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Nleba anya nke satịlaịtị na ọkwa oke osimiri bilitere site na 1993 ruo 2021.

Ntụle ebili mmiri na-egosi na ịrị elu oke osimiri zuru ụwa ọnụ ugbu a malitere na mmalite narị afọ nke 20. N'agbata 1901 na 2018, oke oke osimiri zuru ụwa ọnụ bilitere site na 15–25 cm (6-10 na) . [1]mgwa mmutaziri ezi gbakọtara site na nha radar satịlaịtị na-ekpughe ịrị elu na-agbago nke 7.5 cm (3 na) site na 1993 ruo 2017, [2] : 1554 maka nkezi ọnụego nke  kwa afọ. Mmụba a na-abụkarị n'ihi mgbanwe ihu igwe, nke gụnyere ikpo ọkụ nke oke osimiri na agbaze nke mpempe akwụkwọ ice na glaciers nke dabere na ala. [3] N'agbata 1993 na 2018, mgbasawanye ọkụ nke mmiri nyere 42% aka elu oke osimiri; agbaze nke glaciers na -ekpo ọkụ, 21%; Greenland, 15%; na Antarctica, 8%. [2] : 1576 Ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị na-ahụ maka ihu igwe na-atụ anya ka ọnụego a ga-aga n'ihu n'ime narị afọ nke 21, yana nha ọhụrụ na-ekwu na ọkwa oke osimiri na-arị elu site na 3.6. mm kwa afọ.  : 62 [4]

Ịmepụta ọkwa oke osimiri n'ọdịnihu bụ ihe ịma aka, n'ihi mgbagwoju anya nke ọtụtụ akụkụ nke usoro ihu igwe na oge na-adaba na mmeghachi omume larịị oke osimiri na mgbanwe okpomọkụ ụwa. Ka nyocha ihu igwe n'ime ọkwa oke osimiri gara aga na nke ugbu a na-eduga n'ụdị kọmpụta ka mma, amụma na-abawanye ụba. N'afọ 2007, Òtù Na- ahụ Maka Mgbanwe Ihu Igwe (IPCC) kwadoro atụmatụ njedebe dị elu nke 60 . site na 2099, mana akụkọ 2014 ha welitere atụmatụ njedebe dị elu ruo ihe dị ka 90 cm (3 ft) . [5] Ọtụtụ nnyocha e mesịrị kwubiri na ọkwa oke osimiri zuru ụwa ọnụ na-arị elu nke 200–270 cm (6 ft 7 n'ime - 8 ft 10 na) narị afọ a "nwere ezi uche n'ụzọ anụ ahụ". [6] [2] Atụmatụ echedoro anya nke amụma ogologo oge bụ na ogo Celsius ọ bụla nke ịrị elu okpomọkụ na-ebute oke oke osimiri dị ihe dịka mit 2.3 (4.2). Ft/degree Fahrenheit ) n'ime oge nke puku afọ abụọ (afọ 2,000): ihe atụ nke inertia ihu igwe . [7] Na Febụwarị 2021, akwụkwọ e bipụtara na Ocean Science tụrụ aro na amụma gara aga maka oke oke osimiri zuru ụwa ọnụ site na 2100 nke IPCC kọrọ nwere ike bụrụ ihe nchekwa, na ọkwa oke osimiri ga-ebili karịa ka a tụrụ anya na mbụ. [8]

Ọkwa mmiri agaghị ebili n'otu ebe n'ụwa, ọ ga-adabakwa ntakịrị n'ebe ụfọdụ, dị ka Arctic . [9] Ihe ndị dị na mpaghara gụnyere mmetụta tectonic na mbelata nke ala, tides, iyi na oké ifufe. Ọkwa oke osimiri nwere ike imetụta ndị mmadụ na mpaghara oke osimiri na agwaetiti. A na-atụ anya idei mmiri zuru ebe niile site n'ọtụtụ ogo okpomọkụ na-adịgide ruo ọtụtụ puku afọ. Mmetụta ndị ọzọ bụ oke mmiri ozuzo na oke tsunami dị ize ndụ, nchụpụ nke ndị mmadụ, mfu na mmebi nke ala ugbo na mmebi n'ime obodo. [10] [11] A na-emetụtakwa gburugburu eke dị ka ihe ndị dị n'ime mmiri, ebe azụ, nnụnụ na osisi na-efunarị akụkụ nke ebe obibi ha. [12]

Ndị obodo nwere ike ime mgbanwe maka ịrị elu oke osimiri n'ụzọ atọ dị iche iche: mejuputa nlọghachi azụ jisiri ike, nabata mgbanwe n'ụsọ oké osimiri, ma ọ bụ chebe megide ịrị elu oke osimiri site na omume siri ike dị ka mgbidi mmiri ma ọ bụ ụzọ dị nro dị ka mmezigharị dune na nri n'akụkụ mmiri . Mgbe ụfọdụ atumatu mmeghari ndị a na-aga aka, mana n'oge ọzọ, a ga-eme nhọrọ n'etiti atụmatụ dị iche iche. [13] Maka ụfọdụ gburugburu ụmụ mmadụ, dị ka nke a na-akpọ obodo ndị na-emikpu mmiri, ime mgbanwe na ịrị elu oke osimiri nwere ike ịba ụba site na nsogbu gburugburu ebe obibi ndị ọzọ dị ka subsidence . Usoro ihe ndị e kere eke na-adaba n'oke oke osimiri site n'ịkwaga n'ime ala; agbanyeghị, ha nwere ike ọ gaghị enwe ike ime ya mgbe niile, n'ihi ihe mgbochi eke ma ọ bụ ihe mgbochi. [14]

Mgbanwe gara aga[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Mgbanwe na ọkwa oke osimiri kemgbe njedebe nke ihe omume glacial ikpeazụ

Ịghọta ọkwa oke osimiri gara aga dị mkpa maka nyocha nke mgbanwe ugbu a na n'ọdịnihu. N'oge na-adịbeghị anya geological gara aga, mgbanwe na ice ala na mgbasawanye okpomọkụ site na oke okpomọkụ bụ isi ihe kpatara ọkwa oke osimiri. Oge ikpeazụ Ụwa bụ 2 Celsius C (3.6 Celsius F) na-ekpo ọkụ karịa okpomọkụ tupu ụlọ ọrụ arụ ọrụ, ọkwa oke osimiri dị opekata mpe 5 m (16 Ft) dị elu karịa ugbu a: [15] nke a bụ mgbe okpomọkụ n'ihi mgbanwe nke ìhè anyanwụ n'ihi mgbanwe nwayọọ nwayọọ na gburugburu ụwa mere interglacial ikpeazụ. A kwadoro ikpo ọkụ ahụ n'ime ọtụtụ puku afọ na ịdị ukwuu nke ịrị elu nke oke osimiri na-egosi nnukwu onyinye sitere n'aka Antarctic na Greenland ice. [16] : 1139 Ọzọkwa, akụkọ sitere n'aka ụlọ ọrụ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research kwuru na ihe dị ka nde afọ atọ gara aga, ogo carbon dioxide dị n'ikuku ụwa yiri ọkwa nke taa bụ nke mụbara ogo Celsius abụọ ruo atọ ma gbazee otu ụzọ n'ụzọ atọ nke ice ice nke Antarctica. . Nke a mere ka oke osimiri na-arị elu 20 mita. [17]

Ebe ọ bụ na glacial ikpeazụ kacha ihe dị ka afọ 20,000 gara aga, oke osimiri arịgoro karịa 125 (410 ft), na ọnụego dịgasị iche site na ihe na-erughị otu mm / afọ ruo 40+ mm / afọ, n'ihi agbaze ice n'elu Canada na Eurasia. Mgbasa ngwa ngwa nke mpempe akwụkwọ akpụrụ akpụ butere ihe a na-akpọ ' melodwater pulses ', oge nke oke osimiri na-ebili ngwa ngwa. Ọnụego ịrị elu malitere iji nwayọọ ihe dị ka 8,200 afọ tupu ugbu a; oke osimiri fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ ihe na-adịgide adịgide n'ime afọ 2,500 gara aga, tupu omume ịrị elu na-adịbeghị anya nke malitere na njedebe nke narị afọ nke 19 ma ọ bụ ná mmalite nke 20th. [18]

Ntụ[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Eserese nke eriri na- ekenye oke nha nha nha oke osimiri kwa afọ ka ọ bụrụ agba dị iche iche, yana agba ọcha nke malitere na 1880 yana blues gbara ọchịchịrị na-egosi ịrị elu oke osimiri na-aga nke ọma. [19]
Sea surface height change from 1992 to 2019 – NASA
Ọhụụ ahụ dabere na data anakọtara site na satịlaịtị TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, Jason-2 na Jason-3. Mpaghara na-acha anụnụ anụnụ bụ ebe ọkwa oke osimiri gbadara, na mpaghara oroma/acha ọbara ọbara bụ ebe ọkwa oke osimiri gbagoro.

