Lingala

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Lingala
Ngala
Lingála
Native to Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Central African Republic, Angola and The Republic of South Sudan
Region Congo River
Native speakers
  • Native speakers: Estimates range from 15 to 20 million speakers (2020)
  • L2 speakers: 25 million speakers (2020)
 (2020)[1]

[2]

Dialects
African reference alphabet (Latin), Mandombe script
Official status
Official language in
Language codes
ISO 639-1 ln
ISO 639-2 lin
ISO 639-3 lin
Glottolog ling1269
C30B[3]
Linguasphere 99-AUI-f
LanguageMap-Lingala-Larger Location.png
Geographic distribution of Lingala speakers, showing regions of native speakers (dark green) and other regions of use
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Lingala (Ngala) (Lingala: Lingála) bụ asụsụ Bantu a na-asụ n'ebe ugwu ọdịda anyanwụ nke Democratic Republic of the Congo, ọkara ugwu nke Republic of the Kongo, n'isi obodo ha, Kinshasa na Brazzaville, yana n'ókè dị ala na Angola, Central African Republic na ndịda South Sudan. Lingala nwere nde mmadụ iri na ise na iri abụọ na-asụ asụsụ nke abụọ na ihe dị ka nde mmadụ iri abụọ na ise na-asụrụ asụsụ nke abụọ, maka ngụkọta nke nde mmadụ iri anọ wee rue na ise na ise na na-asọpụta asụsụ.

Akụkọ ihe ndị mere eme[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Tupu 1880, Bobangi bụ asụsụ azụmahịa dị mkpa na mpaghara ọdịda anyanwụ nke osimiri Congo, kpọmkwem n'etiti Stanley Pool (Kinshasa) na njikọ nke osimiri Congo na Ubangi.[4] Mgbe na mbido afọ 1880, ndị Europe mbụ na ndị agha ha nke West na East Africa malitere ịtọ ntọala steeti maka eze Belgium n'akụkụ osimiri a, ha chọpụtara ojiji na ùgwù nke Bobangi.[5] Ha gbalịrị ịmụta ya, mana naanị ha na-eche banyere inweta ihe ọmụma na-ezughị oke banyere ya, usoro nke mere ka e nwee ụdị ọhụrụ, nke a gbanwere nke ọma, nke a na-akpọ "asụsụ azụmahịa", "asụsụ nke osimiri", "Bobangi-pidgin" na ndị ọzọ.[6] N'afọ 1884, ndị Europe na ndị agha ha webatara ụdị Bobangi a gbanwere agbanwe na Bangala Station dị mkpa, ya bụ, iji soro ndị Congo nọ n'ógbè ahụ kwurịta okwu, ụfọdụ n'ime ha nwere ihe ọmụma asụsụ nke abụọ nke Bobangi mbụ, yana ọtụtụ ndị Congo si n'ókè ndị ozi ala ọzọ na ndị na-achị ala ọzọ na-ebugharị na ọdụ ahụ site n'ike.[7] N'ihi ya, n'oge na-adịghị anya, a gbanwere aha asụsụ osimiri ahụ ka ọ bụrụ "Bangala", akara ndị Europe ejirila kemgbe 1876 dị ka aha dị mma, mana nke na-ezighị ezi na nke na-abụghị nke mbụ na mbụ, iji mee ka ndị Congo niile nọ n'ógbè ahụ jikọta ọnụ n'agbụrụ.[8][9][10][11]

N'ihe dị ka 1901-2, ndị ozi ala ọzọ CICM malitere ọrụ iji "sachaa" asụsụ Bangala iji mee ka ọ dị ọcha site na "ihe na-adịghị ọcha", ihe ndị yiri pidgin ọ nwetara mgbe ọ pụtara na Bobangi na mbido afọ 1880. Meeuwis (2020: 24-25) dere, sị:

N'ihe dị ka na n'oge na-adịghị anya mgbe 1901, ọtụtụ ndị ozi ala ọzọ Katọlik na ndị Protestant na-arụ ọrụ n'ebe ọdịda anyanwụ na n'ebe ugwu Congo Free State, n'enweghị ibe ha mana n'ụzọ dị ịrịba ama, kpebiri na Bangala dị ka ọ mepụtara site na Bobangi bụ asụsụ dị ka ihe kwesịrị ekwesị maka agụmakwụkwọ na izisa ozi ọma. Onye ọ bụla n'ime ha malitere usoro ihe omume nke nnukwu atụmatụ, nke ebumnuche ya bụ iji mee ka Bangala gbasaa site n'elu [...[Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] Otu n'ime ha bụ onye ozi ala ọzọ Katọlik Egide De Boeck nke Congregatio Immaculati Cordis Mariae (CICM, nke a na-akpọkarị ndị ozi ala ọzọ nke Scheutī ma ọ bụ bụ Scheutī), onye rutere na Bangala Station Nouvelle Anvers na 1901. Onye ọzọ bụ onye ozi ala ọzọ Protestant Walter H. Stapleton [...], na nke atọ bụ onye ụka Katọlik Léon Derikx nke ndị nna Premonstratensian [...[Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] Ka ọ na-erule 1915, mgbalị De Boeckz egosila na ọ nwere mmetụta karịa Stapleton, onye aro okike asụsụ ya, dị ka nzukọ ndị ozi ala ọzọ Protestant nke 1911 kwetara, emezubeghị ya n'ezie [...[Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] N'okpuru nchịkwa nke ọrụ De Boeckī, Derikxi kwụsịrị nke ya mgbe ihe na-erughị afọ iri gasịrị.[12]

