kwuo, Khadija na Muhammad kuchiri ụmụ nwanyị abụọ nke Halah, nwanne nwanyị Khadija. Onye ọkà mmụta Shi'i Abu'l-Qasim al-Kufi dere, sị:  

  1. Hind bint Atiq Ọ lụrụ nwa nwanne nna ya, Sayfi ibn Umayya, ha nwekwara otu nwa nwoke, Muhammad ibn Sayfi.[53][54]
  2. Zaynab bint Abi Hala, onye nwere ike ịnwụ na nwata.[55]
  1. Zaynab (599-629) Ọ lụrụ nwa nwanne nne ya Abu al-Aas ibn al-Rabee tupu al-Hijra.[22] O mechara soro Muhammad biri. Di ya nabatara Islam tupu ọnwụ ya na 629
  2. Ruqayyah (601-624). O bu ụzọ lụọ Utbah ibn Abu Lahab ma mesịa lụọ onye caliph nke atọ n'ọdịnihu Uthman ibn Affan.[22]
  3. Umm Kulthum (603-630). O bu ụzọ lụọ Utaybah bin Abu Lahab ma mesịa, mgbe nwanne ya nwanyị Ruqayyah nwụsịrị, lụọ Uthman ibn Affan. Ọ amụghị nwa.[22][56]
  • Ibn Umm Maktum
  • Waraqah ibn Nawfal bụ nwa Nawfal b. Asad b. ʿAbd al-ʿUzzā b. Suchaay na Hind bt. Abī Kat̲h̲īr. A gwara Waraqah ka ọ lụọ Khadija bint Khuwaylid, mana alụmdi na nwunye ahụ emeghị. Waraqah bụ ihe a ma ama n'ihi na ọ gbanwere site na ikpere arụsị gaa na Iso Ụzọ Kraịst tupu mkpughe Muhammad.[57] Ibn Ishaq na-ekwu na Waraqah dịkwa mkpa n'ihi na ọ na-arụ ọrụ n'ime ka mkpughe Muhammad bụrụ ihe ziri ezi.

'Ọ bịakwutere ya,' Waraḳa na-ekwu, 'iwu kasịnụ nke bịakwutere Mozis; o doro anya na ọ bụ onye amụma nke ndị a.'[58]

Hụkwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Àtụ:Quraysh tree

  • Eshia
  • Ndị nwunye Muhammad
  • Sumayyah bint Khayyat

Ụmụ ya ndị dị mkpa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. Cheema (4 December 2017). The Age of Khadija at the Time of her Marriage with the Prophet: Abstract. Archived from the original on 15 April 2019. Retrieved on 15 April 2019.
  2. Encyclopaedia of the Quran. Leidan: Brill, 2001. Print.
  3. Hendrix (2018). The World's Greatest Religious Leaders: How Religious Figures Helped Shape World History. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781440841385. Retrieved on 16 April 2019. 
  4. Chapter 2: Early Life. Al-Islam.org. Archived from the original on 2002-05-04. Retrieved on 2009-09-09.
  5. Haq. Ibn Sa'd's Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir, vol. 1.. 
  6. The Women of Madina. Ta-Ha Publishers. 
  7. Benedikt (2014). Early Islam and the Birth of Capitalism. Lexington Books. 
  8. Guillaume. The Life of Muhammad. Oxford. 
  9. Muhammad ibn Saad, Tabaqat vol. 1. Translated by Haq, S. M. Ibn Sa'd's Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir, pp. 148–149. Delhi: Kitab Bhavan.
  10. Muhammad ibn Saad, Tabaqat vol. 1. Translated by Haq, S. M. Ibn Sa'd's Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir, p. 54. Delhi: Kitab Bhavan.
  11. Muhammad ibn Saad, Tabaqat vol. 8. Translated by Bewley, A. (1995). The Women of Madina, p. 10. London: Ta-Ha Publishers.
  12. 12.0 12.1 van Gorder (2014). Islam, Peace and Social Justice: A Christian Perspective. ISBN 978-0-227-17422-7. Retrieved on 2017-12-29. 
  13. Yasin T. al-Jibouri (20 January 2013). Khadijah, Daughter of Khuwaylid, Wife of Prophet Muhammad (en). Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved on 23 August 2017. "One particular quality in Khadija was quite interesting, probably more so than any of her other qualities mentioned above: She believed in nor worshipped idols."
  14. Muhammad ibn Saad, Tabaqat vol. 1. Translated by Haq, S. M. Ibn Sa'ad's Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir, p. 145–146. Delhi: Kitab Bhavan.
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