Enwere ike ịkpali mgbanwe ọkwa oke osimiri ma ọ bụ site na mgbanwe dị na oke mmiri dị n'oké osimiri, oke oke osimiri ma ọ bụ mgbanwe nke ala ma e jiri ya tụnyere oke osimiri. N'ime oge na-agbanwe agbanwe, ime nyocha nwere ike ibute ntinye aka na ịrị elu oke osimiri ma nye ihe ngosi mmalite nke mgbanwe na ọnọdụ. Ụdị onyunyo a nwere ike ịgwa atụmatụ mgbochi. [20] Usoro dị iche iche a na-eji tụọ mgbanwe na ọkwa oke osimiri anaghị atụle otu ọkwa. Ihe nlegharị anya mmiri nwere ike tụọ oke oke osimiri, ebe satịlaịtị nwekwara ike tụọ mgbanwe ọkwa oke osimiri zuru oke. [21] Iji nweta kpọmkwem nha n'ihi na oké osimiri larịị, na-eme nnyocha na-amụ ice na oké osimiri na ụwa anyị na-akpata na-aga n'ihu deformations nke siri ike Ụwa, akpan akpan n'ihi ala ala ka na-ebili site n'oge gara aga ice ọtụtụ retreating, na kwa Ụwa ike ndọda na adiana . [2]

Satellites[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Jason-1 gara n'ihu n'ihe nha elu oke osimiri malitere site na TOPEX/Poseidon. Ndị na-esochi ya bụ Mission Surface Topography Mission na Jason-2, yana Jason-3

Kemgbe mmalite nke TOPEX/Poseidon na 1992, usoro satịlaịtị altimetric na-aga n'ihu na-edekọ mgbanwe na ọkwa oke osimiri. [22] Satellites ndị ahụ nwere ike tụọ ugwu na ndagwurugwu dị n'oké osimiri nke mmiri ozuzo kpatara wee chọpụta ihe na-eme n'ịdị elu ha. Iji tụọ anya dị n'elu oké osimiri, satịlaịtị na-eziga pulse microwave n'elu oke osimiri wee dekọọ oge ọ na-ewe iji laghachi. Igwe redio igwe igwe na-edozi oge ọzọ nke ikuku mmiri na-ebute na ikuku . Ijikọta data ndị a na ebe a maara nke ọma nke ụgbọ elu ahụ na-eme ka o kwe omume ikpebi ịdị elu nke oke osimiri n'ime centimita ole na ole (ihe dị ka otu inch). [23] Ọnụego ọkwa oke osimiri dị ugbu a site na satịlaịtị altimetry ka echere na ọ dị  kwa afọ maka oge 1993-2017. [24] Nleta satịlaịtị ndị gara aga adịtụghị n'ihe nha nha tide . Obere mperi nhazigharị maka satịlaịtị Topex/Poseidon ka emechara ka amata na ọ kpatara ntakịrị ntakịrị oke oke oke osimiri 1992–2005, bụ nke mechiri na nha satịlaịtị nrịgo elu oke osimiri na-aga n'ihu bụ nke a na-ahụ anya na usoro nlegharị anya mmiri. [25]

Satellites bara uru maka ịlele mgbanwe mpaghara na ọkwa oke osimiri, dị ka mmụba dị ukwuu n'etiti 1993 na 2012 na ọdịda anyanwụ okpomọkụ Pacific. Nke a dị nkọ ịrị elu e jikọtara na-amụba azụmahịa ifufe, nke na-eme mgbe Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) na El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) gbanwere site n'otu steeti gaa na nke ọzọ. [26] PDO bụ usoro ihu igwe na-efe efe nke nwere akụkụ abụọ, nke ọ bụla na-adịru afọ 10 ruo 30, ebe ENSO nwere obere oge nke afọ 2 ruo 7. [27]

Ihe nlele mmiri[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

N'agbata afọ 1993 na 2018, oke oke osimiri arịgoro n'ọtụtụ oke osimiri (agba anụnụ anụnụ). [28]

Isi ihe ọzọ dị mkpa a na-eme nleba anya n'ọkwa mmiri bụ netwọk zuru ụwa ọnụ nke nlele mmiri . E jiri ya tụnyere ihe ndekọ satịlaịtị, ndekọ a nwere nnukwu oghere oghere mana ọ na-ekpuchi ogologo oge. [29] Mkpuchi nlele mmiri malitere na Northern Hemisphere, yana data maka South Hemisphere ka dị ụkọ ruo 1970s. [29] A na-edekọ nha ọkwa oke osimiri kachasị ogologo na-agba ọsọ, NAP ma ọ bụ Amsterdam Ordnance Datum guzobere na 1675, na Amsterdam, Netherlands . [30] N'Australia nchịkọta ndekọ ọnụ ọgụgụ buru ibu nke ukwuu, gụnyere nha nke onye na-amụ banyere meteorologist malitere na 1837 na nha ndị e nwetara site na akara nrịgo oke osimiri dara n'obere ugwu dị na Isle of the Dead nke dị nso na Port Arthur ikpe ikpe na 1841. [31]

Ejiri netwọkụ a, yana data satịlaịtị altimeter, iji gosi na oke oke osimiri pụtara n'ụwa niile  n'etiti 1870 na 2004 na nkezi ọnụego nke ihe dịka 1.44 mm/afọ (1.7 mm / yr n'ime narị afọ nke 20). [32] Data nke Commonwealth Sayensị na Nnyocha nyocha ụlọ ọrụ (CSIRO) na-achịkọta na Australia na-egosi usoro ọkwa oke oke osimiri zuru ụwa ọnụ ugbu a ga-adị.  kwa afọ, ọnụ ọgụgụ nke okpukpu abụọ n'ime narị afọ nke 20. [33] [34] Nke a bụ nkwenye dị mkpa nke simulations mgbanwe ihu igwe nke buru amụma na ịrị elu oke osimiri ga-eme ngwa ngwa na nzaghachi mgbanwe ihu igwe.

Ụfọdụ ndịiche mpaghara na-ahụkwa na data nlele tide. Ụfọdụ n'ime ndịiche mpaghara edekọtara bụ n'ihi ọdịiche dị na oke oke osimiri, ebe ndị ọzọ bụ n'ihi mmegharị ala kwụ ọtọ. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, na Europe, a na-ahụ mgbanwe dị ukwuu n'ihi na mpaghara ụfọdụ na-arị elu ebe ndị ọzọ na-emikpu. Kemgbe 1970, ọtụtụ ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri atụlewo oke osimiri dị elu, mana ọkwa oke osimiri n'akụkụ oke osimiri Baltic agbadala n'ihi nlọghachi azụ glacial . [35]

Ntụnye[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ụwa tụfuru tonnes 28 nke ice n'etiti 1994 na 2017, yana ice gbazere agbaze (akwụkwọ ice na glaciers) na-ebuli ọkwa oke osimiri zuru ụwa ọnụ site na 34.6 ± 3.1 mm. [36] Ọnụego mfu ice agbagoro site na 57% kemgbe 1990 - site na 0.8 ruo 1.2 trillion tonne kwa afọ. [36]

Isi ihe atọ kpatara ikpo ọkụ na-eme ka ọkwa oke osimiri zuru ụwa ọnụ na-ebili bụ: oke osimiri na- agbasawanye, mpempe akwụkwọ ice na-efunahụ ice ngwa ngwa karịa ka ọ na-etolite site na snow, na glaciers na elu elu na-agbazekwa. Ọkwa mmiri na-ebili kemgbe mmalite narị afọ nke 20 bụ mgbagha nke glaciers na mgbasawanye nke oke osimiri, mana a na-atụ anya na onyinye nke nnukwu ice abụọ (Greenland na Antarctica) ga-abawanye na narị afọ nke 21st. [3] Ibé akwụkwọ ice na-echekwa ọtụtụ ice nke ala (~99.5%), yana oke oke osimiri (SLE) nke 7.4 m (24 ft 3 na) maka Greenland na 58.3 nkem (191 ft 3 na) maka Antarctica. [2]