Mkpa Lingala dị ka asụsụ obodo etolitela na nha na mkpa nke isi ebe eji ya eme ihe, Kinshasa na Brazzaville; na ojiji ya dị ka asụsụ nke ndị agha; na ewu ewu nke egwu soukous.

Aha[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Na mbụ, a na-akpọ asụsụ ndị ọsụ ụzọ Europe na ndị agha Africa ha mepụtara na Bobangi "asụsụ osimiri" ma ọ bụ "asụsụ azụmahịa" na akara ndị ọzọ na-agbanwe agbanwe. Malite na 1884 gaa n'ihu a na-akpọ ya "Bangala", n'ihi iwebata ya na Bangala Station. Mgbe 1901, ndị ozi ala ọzọ ụka Katọlik nke CICM, nke a na-akpọkwa 'Congregation of Scheutists', tụrụ aro ka a gbanwee aha asụsụ ahụ "Lingala", atụmatụ nke were ọtụtụ iri afọ iji nabata ya n'ozuzu ya, ma site n'aka ndị na-achị ala na ndị Congo.[13] Aha Lingala pụtara na mbụ n'akwụkwọ n'akwụkwọ nke onye ozi ala ọzọ CICM bụ Égide De Boeck (1901-2).[14] A nabatara mgbanwe aha a na ọdịda anyanwụ na n'ebe ugwu ọdịda anyanwụ Congo (yana na mba ndị ọzọ ebe a na-asụ asụsụ ahụ), mana ọ bụghị n'ebe ndịda ọwụwa anyanwụ Congo ebe a ka na-akpọ ụdị asụsụ a na-ekwu n'ógbè ahụ Bangala.[15]

Njirimara na ojiji[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Lingala bụ asụsụ creole nke sitere na Bantu nke Central Africa nke nwere mgbọrọgwụ n'asụsụ Bobangi, asụsụ nke nyere ọtụtụ okwu na ụtọ asụsụ ya.[16][17] N'okwu ya bụ isi, Lingala nwekwara ọtụtụ ihe a gbazitere site na asụsụ ndị ọzọ dị iche iche, dị ka: Swahili, Kikongo varieties, French, Portuguese, na Bekee.

N'omume, oke ịgbazinye ego dịgasị iche iche na ndị na-asụ asụsụ nke mpaghara dị iche iche (nke a na-ahụkarị n'etiti ndị na-eto eto), na n'oge mmemme dị iche iche.

French

  • momí, sitere na 'ma mie' na French ochie nke pụtara 'onye m hụrụ n'anya' ọ bụ ezie na ọ nwere ike ịdị ka ọ pụtara nne nne, a na-eji ya na Lingala maka enyi nwanyị
  • kelási maka klas / ụlọ akwụkwọ

Spanish

  • chicle maka ịta gum

Portuguese

  • manteka maka bọta
  • mésa maka tebụl
  • sapátu maka akpụkpọ ụkwụ

Bekee

  • míliki maka mmiri ara ehi
  • súpu maka ofe
  • mamiwata maka mermaid, n'ụzọ nkịtị mammy/mmiri
  • búku maka akwụkwọ[18]
  • mótuka, site na ụgbọala, maka ụgbọala[19]

Ndịiche[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Enwere ike kewaa asụsụ Lingala n'ọtụtụ regiolects na sociolects. Ụdị mpaghara kachasị dị iche iche bụ Lingala nke ugwu ọdịda anyanwụ, Kinshasa Lingala na Brazzaville Lingala.

