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Mmefu ego carbon

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Carbon budget
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Mmefu ego carbon na ihe omume mbelata ikuku dị mkpa iji ruo ihe mgbaru ọsọ ogo abụọ e kwekọrịtara na nkwekọrịta Paris (na-enweghị ikuku ikuku na-adịghị mma, dabere na ikuku kachasị elu)[1]

Mmefu ego carbon bụ "ọnụ ọgụgụ kachasị elu nke ikuku carbon dioxide (CO2) nke sitere n'aka mmadụ zuru ụwa ọnụ nke ga-eme ka okpomọkụ ụwa dị na ọkwa a nyere ya na ohere, na-eburu n'uche mmetụta nke ndị ọzọ na-eme ka ihu igwe pụta".[2] Mgbe egosipụtara n'ihe gbasara oge tupu ụlọ ọrụ emebere ya, a na-akpọ ya mkpokọta mmefu ego carbon, ma mgbe egosipụtara ya site na ụbọchị akọwapụtara nso nso a, a na-akpọ ya mmefu ego carbon fọdụrụ.[2]

A na-akpọkwa mmefu ego carbon na idobe okpomoku n'okpuru oke a kapịrị ọnụ dị ka mmefu ego mgbapụta, oke mgbapụta, ma ọ bụ mgbapụta a na-anabata.[3][4][5], ma ọ bụ ikuku a kwadoro. A pụkwara ijikọta mmefu ego na ebumnuche maka mgbanwe ihu igwe ndị ọzọ metụtara ya, dị ka radiative forcing ma ọ bụ ịrị elu nke oke osimiri.[6]

Atụmatụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Mmefu ego carbon na nso nso a na nke fọdụrụ ugbu a[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ọtụtụ òtù na-enye mmelite kwa afọ na mmefu ego carbon fọdụrụnụ, gụnyere Global Carbon Project, Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change (MCC) na ọrụ CONSTRAIN.[7] Na Machị afọ 2022, tupu mbipụta nke 'Global Carbon Budget 2021', ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị kọrọ, dabere na data Carbon Monitor[8] (CM), na mgbe COVID-19-pandemic-caused record-level decreased na afọ 2020, mgbapụta CO2 zuru ụwa ọnụ rịrị elu site na 4.8% n'afọ 2021, na-egosi na n'ụzọ dị ugbu a, a ga-eji mmefu ego carbon maka ohere 2⁄3 maka igbochi okpomọkụ ruo 1.5 °C mee ihe n'ime afọ 9.5.[9][10]

Nkọwa mmefu ego nke ikuku
Ebumnuche maka nkezi

ịrị elu okpomọkụ ụwa

O yikarịrị ka ọ ga-abụ

nke ịnọ n'okpuru ebumnuche

Mmefu ego carbon

na Gt CO2

Oge dị iche iche Ebe e si nweta ya Ebe e si nweta ya Mgbanwe nwere ike ime n'ihi

ruo n'ókè nke ikuku na-abụghị CO2 na Gt CO2

2 °C 83% 900 2020-net efu Akụkọ nyocha nke isii nke IPCC[11] Tebụl 5.8 Atụmatụ mmefu ego carbon

nwere ike ịbụ 220 Gt CO2 elu ma ọ bụ ala dabere n'otú a na-esi belata ikuku na-abụghị CO2.

1.5 °C 83% 300 2020-net efu Akụkọ nyocha nke isii nke IPCC[11] Tebụl 5.8
2 °C 67% 1150 2020-net efu Akụkọ nyocha nke isii nke IPCC[11] Tebụl 5.8
1.5 °C 67% 400 2020-net efu Akụkọ nyocha nke isii nke IPCC[11] Tebụl 5.8
2 °C 50% 1350 2020-net efu Akụkọ nyocha nke isii nke IPCC[11] Tebụl 5.8
1.5 °C 50% 500 2020-net efu Akụkọ nyocha nke isii nke IPCC[11] Tebụl 5.8

1 GtC (carbon) = 3.66 GtCO2[11]

Iwepụ carbon dioxide[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Iji mee ka ikuku zuru ụwa ọnụ nọgide n'ime mmefu ego carbon, ikuku CO2 zuru ụwa ọnụ kwesịrị ịdaba na efu. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Sixth Assessment Report (AR6) na-eme ka ọ pụta ìhè na itinye usoro iwepụ carbon dioxide (CDR) bụ ihe a na-apụghị izere ezere ma ọ bụrụ na a ga-enweta ikuku CO2.[12] A na-achọ usoro CDR ndị a iji gbochie ikuku na-esiri ike iwepụ.[12] Ntụle IPCC gakwara n'ihu pụta ìhè na "ọnụ ọgụgụ na oge ntinye ga-adabere na nhụta nke mbelata oke ikuku na mpaghara dị iche iche".[12]