Kwa afọ banyere  nke ọdịda (mmiri ihe nhata) na-ada n'elu ice na Antarctica na Greenland, nke ka ukwuu dị ka snow, nke na-agbakọta na oge na-etolite glacial ice. Ọtụtụ n'ime mmiri ozuzo a malitere ka uzu mmiri na-esi n'elu oké osimiri pụta. Ụfọdụ n'ime snow na-ekupụ site na ifufe ma ọ bụ na-apụ na mpempe ice site na agbaze ma ọ bụ site na sublimation (na-agbanwe ozugbo ghọọ vepo mmiri). Ndị fọdụrụ nke snow ji nwayọọ nwayọọ ghọọ ice. Akpụrụ akpụrụ akpụ nwere ike na-erute n'akụkụ mpempe akwụkwọ ice wee laghachi n'oké osimiri site na agbaze na nsọtụ ma ọ bụ n'ụdị iceberg . Ọ bụrụ na mmiri ozuzo, usoro elu na mfu ice na nsọtụ na -edozi ibe ha, oke osimiri na-anọgide otu. Otú ọ dị, ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị achọpụtala na ice na-efunahụ ya, na n'ike n'ike. [37] [38]

Oke ikpo ọkụ[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

 

Ọdịnaya okpomọkụ nke oke osimiri (OHC) n'etiti 1957 na 2017, NOAA

A na-echekwa ọtụtụ n'ime okpomọkụ agbakwunyere na usoro ihu igwe nke ụwa site na mgbanwe ihu igwe n'ime oke osimiri. Ha na-echekwa ihe karịrị 90% nke oke okpomọkụ ma na-eme ihe dị ka ihe nchebe megide mmetụta nke mgbanwe ihu igwe . Okpomọkụ dị mkpa iji bulie nkezi okpomọkụ mmụba nke oke osimiri ụwa dum site na 0.01 Celsius C ga-eme ka ọnọdụ ikuku dị ihe dịka 10 Celsius C. [39] Ya mere, obere mgbanwe na okpomọkụ nke oke osimiri na-anọchi anya mgbanwe dị ukwuu na mkpokọta okpomọkụ nke usoro ihu igwe.

Mgbe oké osimiri na-enweta okpomọkụ, mmiri na-agbasawanye na oke osimiri na-ebili. Ọnụ ọgụgụ nke mgbasawanye dịgasị iche na ma mmiri okpomọkụ na nrụgide. Maka ogo ọ bụla, mmiri ọkụ na mmiri dị n'okpuru nnukwu nrụgide (n'ihi omimi) gbasaa karịa mmiri oyi na mmiri n'okpuru obere nrụgide. [16] : 1161 Nke a pụtara na mmiri dị n'oké osimiri Arctic oyi ga-agbasa obere ma e jiri ya tụnyere mmiri ọkụ na-ekpo ọkụ. N'ihi na ụdị ihu igwe dị iche iche nwere ubé dị iche iche nke ikpo ọkụ oké osimiri, ha ekwetaghị n'ụzọ zuru ezu na amụma onyinye nke oké osimiri kpo oku na oké osimiri larịị ịrị elu. [40] Ikuku na ikuku na-ebuga okpomọkụ n'ime akụkụ ndị dị omimi nke oke osimiri, ụfọdụ n'ime ya na-erukwa omimi karịa 2,000 . . [41]

N'ịtụle mmụba na nkezi okpomọkụ zuru ụwa ọnụ nke 2 Celsius C n'elu ulọ ọrụ mbụ ọkwa, na-adịghị na-atụle ndị nwere ike inye onyinye si ice-ibé usoro na mmachi nkwekọrịta (obere obi ike) n'etiti ime ihe ngosi obibia, ihe gbasara nke puru omume nke gafere 0,5 m ịrị elu nke oké osimiri n'ụwa nile (0.7 m n'akụkụ CONUS oke osimiri) site 2100 bụ. ihe dịka 50% Na 3 °-5 Celsius C nke ikpo ọkụ n'okpuru okporo ụzọ ikuku dị elu, ihe gbasara nke puru omume na-ebili na> 80% ruo> 99%. [42]

Antarctica[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Na-eme n'akụkụ ebe nchekwa ice Antarctic

Nnukwu oke ice dị na kọntinenti Antarctic na-echekwa ihe dịka 70% nke mmiri dị ọcha n'ụwa. [43] A na-emetụta nguzozi nke mpempe akwụkwọ ice nke Antarctic site na mmụkọ nke snow, na mwepu nke ice n'akụkụ mpụta. N'okpuru mmetụta nke okpomoku zuru ụwa ọnụ, agbaze na isi nke mpempe akwụkwọ ice na-abawanye. N'otu oge ahụ, ike ikuku na-ebu mmiri ozuzo na-abawanye na okpomọkụ nke mere na mmiri ozuzo, n'ụdị snow, na-abawanye na ụdị ụwa na mpaghara. Mmụba nke snow na-eme ka mmiri na-asọba nke mpempe akwụkwọ akpụrụ akpụ n'ime oke osimiri, nke mere na a na-akwụ ụgwọ nke oke uru n'ihi ọdịda snow. [44] Mmiri mmiri ozuzo mụbara n'ime narị afọ abụọ gara aga, ma ọ dịghị mmụba a hụrụ n'ime ime Antarctica n'ime iri afọ anọ gara aga. [45] Dabere na mgbanwe nke oke oke mmiri nke Antarctica n'ime ọtụtụ nde afọ, n'ihi mgbanwe ihu igwe sitere n'okike, ndị nchọpụta kwubiri na ice dị n'oké osimiri na-eme ihe mgbochi maka mmiri ọkụ gbara kọntinent ahụ gburugburu. N'ihi ya, mfu nke ice dị n'oké osimiri bụ isi ihe kpatara enweghị ntụkwasị obi nke mpempe akwụkwọ ice dum. [45]

Nke Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica kasị ukwuu, dị ihe dị ka nha France na ihe ruru ọtụtụ narị mita.

Ụzọ dị iche iche nke satịlaịtị maka ịlele oke ice na mgbanwe dị na nkwekọrịta dị mma, na ijikọta ụzọ na-eduga n'inwekwu obi ike banyere ọwụwa anyanwụ Antarctic Ice Sheet,ọdịda anyanwụ Antarctic Ice Sheet, na Antarctic Peninsula si malite. [46] Nnyocha nyocha nke usoro 2018 mere atụmatụ na mfu ice n'ofe kọntinent niile bụ 43 gigatons (Gt) kwa afọ na nkezi n'ime oge site na 1992 ruo 2002, mana ọ gbagoro na nkezi nke 220 Gt kwa afọ n'ime afọ ise site na 2012 ruo 2017. [47] Ọtụtụ n'ime agbaze na-abịa site ọdịda anyanwụ Antarctic mpempe akwụkwọ ice, mana Antarctic Peninsula na ọwụwa anyanwụ Antarctic mpempe akwụkwọ ice na-enyekwa aka. Ekwuru na ịrị elu oke osimiri n'ihi Antarctica bụ 0.25 mm kwa afọ site na 1993 ruo 2005, na 0.42 mm kwa afọ site na 2005 ruo 2015. Ihe ndekọ data niile n'ozuzu na-egosi mmụba nke nnukwu mfu site na mpempe akwụkwọ ice Antarctic, mana enwere mgbanwe dị iche iche kwa afọ. [2]

Nnyocha emere na Mee 2021 tụrụ amụma na ịmachi okpomoku zuru ụwa ọnụ ka ọ bụrụ 1.5 Celsius C ga-ebelata onyinye ice maka oke oke osimiri site na 2100 site na 25 cm ruo 13 cm (site na 10 ruo 6 in.) ma e jiri ya tụnyere nkwa mbelata nke ugbu a, ya na glaciers na-ahụ maka enyemaka na-ebili ọkara nke oke osimiri. [48] Ejighi n'aka anụ ahụ nke onyinye Antarctic dị ịrịba ama karịa ejighị n'aka n'ihi nhọrọ nke ụzọ nkwụsịtụ. [48]