Literary Lingala (lingala littéraire ma ọ bụ lingala classique na olu French) bụ ụdị a na-ejikarị eme ihe na agụmakwụkwọ na mgbasa ozi akụkọ na redio ma ọ bụ telivishọn nke gọọmentị, na ozi okpukpe na Chọọchị Roman Katọlik ma bụrụ asụsụ a na-akụzi dị ka isiokwu na ọkwa agụmakwụkwọ ụfọdụ. A na-ejikọta ya na akụkọ ihe mere eme na ọrụ nke Chọọchị Katọlik, ndị ozi ala ọzọ CICM nke Belgium karịsịa. Ọ nwere usoro ụdaume asaa (/a/ /e/ /ɛ/ /i/ /o/ /ɔ/ /u/) na nkwekọrịta ụdaume dị mkpa. O nwekwara ọnụọgụ zuru oke nke aha aha ọdịdị na usoro nkwekọrịta ụtọ asụsụ na isiokwu, ma ọ bụ aha maka nke ọ bụla. A na-ejikarị ya eme ihe n'ọrụ iwu na n'ụdị edemede ụfọdụ. Ọtụtụ ndị na-asụ asụsụ Lingala na Kinshasa Lingala na-ele ya anya dị ka ihe a na-apụghị ịghọta aghọta.[20]

Northwestern (ma ọ bụ Equateur) Lingala bụ ngwaahịa nke (ezughị ezu) internalization site na Congolese nke iwu iwu iwu ndị ozi ala ọzọ CICM bu n'obi mgbe ha na-emepụta Literary Lingala.[21][22] Ebe ugwu ọdịda anyanwụ bụ mpaghara ebe ndị ozi ala ọzọ CICM kwadoro netwọk nke ụlọ akwụkwọ.

Lingala a na-asụ asụ (nke a na-akpọ lingala parlé na French) bụ ụdị dị iche iche a na-ejikarị eme ihe na ndụ kwa ụbọchị nke ndị Lingalaphones. Ọ nwere usoro prefix aha zuru oke, mana usoro nkwekọrịta na ahịrịokwu aha dị ala karịa nke dị n'ụdị edemede. Banyere phonology, enwere usoro ụdaume ise ma ọ nweghị nkwekọrịta ụdaume. A na-ejikarị Lingala a na-asụ n'ọrụ ndị na-abụghị nke a na-ejighị n'aka, ọtụtụ n'ime abụ Lingala na-eji Lingala a ma na-asụrụ karịa ọdịiche ndị ọzọ. French na-emetụta Lingala nke oge a; French ngwaa, dịka ọmụmaatụ, nwere ike ịbụ "lingalized" na-agbakwunye prefixes na suffixes nke Lingala: "acomprenaki te" ma ọ bụ "acomprendraki te" (ọ ghọtaghị, na-eji okwu French comprendre) kama Lingala ochie "asímbaki ntína te" (n'ụzọ nkịtị: s / ọ jidere / jidere mgbọrọgwụ / ihe kpatara ya). Mmetụta French ndị a jupụtara na Kinshasa ma na-egosi mmebi nke asụsụ ka agụmakwụkwọ, na French, na-aghọ nke ọtụtụ ndị bi na ya. E nwere ọdịiche dị n'etiti "Lingala Katọlik" na "Lingala Protestant" - dịka ọmụmaatụ: nzala/njala (agụụ).

Ọmụmụ na ụdaolu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ụdaume[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

N'ihu Nlaghachi
N'akụkụ i u
N'etiti etiti e o
Mepee n'etiti ɛ ɔ
Emeghe a
IPA Ihe Nlereanya (IPA) Ihe Nlereanya (e dere ya) Ihe ọ pụtara Ihe edeturu
i /lilála/ lilla ya oroma
u /kulutu/ kulútu okenye
e /eloᵑɡi/ elongi ihu
o /mobáli/ Mọbaị nwa nwoke a na-akpọ ya nke dịtụ elu karịa kadinal o, nke a na-aghọta dị ka [oʹ]



ɛ /lɛlɔ́/ Z taa
ɔ /ᵐbɔ́ᵑɡɔ/ mbɔ́ng ego
a /áwa/ áwa ebe a

Ndaba ụdaume[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Okwu Lingala na-egosi nkwekọrịta ụdaume ruo n'ókè ụfọdụ. Mkpụrụ/e/demede dị n'etiti /e/ na //o// anaghị agwakọta na ụdaume dị n'agbata //ɛ// na //ɔ// n'okwu. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, a na-ahụ okwu ndɔbɔ 'nkịta azụ' na ndobo 'ọnyà òké', mana ọ bụghị *ndɔbo ma ọ bụ *ndobɔ.

Mgbanwe ụdaume[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Lingala a na-asụ na Kinshasa na-egosi mgbanwe ụdaume site na /ɔ/ gaa na //o//, na-eduga na enweghị ụdaume //ɔ// maka /o/. Otu ihe ahụ na-/e/me na //ɛ// na /e/, na-eduga na /e / naanị. Ya mere na Kinshasa, onye na-asụ asụsụ ga-ekwu mbóte dị ka /mbóte/, ma e jiri ya tụnyere otú a na-akpọ //ᵐbɔ́tɛ//.