Mmefu ego nke mba[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ego mmefu carbon dị n'ọkwa zuru ụwa ọnụ. Iji sụgharịa atụmatụ mmefu ego carbon zuru ụwa ọnụ na ọkwa obodo, a ga-eme mkpebi ikpe gbasara otu esi ekesa mkpokọta na mmefu ego carbon nke fọdụrụ. N'iburu n'uche ọtụtụ ọdịiche dị n'etiti mba dị iche iche, gụnyere ma ọ bụghị nanị na ọnụ ọgụgụ mmadụ, ọkwa mmepụta ihe, akụkọ ihe mere eme nke mba, na ike mbelata, ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị agbalịwo ikenye mmefu ego carbon zuru ụwa ọnụ n'etiti mba na-eji usoro na-agbaso ụkpụrụ dị iche iche nke nha nhata.[13] Ikenye mmefu ego nke mba na-emepụta ikuku bụ ihe a pụrụ iji tụnyere ịkekọrịta mgbalị iji belata ikuku zuru ụwa ọnụ, nke ụfọdụ echiche nke ibu ọrụ steeti nke mgbanwe ihu igwe gosipụtara. Ọtụtụ ndị na-ede akwụkwọ emeela nyocha nke na-ekenye mmefu ego, na-emekarị n'otu oge na-edozi ọdịiche dị na GHG nke akụkọ ihe mere eme n'etiti mba.[5][14][15][16][17]

Hụkwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Ọrụ Carbon zuru ụwa ọnụ

Edensibịa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. Christiana Figueres. "Three years to safeguard our climate", Nature, 2017-06-29, pp. 593–595. Retrieved on 2022-05-01. (in en)
  2. 2.0 2.1 (2021) "Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change", Annex VII: Glossary. Cambridge University Press. 
  3. Meinshausen (April 2009). "Greenhouse-gas emission targets for limiting global warming to 2 °C". Nature 458 (7242): 1158–1162. DOI:10.1038/nature08017. PMID 19407799. 
  4. Matthews (1 January 2018). "Focus on cumulative emissions, global carbon budgets and the implications for climate mitigation targets". Environmental Research Letters 13 (1): 010201. DOI:10.1088/1748-9326/aa98c9. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 Raupach (21 September 2014). "Sharing a quota on cumulative carbon emissions". Nature Climate Change 4 (10): 873–879. DOI:10.1038/nclimate2384. 
  6. Clark (2018). "Sea-level commitment as a gauge for climate policy" (in en). Nature Climate Change 8 (8): 653–655. DOI:10.1038/s41558-018-0226-6. ISSN 1758-678X. 
  7. Remaining carbon budget - Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change (MCC). www.mcc-berlin.net. Retrieved on 27 April 2022.
  8. Carbon monitor. carbonmonitor.org. Retrieved on 19 April 2022.
  9. Friedlingstein (26 April 2022). "Global Carbon Budget 2021" (in English). Earth System Science Data 14 (4): 1917–2005. DOI:10.5194/essd-14-1917-2022. ISSN 1866-3508. 
  10. Liu (April 2022). "Monitoring global carbon emissions in 2021" (in en). Nature Reviews Earth & Environment 3 (4): 217–219. DOI:10.1038/s43017-022-00285-w. ISSN 2662-138X. PMID 35340723. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 (2021) "Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change", Global Carbon and other Biogeochemical Cycles and Feedbacks. Cambridge University Press. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2022). Climate Change 2022 - Mitigation of Climate Change, Summary for Policymakers. WMO/UNEP. 
  13. Ringius (2002). "Burden sharing and fairness principles in international climate policy". International Environmental Agreements 2 (1): 1–22. DOI:10.1023/a:1015041613785. 
  14. Baer (2009). "Greenhouse development rights: A proposal for a fair global climate treaty". Ethics Place and Environment 12 (3): 267–281. DOI:10.1080/13668790903195495. 
  15. Nabel (2011). "Decision support for international climate policy – The PRIMAP emission module" (in en). Environmental Modelling & Software 26 (12): 1419–1433. DOI:10.1016/j.envsoft.2011.08.004. 
  16. Matthews (7 September 2015). "Quantifying historical carbon and climate debts among nations". Nature Climate Change 6 (1): 60–64. DOI:10.1038/nclimate2774. 
  17. Anderson (2020-05-28). "A factor of two: how the mitigation plans of 'climate progressive' nations fall far short of Paris-compliant pathways". Climate Policy 20 (10): 1290–1304. DOI:10.1080/14693062.2020.1728209. ISSN 1469-3062. 

Njikọ mpụga[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • The CONSTRAIN Project Annual Report Nauels, Alex; Rosen, Debbie; Mauritsen, Thorsten; Maycock, Amanda; McKenna, Christine; Roegli, Joeri; Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich; Smith, Ela; Smith, Chris; Forster, Piers (2019). "ZERO IN ON na mmefu ego carbon fọdụrụ na ọnụego okpomọkụ nke afọ iri.The CONSTRAIN Project Annual Report 2019". University of Leeds. doi:10.5518/100/20. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires middlejournal= (help)