ọwụwa anyanwụ Antarctica[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ebe kachasị n'ụwa nwere ike ibute ọkwa oke osimiri bụ akwụkwọ Ice Antarcticọ , nke na-ejide ice zuru oke iji bulie ọkwa oke osimiri zuru ụwa ọnụ site na 53.3 . . [49] N'akụkọ ihe mere eme, a na-ahụta mpempe akwụkwọ ice dị ka ọ kwụsiri ike ma ya mere ọ dọtaghị uche na nleba anya sayensị dị ntakịrị ma e jiri ya tụnyere ọdịda anyanwụ Antarctica. [45] Nchikota nlebanya satịlaịtị banyere mgbanwe olu ya, mgbaba na mma ndọda ya na imepụta nguzozi n'elu ya na-egosi nguzozi n'ozuzu oke nke ọwụwa anyanwụ Antarctic mpempe akwụkwọ ice bụ ihe kwụ ọtọ ma ọ bụ dịtụ mma maka ọtụtụ oge 1992-2017. [47] Nnyocha 2019, Otú ọ dị, site na iji usoro dị iche iche, kwubiri na ọwụwa anyanwụ Antarctica na-atụfu nnukwu ice. Onye ọkà mmụta sayensị bụ Eric Rignot gwara CNN: "A na-agbaze n'akụkụ Antarctica kachasị mfe ... akụkụ nke na-ejide ikike nke ọtụtụ mita nke oke osimiri na-ebili na narị afọ ma ọ bụ abụọ na-abịa." [45]

Ụzọ na-ekweta na Totten Glacier atụfuola ice n'ime iri afọ ndị na-adịbeghị anya n'ihi nzaghachi okpomọkụ nke oké osimiri [50] [51] na ikekwe mbelata nke mkpuchi mmiri dị n'oké osimiri. [52] Totten Glacier bụ isi mmalite nke Aurora Subglacial Basin, nnukwu mmiri mmiri ice na East Antarctica nke nwere ike ịlaghachi ngwa ngwa n'ihi usoro mmiri mmiri. [53] Oke oke osimiri zuru ụwa ọnụ nwere ike nke 3.5 m (11 ft 6 na) na-agafe na Totten Glacier naanị nwere oke nha na ntinye aka niile nwere ike ịbụ nke ọdịda anyanwụ Antarctic mpempe akwụkwọ ice [54] Isi mmiri mmiri mmiri ọzọ dị na ọwụwa anyanwụ Antarctica nke nwere ike ịlaghachi ngwa ngwa bụ Wilkes Basin nke nwere nsogbu enweghị ike idebe mmiri mmiri . [53] Enwere ike kwụọ ụgwọ mfu ice sitere na glaciers ndị a site na uru m nwetara n'akụkụ ndị ọzọ nke Antarctica. [47]

ọdịda anyanwụ Antarctica[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ihe ngosi eserese nke ka mmiri na-ekpo ọkụ, na ụkọ mmiri Ice Ice Sheet na usoro enweghị ike nke mmiri mmiri na-emetụta ọdịda anyanwụ Mpempe akwụkwọ ice Antarctic.

Ọ bụ ezie na ọwụwa anyanwụ Antarctica nwere nnukwu isi iyi nke ịrị elu oke osimiri, ọ bụ ọdịda anyanwụ Antarctica na-enwe ugbu a oke mmiri nke ice, na-eme ka ọkwa oke osimiri na-ebili. Iji satịlaịtị dị iche iche sitere na 1992 ruo 2017 na-egosi agbaze na-abawanye nke ukwuu n'oge a. Antarctica n'ozuzu akpatawo ngụkọta nke  nke oké osimiri larịị ịrị elu. N'ịtụle nha nha anya nke ọwụwa anyanwụ Antarctic Ice Sheet bụ nke kwụtụrụ aka, ihe kacha nyere aka bụ West Antarctica. [47] Mmụba dị ịrịba ama nke glaciers na-apụ apụ na ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri Amundsen nwere ike iso na mmụba a. [55] N'adịghị ka ọwụwa anyanwụ Antarctica na Antarctic Peninsula, okpomọkụ dị na West Antarctica abawanyela nke ukwuu site na usoro n'etiti 0.08 Celsius C (0.14 Celsius F) kwa afọ na 0.96 Celsius C (1.73 Celsius F) kwa afọ n'etiti 1976 na 2012. [56]

Ọtụtụ ụdị enweghị ntụkwasị obi na-egwu na ọdịda anyanwụ Antarctica. Otu bụ enweghị mmiri Ice Sheet Sheet, ebe akwa akwa nke akụkụ nke mpempe akwụkwọ ice na-ezu ike dị omimi n'ime ala. [57] Nke a pụtara na mgbe akụkụ nke mpempe akwụkwọ ice na-agbaze, akụkụ dị arọ nke mpempe akwụkwọ ice na-ekpughere n'oké osimiri, nke nwere ike iduga n'ikuku ice ọzọ. Nke abuo, agbaze nke ice shelves, na-ese n'elu mmiri ndọtị nke ice mpempe akwụkwọ, na-eduga na usoro aha ya bụ mmiri ugwu ugwu akwusighi ike . N'ihi na ha na-arụ ọrụ dị ka buttress na mpempe akwụkwọ ice, mgbaze ha na-eduga n'ọsọ mmiri ọzọ (lee animation otu nkeji n'ime vidiyo). A na-agbaze nke shelf ice ngwa ngwa mgbe agbaze n'elu na-emepụta crevasses na ihe ndị a na-akpata mgbaji. [58]

Achọpụtala na glaciers Thwaites na Pine Island nwere ike ịdị na usoro ndị a, ebe ọ bụ na ebe ugwu abụọ nke glaciers na- erute n'ime ime obodo, na-ekpughere ha na ntinye mmiri ọkụ karịa n'ime mpaghara ala . [59] Na-aga n'ihu na-agbaze na ịlaghachi azụ ha na-enye aka n'ịkwalite ọkwa oke osimiri zuru ụwa ọnụ. [60] [61] Dị ka Ted Scambos si kwuo, onye ọkà mmụta glaciologist na Mahadum Colorado Boulder na onye ndu nke International Thwaites Glacier Collaboration, "Ọ bụrụ na Thwaites ga-ada, ọ ga-adọkpụrụ ọtụtụ ice nke West Antarctica na ya. Ya mere, ọ dị oke mkpa iji nweta nkọwa doro anya ka glacier ga-esi akpa àgwà n'ime 100 afọ na-abịa." [62] N'ajụjụ ọnụ 2021 na Washington Post sitere na ọdụ McMurdo, Scambos gbakwụnyere, "Ihe na-agbanwe ngwa ngwa ebe a. Ọ dị egwu." [63]

Mgbaze nke glacier abụọ a abawanyela ngwa ngwa na mmalite narị afọ nke 21st. Ọ nwere ike imebi mpempe akwụkwọ ice nke West Antarctic dum. Agbanyeghị, usoro a agaghị agwụ agwụ na narị afọ a. [64] Ọtụtụ n'ime akwa akwa dị n'okpuru mpempe akwụkwọ ice Antarctic dị n'okpuru oke osimiri. [53] Ndakpọ ngwa ngwa nke Akwụkwọ Ice nkeọdịda anyanwụ Antarctic nwere ike ibuli ọkwa oke osimiri site na 3.3 m (10 ft 10 na) . [65] [66]

Greenland[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Greenland 2007 gbazee, tụrụ dị ka ọdịiche dị n'etiti ọnụọgụ ụbọchị nke agbaze mere na 2007 ma e jiri ya tụnyere nkezi ụbọchị agbaze kwa afọ site na 1988 ruo 2006 [67]