Mgbochiume[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ọnụ Alveolar Post-alveolar<br id="mwATQ"><br><br><br> Palatal Velar
Ụgbọ imi m n ɲ
Kwụsị p b t d k g
Tupu a mụọ ya mp mb nt

ns

nd

nz

Okpukpu Gọsi
Ihe na-esiri ike f v s z ʃ (ʒ)
Ihe atụ w l j
IPA Ihe Nlereanya (IPA) Ihe Nlereanya (e dere ya) Ihe ọ pụtara
p /napɛ́si/ napɛ́sí Ana m enye
ᵐp /ᵐpɛᵐbɛ́ni/ mpɛmbeni nso
b /boliᵑɡo/ Ịhụnanya Ịhụnanya
ᵐb /ᵐbɛlí/ mbɛlí mma
t /litéja/ litéya nkuzi
ⁿt /ⁿtɔ́ᵑɡɔ́/ na-ese onyinyo chi ọbụbọ
d /daidai/ daidai na-arapara n'ahụ
ⁿd /ⁿdeko/ nwanne nwanne, nwa nwanne, onye ikwu
k /mokɔlɔ/ mokɔlɔ ụbọchị
ᵑk /ᵑkóló/ nkóló onye nwe ya
ɡ /ɡalamɛ́lɛ/ Ọganihu ụtọ asụsụ
ᵑɡ /ᵑɡáí/ ngay m
m /mamá/ Mama nne
n /bojini/ boyini ịkpọasị
ɲ /ɲama/ nyama anụmanụ
f /fɔtɔ́/ Foto foto
v /veló/ veló ịnyịnya ígwè
s /sɔ̂lɔ/ N'ihi ya, ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-eme ihe n' n'ezie
ⁿs /ɲɔ́ⁿsɔ/ Anyanwụ niile
z /zɛ́lɔ/ Oké osimiri ájá
ⁿz (1) /ⁿzáᵐbe/ nzámbe Chineke
ʃ /ʃakú/ cakú ma ọ bụ shakú Nnụnụ na-acha ntụ ntụ nke Africa
l /ɔ́lɔ/ Ọ bụ n'ala ọlaedo
j /jé/ Ya ya; ya (onye nnọchiaha ihe)
w /wápi/ Ụgbọ mmiri ebe

(1) [ᶮʒ] bụ allophonic na [ʒ] dabere na olu.

Mgbochiume ndị eji imi wee mee[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ihe nkwụsị ndị e ji imi mee na-esote ụda olu na-enweghị olu na-agbaso na-enweghị ụda na-enweghị okwu naanị ya na ụfọdụ ọdịiche nke Lingala.

  • /ᵐp/: [ᵐp] or [p]
    e.g.: mpɛmbɛ́ni is pronounced [ᵐpɛᵐbɛ́ni] but in some variations [pɛᵐbɛ́ni]
  • /ⁿt/: [ⁿt] or [t]
    e.g.: ntɔ́ngó is pronounced ⁿtɔ́ᵑɡó but in some variations [tɔ́ᵑɡó]
  • /ᵑk/: [ᵑk] or [k]
    e.g.: nkanya (fork) is pronounced [ᵑkaɲa] but in some variations [kaɲa]
  • /ⁿs/: [ⁿs] or [s] (inside a word)
    e.g.: nyɔnsɔ ka esi akpọ ya [ɲɔ́ⁿsɔ][ɲɔ́sɔ]

Okwu mkpirisi, /mb/, /nd/, /ŋɡ/, /nz/ adịghị agbanwe.

Ụda ụda[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Lingala bụ asụsụ ụda olu, ụda bụ ihe dị iche na obere abụọ, dịka: mutu (mmadụ) na mutú (isi), ma ọ bụ kokoma (ide) na kokóma (ịbịaru). Enwere ụda abụọ nwere ike, nke nkịtị dị ala na nke abụọ dị elu. E nwere ụda nke atọ, nke a na-adịghị ahụkebe nke na-amalite n'elu, na-agbadata n'ala ma na-agwụcha n'elu n'ime otu ụdaume, dịka: bôngó (ya mere).

Ọdịdị ụdaolu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ụdị ụdaolu na-ebu ụdaolu.