Ọtụtụ ice na Greenland bụ akụkụ nke mpempe akwụkwọ ice nke Greenland bụ 3 km (10,000 ft) na oke ya. Akpụrụ mmiri ndị ọzọ dị na Greenland bụ akụkụ nke glaciers dịpụrụ adịpụ na mkpuchi ice. Isi mmalite ndị na-enye aka na ịrị elu oke osimiri sitere na Greenland sitere na mpempe akwụkwọ na-agbaze (pasent 70) yana site na glacier calving (30%). Uzuzu, soot, na ụmụ nje na algae na-ebi n'akụkụ akụkụ nke ice na-eme ka mgbaze na-agbaze site na ime ka elu ya gbaa ọchịchịrị wee si otú ahụ na-amịkọrọ ọkụ ọkụ ; mpaghara ndị a tolitere site na 12% n'etiti 2000 na 2012, ma nwee ike gbasaa n'ihu. [68] Nkezi mfu ice kwa afọ na Greenland karịrị okpukpu abụọ na mmalite narị afọ nke 21 ma e jiri ya tụnyere narị afọ nke 20. [69] Ụfọdụ nnukwu glacier nke Greenland, dị ka Jakobshavn Isbræ na Kangerlussuaq Glacier, na-asọba ngwa ngwa n'oké osimiri. [70] [71]

Otu nnyocha e bipụtara na 2017 kwubiri na glaciers mpụta Greenland na ice ice gafere ebe a na-apụghị ịgbagha agbagha gburugburu 1997, na ọ ga-anọgide na-agbaze. [72] [73] Mpempe ice nke Greenland na glaciers ya na mkpuchi ice bụ ihe kacha enye aka na oke oke osimiri na-ebili site na isi mmalite ice (ewezuga mgbasawanye ọkụ), jikọtara ọnụ maka pasent 71, ma ọ bụ 1.32 mm kwa afọ n'ime oge 2012-2016. [74] [75]

Nnyocha e bipụtara na 2020 mere atụmatụ na akwụkwọ akụkọ Greenland tụfuru ngụkọta nke 3,902 gigatons (Gt) nke ice n'etiti 1992 na 2018, kwekọrọ na ntinye aka na ịrị elu oke osimiri nke 10.8 mm. Ọkwa oke osimiri n'ihi mpempe akwụkwọ ice nke Greenland abawanyela ka oge na-aga, na-ebili site na 0.07. mm kwa afọ n'etiti 1992 na 1997 ruo 0.68 mm kwa afọ n'etiti 2012 na 2017. [76]

Atụmatụ maka ntinye aka n'ọdịniihu maka ọkwa oke osimiri sitere na Greenland sitere na 0.3 to 3 m (1 ruo 10 ft), maka afọ 2100. [68] Na njedebe nke narị afọ, ọ nwere ike inye 2-10 centimita kwa afọ. [77] Ntinye aka nke mpempe akwụkwọ ice nke Greenland na ọkwa oke osimiri n'ime narị afọ ole na ole sochirinụ nwere ike ịdị oke elu n'ihi usoro ịgbake onwe ya (nke a na-akpọ nzaghachi dị mma ). Mgbe oge mbụ nke agbaze, ịdị elu nke mpempe akwụkwọ ice ga-agbada. Ka ikuku ikuku na-abawanye nso n'elu oke osimiri, ọtụtụ agbaze na-amalite ime. Enwere ike ịgbaze nke a ngwa ngwa n'ihi na agba ice na-agba ọchịchịrị ka ọ na-agbaze. Enwere ọnụ ụzọ na-ekpo ọkụ n'elu karịa nke agbaze nke mpempe akwụkwọ ice nke Greenland na-apụta ma ọ bụ nso nso. [78] Nchọpụta dị iche iche etinyela uru ọnụ ụzọ a dị ka 1 Celsius C (2 °F), na 4 Celsius C (7 Celsius F), karịa okpomọkụ tupu ụlọ ọrụ arụ ọrụ. [79] [16] : 1170 Nyocha 2021 nke sedimenti sub-glacial na ala nke 1.4 km Greenland ice isi na-achọpụta na akwụkwọ ice ice gbazere ma ọ dịkarịa ala otu ugboro n'ime afọ nde gara aga, ya mere na-atụ aro na njedebe ya dị n'okpuru 2.5. °C kacha mma njem nlegharị anya okpomọkụ n'ime oge ahụ. [80] [81]

Igwe mmiri[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

  Ihe na-erughị 1% nke ice glacier dị na glaciers ugwu, ma e jiri ya tụnyere 99% na Greenland na Antarctica. N'agbanyeghị nke ahụ, glaciers ugwu enyela aka nke ọma na ịrị elu oke osimiri nke akụkọ ihe mere eme ma na-atụnye ụtụ dị nta, mana ọ ka nwere obere akụkụ dị ukwuu nke ịrị elu oke osimiri na narị afọ 21st. [82] Ihe dị ka glaciers 200,000 dị n'ụwa na-agbasa na kọntinent niile. [83] Igwe glacier dị iche iche na-emeghachi omume n'ụzọ dị iche na oke okpomọkụ. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, glaciers ndagwurugwu nke nwere mkpọda na-emighị emi na-alaghachi n'okpuru okpomoku dị nro. Igwe glacier ọ bụla nwere ịdị elu n'elu nke enwere uru net na oke na n'okpuru nke glacier na-efunahụ oke. Ọ bụrụ na ịdị elu ahụ gbanwere ntakịrị, nke a nwere nnukwu nsonaazụ maka glaciers nwere mkpọda na-emighị emi. [84] : 345 Ọtụtụ glaciers na-asọba n'oké osimiri na mfu akpụrụ akpụ nwere ike ịbawanye mgbe oke oke osimiri na-abawanye. [83]

Nnyocha nleba anya na nlegharị anya nke oke ọnwụ sitere na glaciers na okpu ice na -egosi ntinye aka na ịrị elu oke osimiri nke 0.2-0.4 mm kwa afọ, nkezi ihe karịrị narị afọ nke 20. N'ime narị afọ nke 21st, a na-atụ anya na nke a ga-ebili, na glaciers na-atụnye ụtụ  na ọkwa oke osimiri zuru ụwa ọnụ. [16] : 1165 Glaciers nyere ihe dị ka 40% na ịrị elu oke osimiri n'ime narị afọ nke 20, yana atụmatụ maka narị afọ nke 21 nke gburugburu 30%. [2]

Mmiri mmiri[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Akpụrụ mmiri mmiri na-agbaze na-atụnye ụtụ dịtụ ịrị elu oke osimiri zuru ụwa ọnụ. Ọ bụrụ na mmiri gbazere site na ice na-ese n'elu oké osimiri bụ kpọmkwem otu ihe ahụ dị ka mmiri mmiri, mgbe ahụ, dị ka ụkpụrụ Archimedes si dị, ọ dịghị ịrị elu agaghị eme. Otú ọ dị agbaze oké osimiri ice nwere obere etisasịwo nnu karịa oké osimiri mmiri na bụ ya mere obere ok : N'ikwu ya n'ụzọ ọzọ ọ bụ ezie na agbazere oké osimiri ice arọ otu ihe ahụ dị ka oké osimiri mmiri ọ na displacing mgbe ọ bụ ice, ya olu ka dịtụ ukwuu. Ọ bụrụ na ihe niile na-ese n'elu ice shelf na iceberg ga-agbazekwa oke osimiri ga-ebili naanị ihe dị ka  . [85]

Nchekwa mmiri nke ala[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Usoro na nchekwa mmiri nke ala site na nlele GRACE na gigatons kwa afọ, Eprel 2002 ruo Nọvemba 2014 (a na-ewepụ glaciers na ice sheet).

Ndị mmadụ na-emetụta oke mmiri na-echekwa n'ala. Ịrụ ihe mgbochi mmiri na-egbochi nnukwu mmiri ịbanye n'oké osimiri, ya mere na-abawanye nchekwa mmiri n'elu ala. N'aka nke ọzọ, ụmụ mmadụ na-amịpụta mmiri na ọdọ mmiri, ala mmiri na ọdọ mmiri n'okpuru ala maka mmepụta nri na -eduga n'oké osimiri. Ọzọkwa, usoro mmiri mmiri na -emetụta mgbanwe ihu igwe na igbutu osisi, nke nwere ike iduga n'ihu na ntinye dị mma na nke na-adịghị mma na ịrị elu oke osimiri. Na narị afọ nke 20, usoro ndị a dabara nke ọma, mana iwu mgbochi mmiri agbadala ma na-atụ anya na ọ ga-adị ala maka narị afọ nke 21st. [86] [16] : 1155 

Atụmatụ[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Mwughari ọkwa oke osimiri akụkọ ihe mere eme na ntule ruo 2100 nke e bipụtara na 2017 site na Mmemme Nchọpụta Mgbanwe Ọchịchị Ụwa maka Ntụle Climate Mba nke anọ. [87] RCP 2.6 bụ ọnọdụ ebe ikuku ikuku na-arị elu tupu 2020, RCP4.5 bụ ebe ha na-arị elu gburugburu 2040, yana RCP8.5 bụ ebe ha na-abawanye.
Atụmatụ ọkwa oke osimiri dị iche iche na-ebili maka narị afọ nke 21st

Enwere ụzọ abụọ n'ụzọ sara mbara nke ịmegharị ọkwa oke oke osimiri yana ime amụma n'ọdịnihu. N'otu ụzọ ahụ, ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị na-eji usoro nhazi usoro, ebe usoro anụ ahụ niile dị mkpa na nke a ghọtara nke ọma gụnyere n'ụdị anụ ahụ zuru ụwa ọnụ. A na-eji ụdị mpempe akwụkwọ ice iji gbakọọ onyinye nke mpempe akwụkwọ ice na a na-eji usoro mgbasa ozi n'ozuzu iji gbakọọ oke okpomọkụ nke oke osimiri na mgbasawanye ya. Mwepu nke usoro a bụ na ọ bụghị usoro niile dị mkpa nwere ike ịghọta na ọkwa zuru oke, ma ọ nwere ike ịkọ amụma ndị na-abụghị nke linearities na ogologo oge na nzaghachi nke ọmụmụ ihe n'oge gara aga ga-atụfu.

N'ụzọ nke ọzọ, ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị na-eji usoro ihe omimi nke na-eji data geoloji mee ihe n'oge gara aga iji chọpụta azịza ọkwa oke osimiri na ụwa na-ekpo ọkụ na mgbakwunye na ụfọdụ nhazi anụ ahụ. [3] Ụdị ọkwa oke osimiri ndị a nwere obere ihe na-adabere na usoro mgbakọ na mwepụ, na-eji mmekọrịta dị n'etiti hụrụ n'oge gara aga (atụnye aka) ọkwa oke osimiri zuru ụwa ọnụ yana okpomọkụ zuru ụwa ọnụ. [88] Ụdị ihe nlere anya nke a bụ nke ọtụtụ ụdị anụ ahụ kpaliri na nyocha akwụkwọ gara aga site na Ndị otu gọọmentị etiti na mgbanwe ihu igwe (IPCC) ebe ha ledara ọnụ ọgụgụ ịrị elu oke osimiri anya ma e jiri ya tụnyere nyocha nke narị afọ nke 20. [16]

Atụmatụ maka narị afọ nke 21st[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

N'ime akụkọ nlele anya nke ise ya (2013) Ndị otu gọọmentị etiti na mgbanwe ihu igwe (IPCC) mere atụmatụ ole ọkwa oke osimiri nwere ike ịrị elu na narị afọ nke iri abụọ na otu dabere na ọkwa dị iche iche nke ikuku ikuku griin haus. Atụmatụ ndị a gbadoro ụkwụ na ihe ndị a ma ama nke na-enye aka na ịrị elu oke osimiri, mana ewepu usoro ndị ọzọ na-aghọtachaghị nke ọma. Ọ bụrụ na mba na-eme ngwa ngwa na-ebelata ikuku ikuku (ọnọdụ RCP 2.6), IPCC chere na ọ ga-abụ na ọkwa oke osimiri ga-ebili.  na oge ntụkwasị obi 67%. Ọ bụrụ na ikuku na-adị elu nke ukwuu, ọrụ IPCC ga-ebuli elu n'oké osimiri  . [16] N'August 2020 ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị kọrọ na hụrụ mfu mpempe akwụkwọ ice na Greenland na Antarctica na-eso ọnọdụ ọnọdụ kacha njọ nke amụma ịrị elu oke osimiri nke IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. [89] [90] [91] [92]

Kemgbe e bipụtara ntule 2013 IPCC, a na-agba mbọ itinyekwu usoro anụ ahụ yana imepụta ụdị nwere ike iji data paleoclimate na-ebuli elu oke osimiri. Nke a na-ebutekarị atụmatụ ịrị elu oke osimiri. [58] [53] [93] Dịka ọmụmaatụ, ọmụmụ 2016 nke Jim Hansen duziri kwubiri na dabere na data mgbanwe ihu igwe gara aga, ịrị elu oke osimiri nwere ike ịbawanye ngwa ngwa n'ime iri afọ ndị na-abịanụ, yana oge okpukpu abụọ nke afọ 10, 20 ma ọ bụ 40, n'otu n'otu, na-ebuli oké osimiri site na ọtụtụ mita. n'ime afọ 50, 100 ma ọ bụ 200. [93] Otú ọ dị, Greg Holland sitere na Ụlọ ọrụ mba maka nyocha ikuku, bụ onye nyochara ọmụmụ ihe ahụ, kwuru, sị: "Obi abụọ adịghị ya na oke oke osimiri na-ebili, n'ime IPCC, bụ ọnụ ọgụgụ na-adịghị agbanwe agbanwe, ya mere eziokwu dị n'etiti IPCC na Jim . " [94]

Na mgbakwunye, otu ihe atụ nke ọmụmụ 2017, na-eche na iji mmanụ ọkụ dị elu maka mgba ọkụ na uto akụ na ụba siri ike n'ime narị afọ a, na-arụ ọrụ ọkwa oke osimiri ruru 132 . na nkezi - na ihe dị oke egwu na ihe dị ukwuu  , site na 2100. Nke a nwere ike ịpụta ọsọsọ ọkwa oke osimiri ruru  kwa afọ site na njedebe nke narị afọ. Ọmụmụ ihe ahụ kwubiri na nkwekọrịta ikuku ihu igwe nke Paris, ọ bụrụ na ezute ya, ga-ebute ihe dị n'etiti.  nke oke osimiri na-ebili site na 2100. [95] [96]

Dị ka nke anọ (2017) Ntụle ihu igwe nke mba (NCA) nke United States si kwuo, o yikarịrị ka oke osimiri ga-ebili n'etiti 30 na 130. cm (1.0–4.3 ụkwụ) na 2100 ma e jiri ya tụnyere afọ 2000. ịrị elu 2.4 m (ụkwụ 8) ga-ekwe omume n'anụ ahụ n'okpuru ọnọdụ ikuku dị elu mana ndị ode akwụkwọ enweghị ike ikwu etu ọ ga-esi. Ihe omume a kachasị njọ nwere ike ịbịa naanị site na nnukwu onyinye sitere na Antarctica; mpaghara siri ike ịṅomi. [7]

Enwere ike ịdaba akwụkwọ ice nke West-Antarctic na ịrị elu oke oke mmiri na-esote azụ na 1970s. [58] Dịka ọmụmaatụ, Mercer bipụtara otu ọmụmụ na 1978 na-ebu amụma na okpomọkụ nke carbon dioxide anthropogenic na mmetụta ọ nwere na ihu igwe na narị afọ nke 21 nwere ike ime ka elu mmiri dị gburugburu 5 . site na agbaze nke mpempe ice nke West Antarctic naanị. [97] [58]

N'afọ 2019, otu ọmụmụ buru amụma na n'ọnọdụ dị ala, ọkwa oke osimiri ga-ebili 30 centimeters site na 2050 na 69 centimeters site na 2100, dabere na ọkwa ahụ na 2000. N'ọnọdụ dị elu, ọ ga-abụ 34 cm site na 2050 na 111 cm site na 2100. Enwere ike na ịrị elu ga-agafe mita 2 site na 2100 n'ọnọdụ dị elu nke ikuku ikuku, nke ga-ebute mgbapụ nke nde mmadụ 187. Oke oke osimiri nke a na-atụ anya maka 2050 ga-ebute mmụba siri ike na ugboro nke idei mmiri n'ụsọ oké osimiri (ihe omume idei mmiri anọ "na-agafeghị oke" kwa afọ na US, dị ka akụkọ NOAA na-adịbeghị anya), n'agbanyeghị enweghị oke mmiri ozuzo na / ma ọ bụ oke mmiri ozuzo. [98] [99] [100]