  • koma (komL-a : dee) na-enye
    • dị mfe ugbu a L-aL :
      nakoma naL-komL-aL (M na-ede)
    • subjunctive H-aL :
      nákoma naH-komL-aL (M ga-ede)
    • ugbu a:
      nakomí naL-komL-iH (M na-ede akwụkwọ)
  • sepela (seLpel-a : enjoy) gbanwere na-enye
    • dị mfe ugbu a L-aL :
      osepela oL-seLpelL-aL (you-SG enjoy)
    • subjunctive H-aL :
      ósepéla oH-seLpelH-aH (you-SG ga-enwe obi ụtọ)
    • ugbu a L-iH:
      osepelí oL-seLpelL-iH (you-SG anọwo na-anụ ụtọ)

Asụsụ Bekee[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Akụkụ ahụ na Lingala

Usoro klasị aha[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Dị ka asụsụ Bantu niile, Lingala nwere usoro klas aha nke a na-ekewa aha dị ka prefixes ha na-ebu na dị ka mgbakwunye nke ihu ha na-akpali na ahịrịokwu. Tebụl dị n'okpuru na-egosi klas aha nke Lingala, nke a haziri dịka usoro nọmba nke a na-ejikarị eme ihe na nkọwa nke asụsụ Bantu.

Klas Aha mbido Ihe Nlereanya Nsụgharị
1 mo- mopési ohu
2 ba- Bapesi Ndị na-ejere ya ozi
3 mo- mokíla ọdụ
4 ọkara- mikíla ọdụ
5 li- okwu okwu
6 ma- okwu okwu
7 e- Okoko ihe
8 bi- bilokó ihe
9 m-/n- ntaba ewu
10 m-/n- ntaba ewu
9a Ø Sánzá ọnwa
10a Ø Sánzá ọnwa
11 lo- lolemo ire
14 bo- Bosoto unyi
15 ko- Ọkụ ịrụ ọrụ (na-adịghị agwụ agwụ)

Klasị nke ọ bụla na-ejikọta ibe ya iji mepụta otu / ọtụtụ abụọ, mgbe ụfọdụ a na-akpọ 'ndị nwoke na nwanyị'. E nwere ụmụ nwoke na ụmụ nwanyị asaa n'ozuzu. Otu klas 1, 3, 5, 7, na 9 na-ewere ụdị ọtụtụ ha site na klas 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, n'otu n'otu. Tụkwasị na nke a, ọtụtụ ihe ndị dị n'ụlọ a na-ahụ na klas nke 9 na-ewere akara nke 2 (ba) n'ọtụtụ: lutu → balutu 'spoon', mesa → bamesa 'table', sani → basani 'plate'. Okwu dị na klas 11 na-ejikarị klas 10 dị n'ọtụtụ. Ọtụtụ okwu sitere na klas 14 (aha ndị na-enweghị atụ) enweghị ọtụtụ.

Klasị 9 na 10 nwere prefix imi, nke na-ejikọta na ụdaume na-esonụ. Ya mere, prefix na-egosi dị ka 'n' na okwu ndị na-amalite na t ma ọ bụ d, dịka ntaba 'goat', mana dị ka 'm' na okwu na-amalite site na b ma ọ bụ p (dịka mbisi 'azụ̀'). Enwekwara klas na-enweghị prefix 9a na 10a, nke sánzá → sánzá 'moon(s) ma ọ bụ ọnwa(s gosipụtara. A na-edozi mgbagwoju anya ndị nwere ike ịbụ site na ihe gbara ya gburugburu.

Ntinye aha klasị anaghị apụta naanị na aha ahụ n'onwe ya, kama ọ na-eje ozi dị ka akara n'ime ahịrịokwu ahụ dum. N'ime ahịrịokwu ndị dị n'okpuru ebe a, a na-egosipụta prefixes klas. (E nwere ụdị okwu pụrụ iche 'a' nke prefix maka aha klas 1.)

  • molakisi molai yo abiki (CL1.teacher CL1.tall that CL1:recovered) Onye nkuzi ahụ toro ogologo gbakere
  • bato bakúmisa Nkómbó ya Yɔ́ (CL2.ndị mmadụ CL2.na-ekele aha gị) (Ka) ndị mmadụ na-eto aha gị (ahịrịokwu sitere n'Ekpere Onyenwe anyị)

Naanị ruo n'ókè ụfọdụ, a na-achịkwa nkwekọrịta klasị aha. Klasị 1/2, dị ka n'asụsụ Bantu niile, nwere okwu maka ụmụ mmadụ; n'otu aka ahụ, klas 9/10 nwere ọtụtụ okwu maka ụmụ anụmanụ. Na klas ndị ọzọ, usoro okwu na-adịghị adịkarị ma ọ bụ ọtụtụ ihe na-ekpuchi ya.