Na Septemba 2019 Ndị otu gọọmentị etiti na- ahụ maka mgbanwe ihu igwe bipụtara akụkọ gbasara mmetụta mgbanwe ihu igwe na oke osimiri gụnyere ịrị elu oke osimiri. Isi echiche dị na akụkọ ahụ dị ka otu n'ime ndị odee ya bụ Michael Oppenheimer si kwuo bụ na ọ bụrụ na ụmụ mmadụ ga-ebelata oke ikuku gas na Greenhouse n'ime iri afọ ndị na-abịanụ, nsogbu ahụ ga-esi ike mana enwere ike ijikwa ya. Ọ bụrụ na ịrị elu nke ikuku ga-aga n'ihu, nsogbu ga-abụ nke enweghị ike ịchịkwa. [101]

N'ọnwa Febụwarị 2021, ndị nyocha si Denmark na Norway tụrụ aro na amụma gara aga maka oke oke osimiri zuru ụwa ọnụ site na 2100 nke IPCC kwuru nwere ike bụrụ ihe nchekwa, na ọkwa oke osimiri ga-ebili karịa ka a tụrụ anya na mbụ. [8]

Dịka akụkọ nyocha nke isii IPCC si dị na nhụta ikuku dị obere, ka ọ na-erule 2100 ọkwa oke osimiri ga-ebili site na 28–55 centimita, n'ọnọdụ etiti site na 44–76 centimita yana n'ọnọdụ ikuku dị elu site na 63–101 centimeters. Agaghị ewepụ ịrị elu ihe dịka mita abụọ n'ọnọdụ dị oke elu.

Ogologo oke osimiri dị ogologo oge[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

 

Map nke Ụwa nwere ogologo oge6 mita (20 ft) ịrị elu oke osimiri na-anọchi anya na-acha uhie uhie (nkesa uwe, ezigbo oke oke osimiri ga-adịgasị iche na mpaghara na usoro mmegharị mpaghara ga-enwekwa mmetụta na ọkwa oke osimiri).

Enwere nkwenye zuru oke n'etiti ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị ihu igwe na ịrị elu oke osimiri na-adaba nke ọma n'azụ mmụba okpomọkụ nke na-akpalite ya, na nnukwu ịrị elu oke osimiri ogologo oge ga-aga n'ihu ruo ọtụtụ narị afọ na-abịa ọbụna ma ọ bụrụ na okpomọkụ ahụ kwụsie ike. [102] Modelsdị nwere ike imepụtaghachi ndekọ paleo nke oke oke osimiri, nke na-enye ntụkwasị obi na ngwa ha maka mgbanwe ogologo oge n'ọdịnihu. [16] : 1189 

Ma akwụkwọ ice nke Greenland na Antarctica nwere ntụzịaka maka ọkwa ikpo ọkụ nke enwere ike iru tupu njedebe nke narị afọ 21st. Ịgafe ebe nrịbama dị otú ahụ ga-apụta na mgbanwe mpempe akwụkwọ akpụrụ akpụ nwere ike ọ gaghị agbanwe: mbelata na okpomọkụ tupu ụlọ ọrụ nwere ike ọ gaghị eme ka mpempe akwụkwọ ice guzosie ike ozugbo ebe a gafechara. [103] Ịkọwa kpọmkwem mgbanwe okpomọkụ nke ebe a na-agafe ebe a ka na-arụrịta ụka. Maka Greenland, atụmatụ dị n'etiti 1 na 4 Celsius C (2 ruo 7 °F) n'elu tupu ụlọ ọrụ. [103] [16] As of 2020 , ala nke ụkpụrụ ndị a agafeworị. Nyocha 2021 nke sedimenti sub-glacial na ala nke 1.4 km Greenland ice isi na-achọpụta na akwụkwọ ice ice gbazere ma ọ dịkarịa ala otu ugboro n'ime afọ nde gara aga, ya mere na-atụ aro na njedebe ya dị n'okpuru 2.5. °C kacha mma njem nlegharị anya okpomọkụ n'ime oge ahụ. [80] [81]

Agbaze nke mpempe akwụkwọ ice nke Greenland nwere ike itinye mgbakwunye  n'ime ọtụtụ puku afọ. Nnyocha ọmụmụ 2013 mere atụmatụ na ogo ọ bụla nke ịrị elu okpomọkụ na-atụgharị gaa na 2.3 m (7 ft 7 na) ntinye aka na oke oke osimiri n'ime afọ 2,000 na-esote. [104] Nnyocha ndị na-adịbeghị anya, karịsịa n'ime Antarctica, na-egosi na nke a nwere ike ịbụ atụmatụ mgbanwe na ezi ịrị elu oké osimiri ogologo oge nwere ike ịdị elu. [7] Na-ekpo ọkụ gafere 2 Celsius C (3.6 °F) ebumnuche nwere ike bute ọnụego ịrị elu oke osimiri nke mfu ice sitere na Antarctica na-achịkwa. Ịga n'ihu na ikuku carbon dioxide sitere na isi mmalite mmanụ ọkụ nwere ike ime ka iri puku mita ịrị elu nke oke osimiri, n'ime puku afọ ndị na-esote, mmanụ ọkụ dị n'ụwa zuru ezu iji mechaa gbazee akwụkwọ ice Antarctic dum, na-akpata ihe dị ka 58 . nke oke oke osimiri. [105] Mgbe afọ 500 gachara, ọkwa oke osimiri na-ebili site na mgbasawanye ọkụ naanị nwere ike rutela naanị ọkara nke ọkwa ikpeazụ ya, nke ụdị na-atụ aro nwere ike ịdị n'ime oke.  . [106]

Dị ka IPCC Sixth Assessment Report si kwuo na afọ 2,000 na-esote oke osimiri ga-ebili site na 2-3 mita ma ọ bụrụ na ịrị elu okpomọkụ ga-arị elu na 1.5 degrees, site na 2-6 mita ma ọ bụrụ na ọ ga-arị elu na 2 degrees na site 19-22 mita. ọ bụrụ na ọ ga-arị elu na 5 degrees.  : SPM-28 Ọ bụrụ na ịrị elu okpomọkụ ga-akwụsị na 2 degrees ma ọ bụ na 5 degrees, oké osimiri ga-anọgide na-ebili ihe dị ka 10,000 afọ. N'okwu nke mbụ ọ ga-eru mita 8-13 n'elu ọkwa ụlọ ọrụ na nke abụọ 28-37 mita. [107]

Site na mpaghara[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

  Ọkwa oke osimiri abụghị otu gburugburu ụwa. Ụfọdụ oke ala na-arị elu ma ọ bụ gbadaa n'ihi nrịanrịa (ala imi ma ọ bụ na-edozi) ma ọ bụ nkwụghachi azụ nke glacial (ala na-ebili n'ihi mfu nke ice mgbe agbazechara), nke mere na ịrị elu oke osimiri nke mpaghara nwere ike ịdị elu. ma ọ bụ dị ala karịa nkezi zuru ụwa ọnụ. Enwere ọbụna mpaghara dị nso na glaciers ugbu a na nke bụbu glaciers na ice ebe ọkwa oke osimiri na-ada. Ọzọkwa, mmetụta ndọda nke ngbanwe oke ice na ụdị dị iche iche nke ikpo ọkụ na-eduga n'iche dị na nkesa mmiri oke osimiri gburugburu ụwa. [108] [16] Mmetụta ike ndọda na-abata mgbe nnukwu mpempe akwụkwọ ice gbazere. Site na mfu nke oke, ndọda ndọda na-ebelata ma ọkwa mmiri mpaghara nwere ike ịdaba. N'ebe dịpụrụ adịpụ na mpempe akwụkwọ ice, ọkwa mmiri ga-abawanye karịa nkezi. N'ime ọkụ a, agbaze na Greenland nwere akara mkpisiaka dị iche na oke osimiri mpaghara karịa agbaze na Antarctica. [21]