Mgbanwe ngwaa na ọdịdị ya[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Mgbatị okwu ngwaa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

E nwere mofims anọ na-agbanwe ngwaa. A na-agbakwunye ha na mgbọrọgwụ ngwaa ụfọdụ n'usoro ndị a:

  1. Ntụgharị (-ol-)
    Dịka ọmụmaatụ: kozinga iji kpuchie na kozingola iji mepụta
  2. Ihe na-akpata (-is-)
    dịka iji omụmaatụ : koyéba ịmara na koyébisa ịmara
  3. Ntinye aka (-el-)
    dịka ọmụmaatụ : kobíka iji gwọọ (onwe), iji chekwaa (onwe) na kobíkela iji gwọọ "onye ọzọ), iji chọpụta (onye ọzọ)
  4. Passive (-am-)
    Dịka ọmụmaatụ : igbu egbu na kobomama igbu
  5. Reciprocal ma ọ bụ kwụ otu ebe (-an-, mgbe ụfọdụ -en-)
    dịka ọmụmaatụ : kokúta ịchọta na kokútana izute

Mgbanwe nke ụdaolu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Akụkụ ụda nke mbụ na-emetụta akụkụ isiokwu nke ngwaa, akụkụ ụda nke abụọ na-ejikọta na mofim nke semantic ejikọtara na mgbọrọgwụ nke ngwaa.

  • ugbu a zuru oke (LH-í)
  • dị mfe ugbu a (LL-a)
  • ihe a na-ahụkarị (LL-aka)
  • Enweghị nkọwa n'oge na-adịbeghị anya (LH-ákí)
  • Oge gara aga a na-akọwaghị akọwa (LH-áká)
  • ọdịnihu (L-ko-L-a)
  • subjunctive (HL-a)

Usoro edemede[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Lingala bụ asụsụ a na-asụ karịa asụsụ e dere ede, ma nwee ọtụtụ usoro edemede dị iche iche, ọtụtụ n'ime ha bụ ad hoc. Dị ka ịgụ na ide na Lingala na-adịkarị ala, orthography ya na-ewu ewu na-agbanwe agbanwe ma dịgasị iche n'etiti mba abụọ ahụ. Ụfọdụ orthographies nwere mmetụta siri ike site na nke French; mmetụta gụnyere S, ss, iji transcribe [s] abụọ (na Republic of the Congo); ou maka [u] (na Republic nke Congo); i na trema, aï, iji transcript [ay] ma ọ bụ [áí]; e na ụda olu, é, iji transcription [e]; e iji transcribe[ɛ], o na ụda olu dị nkọ, ó, iji transcri [ɔ] ma ọbụ mgbe ụfọdụ [o] ma ọ na-emegide o transcri [o] na-emegider [o] [o] A na-ahụkwa allophones dị ka ụdị na-agbanwe agbanwe na orthography a ma ama; sango bụ ihe ọzọ na nsango (ozi ma ọ bụ akụkọ); nyonso, nyoso, nionso, nioso (onye ọ bụla) bụ ntụgharị niile nke N'Onye.

N'afọ 1976, ndị Société Zaïroise des Linguistes (Zairian Linguists Society) nakweere usoro ederede maka Lingala, na-eji e (ɛ) na o (ɔ) mepere emepe dee ụdaume [ɛ] na [ɔ], na iji ụda olu mee ihe mgbe ụf(ɔ)dụ iji akara ụda olu, ɛ ezie na njedebe nke usoro ntinye na-egbochi ndị edemede Lingala iji ɛ na ɔ na ụda olu mee ka ọ dị mfe. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, ọ fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ ihe na-agaghị ekwe omume ịdepụta Lingala dịka nkwekọrịta ahụ si dị na keyboard Bekee ma ọ bụ French. Nzukọ nke 1976 belatara orthography ọzọ nke ihe odide mana emeghị ka akara ụda. Enweghị nkwuwa okwu na-agbanwe agbanwe na-ebelata site na disambiguation n'ihi ihe gbara ya gburugburu.

Ọtọgrafi a ma ama yiri ka ọ bụ nzọụkwụ n'ihu orthography ọ bụla dabeere na agụmakwụkwọ. Ọtụtụ akwụkwọ Lingala, akwụkwọ, ọbụnadị nsụgharị nke Universal Declaration of Human Rights na n'oge na-adịbeghị anya, forums ịntanetị, akwụkwọ akụkọ, na ebe nrụọrụ weebụ ndị dị mkpa, dị ka Lingala nke Google, anaghị eji mkpụrụedemede Lingala bụ ɛ na ɔ. A na-ahụ akara ụda n'ọtụtụ akwụkwọ.

Mkpụrụ akwụkwọ okwu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ozi COVID-19 na Lingala

Asụsụ Lingala nwere mkpụrụedemede 35 na digraphs. Digraphs nke ọ bụla nwere usoro a kapịrị ọnụ na mkpụrụ akwụkwọ okwu; dịka ọmụmaatụ, a ga-atụ anya ka a nye mza iwu tupu mba, n'ihi na digraph mb na-eso mkpụrụ akwụkwọ okwu m. Mkpụrụ akwụkwọ okwu r na h dị ụkọ mana ọ dị n'okwu ndị a gbazitere. Akara na-egosi ụda dị ka ndị a:

  • enweghị ụdaolu maka ụda ndabara, ụda dị ala
  • ụdaolu dị elu maka ụda dị elu
  • circumflex maka ụda na-agbadata
  • caron maka ụda na-arịgo
Ụdị dị iche iche Ihe Nlereanya
a A Ọ dị gịrịgịrị nyama, matáta, sâmbóle, libwǎ
b B bísó
c C ciluba
d D madɛ́su
na E bụ ě komeka, mésa, kobênga
ɛ Ɛ ɛ́ ɛ̂ ɛ̌ lɛlɔ́, lɛ́ki, tɛ̂
f F lifúta
g G kogánga
gb Gb gbagba
h H bohlu (bohrium)
i M na agwaetiti ǐ Ụra na-esi ísì ụtọ, na-esi na-esi n'ụra na-anọ
k K kokoma
l L kolála
m M Ọdịdị
mb Mb kolámba, mbwá, mbɛlí
mp Mp limpa
n N líno
nd Nd nwanne
ng Ng A na-ahụkarị ya
nk Nk nkámá
ns Ns nsɔ́mi
nt Nt ntaba
ny Nyụ nyama
nz Nz Ọrịa agụụ
o o Ó Ó Ó Ó moto, na-eme ihe n'ụzọ dị mma
ɔ Ɔ ɔ́ ɔ̂ ɔ̌ sɔsɔ, yɔ́, sɔ̂lɔ, tɔ̌
p P pɛnɛpɛnɛ
r R Malaria
s S kopesa
t T Nna nna
u U U butú, koúma
v V kovanda
w W Kawa
na Y koyéba
z Z ịbụ

Ihe Nlereanya[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Bekee Lingala
A kwagara m Luanda na Jenụwarị afọ a n'ihi ọrụ ọhụrụ m tinyere akwụkwọ maka afọ gara aga. Obi dị m ụtọ na enwetara m ya ma ugbu a m na-eche echiche iwu ụlọ na Mbanza Kongo n'afọ na-abịa ka ezinụlọ m wee nwee ụlọ. Mbula oyo na bonguani na sanza ya yambo pona Luanda likolo ya ọrụ ya sika esika na mikomisaki kuna mbula eleki. Nazali na esengo pona ndenge na zui ọrụ oyo sikoyo nazali ko kanisa kotonga ndaku na Mbanza Kongo na mbula ezali ko ya pona ete libota bazala na ndaku.

[23]

Ekpere nke Onyenwe Anyị

Ekpere nke Onyenwe Anyị (nke Ụka Katọlik)

Tatá wa bísó, ozala ma ọ bụ likoló,
bato bakúmisa Nkómbó ya Yɔ́,
bandima ọchịchị nke Yɔ́, maka elingo Yɔ́
basálá yangó ma ọ bụ nsé,
Lokóla bakosalaka ma ọ bụ likoló
Pésa bísó lɛlɔ́ biléi by mokɔlɔ na mokɔlɔ,
Limbisa ama ama ama ama,
Lokóla bísó tokolimbisaka baníngá.
Sálisa bísó tondima masɛ́nginyá tê,
na bíkisa bísó ma ọ bụ mabé.
Na-achị achị,
Ọ bụ n'ebube,
ma ọ bụ bileko ma ọ bụ binso sékô.
Amen.

Ekpere nke Onyenwe anyị (nke Protestant e ji mee ihe na mpaghara Ubangi-Mongala)

Nwanyị na-agba ọsọ,
na-eme ka ọ bụrụ ihe na-adịghị mma,
Ọchịchị n'ụzọ dị mfe,
Ihe mgbaru ọsọ na-eme ka ọ bụrụ ihe a na-eme na nsé
dị ka na likoló.
Pésa bísó kwanga ekokí lɛlɔ́́́.
Límbisa bísó nyongo na bísó,
pelamoko elimbisi bísó bango nyongo na bango.
Kamba bísó kati na komekama tê,
Ọ bụrụ na bíkisa bísó na mabé.
Ka o wee nwee ike ịchị,
na nguya, na ebube,
lobiko na lobiko.
Amen.

Mandombe[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ihe odide Mandombe bụ abugida, nke a na-ejikarị ede Kikongo, nke a pụkwaara iji mee ihe maka Lingala. A na-eji edemede ahụ eme ihe na chọọchị nke Kimbangu dị ka edemede liturgical.

Edensibia[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. Meeuwis, Michael (2020). A Grammatical Overview of Lingala: Revised and extended edition. München: Lincom. p. 15. ISBN 9783969390047.
  2. Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.senemongaba, Auteur (August 20, 2017).
  3. Jouni Filip Maho, 2009.
  4. Harms (1981). River of wealth, river of sorrow: The central Zaire basin in the era of the slave and ivory trade, 1500-1891. Yale University Press. 
  5. Samarin (1989). The Black man's burden: African colonial labor on the Congo and Ubangi rivers, 1880-1900. Westview Press. 
  6. Meeuwis (2020). A Grammatical Overview of Lingala. Lincom. 
  7. Mumbanza (1971). Les Bangala et la première décennie du poste de Nouvelle-Anvers (1884-1894). Kinshasa: Université Lovanium. 
  8. Mbulamoko (1991). "Etat des recherches sur le lingala comme groupe linguistique autonome: Contribution aux études sur l'histoire et l'expansion du lingala". Annales Aequatoria 12: 377–406. 
  9. Burssens (1954). "The so-called "Bangala" and a few problems of art-historical and ethnographical order". Kongo-Overzee 20 (3): 221–236. 
  10. Samarin (1989). The Black man's burden: African colonial labor on the Congo and Ubangi rivers, 1880-1900. Westview Press. 
  11. Mumbanza (1995). "La dynamique sociale et l'épisode colonial: La formation de la société "Bangala" dans l'entre Zaïre-Ubangi". Revue Canadienne des Études Africaines 29: 351–374. 
  12. Meeuwis (2020). A grammatical overview of Lingala: Revised and extended edition. München: Lincom, 24–25. ISBN 9783969390047. 
  13. Meeuwis (2020). A Grammatical Overview of Lingala. München: Lincom. ISBN 9783969390047. 
  14. Meeuwis (2020). A grammatical overview of Lingala: Revised and extended edition. München: Lincom. ISBN 978-3-96939-004-7. 
  15. Edema (1994). Dictionnaire bangala-français-lingala. Paris: ACCT. 
  16. Lingala language. Retrieved on 6 May 2018.
  17. Bobangi language. Retrieved on 10 Oct 2018.
  18. Le grand Dzo : nouveau dictionnaire illustré lingala-français / Adolphe
  19. Lingala – Malóba ma lokóta/Dictionnaire
  20. Kazadi (1987). "Rapport Général". Linguistique et Sciences Humaines 27. 
  21. De Boeck (1952). Manuel de lingala tenant compte du langage parlé et du langage littéraire. Brussels: Schuet. 
  22. Bokamba (2004). Tósolola na Lingála: A multidimensional approach to the teaching and learning of Lingála as a foreign language. Madison: NALRC. 
  23. Akindipe. Learn Lingala (Months). Learn Lingala.

Ebe nweta[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Van Everbroeck, René C.I.C.M. (1985) Lingala Ma lokóta ma lokóta/Dictionnaire. [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] B.P. 724 LIMETE (Kinshasa).
  • Edama, Atibakwa Baboya (1994) Akwụkwọ ọkọwa okwu bangála na-asụ French. Ụlọ Ọrụ Na-ahụ Maka Ọdịbendị na Nkà na Ụzụ SÉPIA.
  • Etsio, Edouard (2003) Ka anyị kwuo okwu lingala / Tobola lingala. Paris: L'Harmattan.  ISBN 2-7475-3931-8
  • Bokamba, Eyamba George na Bokamba, Molingo Virginia. Tósolola Na Lingála: Ka anyị kwuo Lingala (Ka anyị kwuo usoro). National African Language Resource Center (May 30, 2005)
  • Guthrie, Malcolm & Carrington, John F. (1988) Lingala: ụtọ asụsụ na akwụkwọ ọkọwa okwu: English-Lingala, Lingala-English. London: Baptist Missionary Society.
  • Meeuwis, Michael (2020) 'Nchịkọta ụtọ asụsụ nke Lingala: Mbipụta e dezigharịrị ma gbasaa'. (Studies in African Linguistics Mpịakọta nke 81). München: LINCOM Europe.  ISBN 978-3-96939-004-7
  • Samarin, William J. (1990) 'The origins of Kituba and Lingala', Journal of African Languages and Linguistics, 12, 47-77.
  • Bwantsa-Kafungu, Ana m m m m amụta asụsụ Lingala n'onwe m n'ime ọnwa atọ'. Ebe nyocha nkuzi, Centre Linguistique Théorique et Appliquée, Kinshasa 1982.
  • Khabirov, Valeri. (1998) "Maloba ma nkota Russ-Lingala-Falanse. Russian-Lingala-French akwụkwọ ọkọwa okwu". Moscow: Institute of Linguistics-Russian Academy of Sciences (ndị so dee Muhina Л.M., Toporov IN), 384 p.
  • Weeks (Jan–Jun 1909). "Anthropological Notes on the Bangala of the Upper Congo River". Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 39: 97–136. DOI:10.2307/2843286. weeks1909. 

Njikọ mpụgara[dezie | dezie ebe o si]