A na-ewu ọtụtụ ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri, ọgbakọ ndị mepere emepe, na mpaghara ọrụ ugbo n'osimiri mmiri, ebe oke ala na-enye aka na ịrị elu ọkwa oke osimiri . Ihe kpatara nke a bụ ma mmịpụta mmiri nke ala na-adịghị adịgide adịgide (n'ebe ụfọdụ kwa site na mmịpụta mmanụ na gas), yana site na levees na usoro nlekọta idei mmiri ndị ọzọ na-egbochi nchịkọta nke sedimenti site na ịkwụ ụgwọ maka nhazi nke ala dị n'elu ala. Ngụkọta nkwado mmadụ kpatara na Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt delta (Netherland) ka e mere atụmatụ na 3–4 m (10–13 ft), karịa 3 m (10 ft) n'ime obodo mepere emepe nke Mississippi River Delta ( New Orleans ), na karịa 9 m (30 ft) na Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta . N'aka nke ọzọ, nkwụghachi azụ isostatic nke glacial na-eme ka ọkwa oke osimiri daa gburugburu Hudson Bay na Canada na ugwu Baltic . [109]

Atlantic ga-ekpo ọkụ n'ọsọ ọsọ karịa Pacific. Nke a nwere nsonaazụ maka Europe na US East Coast, nke natara ọkwa oke osimiri 3-4 ugboro nkezi ụwa. [110] Mbelata nke mgbasagharị meridional nke Atlantic (AMOC) ejikọtawokwa na oke oke oke osimiri dị na mpaghara na US Northeast Coast. [111]

Mmetụta[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

ịrị elu oke osimiri dị ugbu a na n'ọdịniihu ga-enwe mmetụta dị iche iche, ọkachasị n'usoro oke osimiri . Mmetụta dị otú ahụ gụnyere ụbara mbuze n'ụsọ oké osimiri, oke idei mmiri nke oke mmiri ozuzo, mgbochi nke usoro mmepụta nke mbụ, oke mmiri ozuzo nke ukwuu, mgbanwe n'ịdị mma mmiri na àgwà mmiri dị n'ime ala, ụbara ihe onwunwe na ebe obibi dị n'ụsọ oké osimiri, ụbara idei mmiri ize ndụ na ọnwụ nke ndụ. mfu nke akụ na ụkpụrụ omenala na-abụghị nke ego, mmetụta na ọrụ ugbo na aquaculture site na ọdịda nke ala na mmiri, na ọnwụ nke njem nlegharị anya, ntụrụndụ, na ọrụ njem.  : 356 Ọtụtụ n'ime mmetụta ndị a na-emebi. N'ihi nnukwu ụdị dị iche iche nke gburugburu osimiri; ndịiche mpaghara na mpaghara dị n'ọkwa oke osimiri a tụrụ atụ na mgbanwe ihu igwe; na ndịiche dị na nkwụghachi na ikike ime mgbanwe nke gburugburu ebe obibi, mpaghara, na mba, mmetụta ga-agbanwe nke ukwuu na oge na ohere. Osimiri delta dị n'Africa na Eshia na obere agwaetiti na-enwekarị nsogbu maka ịrị elu oke osimiri. [112]

Na mgbakwunye na ịrị elu oke osimiri, mmetụta ndị ọzọ nke mgbanwe ihu igwe nke nwere ike imetụta mmetụta dị n'ahụ mmadụ. A na-eme ka idei mmiri dị n'ụsọ oké osimiri dịkwuo ngwa site na igbutu osisi na mgbanwe ma ọ bụ oke ọnọdụ ihu igwe. Mpaghara ndị nwerelarị ngwa ngwa n'oke oke oke osimiri na-agbakwa mbọ maka idei mmiri dị n'ụsọ mmiri na-ekpochapụ ala ma na-agbanwe ọdịdị ala. [113] Ndị mmadụ na mpaghara ndị a na-agbasi mbọ ike n'ihi mmetụta ndị a dị iche iche nke mgbanwe ihu igwe. Mgbanwe ihu igwe na-emetụta oke mmiri ozuzo na-emekwa ka iju mmiri dị n'ụsọ oké osimiri dịkwuo ukwuu. Ịgbasa nsogbu idei mmiri na mpaghara, obodo, ma ọ bụ obodo na-enwe ga-adabere na mbọ nke mba ọ metụtara. Na-enweghị nnukwu mbọ, mpaghara ndị a dị n'ụsọ oké osimiri nwere ike na-emebi emebi ma si otú a na-emetụta oke na mmetụta nke obodo.

N'ụwa niile, ọtụtụ iri nde mmadụ ga-ebipụ n'ime iri afọ ikpeazụ nke narị afọ ma ọ bụrụ na e meghị ka ikuku ikuku na-ekpo ọkụ belata nke ukwuu. Ọtụtụ ebe ndị dị n'ụsọ oké osimiri nwere ọnụ ọgụgụ buru ibu nke ndị mmadụ, nke na-eme ka ọtụtụ ndị mmadụ nọrọ n'ihe ize ndụ site na ịrị elu oke osimiri. Oké osimiri na-arị elu na-ebute ma ihe ize ndụ kpọmkwem: ụlọ ndị na-enweghị nchebe nwere ike iju mmiri, na egwu na-apụtaghị ìhè nke oké ifufe dị elu, mbufịt mbufịt na mmiri eze . Eshia nwere ọnụ ọgụgụ kasị ukwuu n'ihe ize ndụ site na ọkwa oke osimiri yana mba ndị dị ka Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia na Vietnam nwere ebe ndị mmadụ bi na ya. [114] Mmetụta nke nchụpụ na-adabere nnọọ n'otú gọọmentị ga-esi eme nke ọma n'imejuputa ihe nchebe megide oke osimiri na-ebili, na-enwe nchegbu maka mba ndị kasị daa ogbenye dị ka mba ndị dị n'okpuru Sahara na mba ndị dị n'àgwàetiti. [115]

Nnyocha e mere n'afọ 2019 chọpụtara na ọnụọgụ ndị mmadụ metụtara site na oke oke osimiri n'ime narị afọ nke 21 ji okpukpu atọ karịa nke e chere na mbụ. N'afọ 2050, nde 150 ga-anọ n'okpuru mmiri n'oge oke mmiri na nde 300 ga-ebi na mpaghara nwere idei mmiri kwa afọ. Ka ọ na-erule n'afọ 2100, ọnụọgụ ndị ahụ na-adịgasị iche dabere n'ọnọdụ dị n'ikuku ikuku. N'ọnọdụ dị ala, nde 140 ga-anọ n'okpuru mmiri n'oge oke oke mmiri na nde 280 ga-enwe idei mmiri kwa afọ. N'ọnọdụ dị elu, ọnụọgụ ahụ ruru nde 540 na nde 640 n'otu n'otu. Pasent iri asaa n'ime ha si na mba asatọ dị n'Eshia: China, Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Thailand, Vietnam, Japan, Philippines . [116] [117]

Ntụleghachi nke 2020 nke akwụkwọ 33 chọpụtara na "ọtụtụ atụmatụ zuru ụwa ọnụ bụ n'usoro nke iri iri ma ọ bụ narị nde mmadụ ekpughere na oke mmiri ozuzo na idei mmiri dị n'ụsọ mmiri maka oge dị iche iche na ọnọdụ dị iche iche" n'ihi ịrị elu oke osimiri. [118]

Mpaghara dị n'akụkụ osimiri[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Oke idei mmiri na Miami n'oge oke mmiri eze (October 17, 2016). Ihe ize ndụ nke idei mmiri tidal na-abawanye na oke oke osimiri.

N'ihi ọtụtụ ihe, ọkwa oke osimiri na-arị elu n'ike n'ike, nke na-etinye nnukwu ihe egwu na gburugburu mmadụ, ma ugbu a ma n'ọdịnihu. Ọ bụ ezie na nke a bụ usoro dị nwayọọ ma na-aga n'ihu, mmetụta ya na-adịte aka n'ụwa, karịsịa na mpaghara ndị dị n'ụsọ oké osimiri, na-etinye ihe egwu dị egwu. N'afọ ndị na-adịbeghị anya, ụfọdụ mpaghara dị n'ụsọ oké osimiri enweelarị ike ịnagide mmetụta ndị a kwakọbara n'ime ogologo oge mgbanwe. Ebe ndị a na-enwe mmetụta maka ịrị elu oke osimiri, mgbanwe n'ogo na ike nke oke mmiri ozuzo, oke mmiri ozuzo, na oke okpomọkụ nke oke osimiri. Pasent iri nke ndị bi n'ụwa bi na mpaghara oke osimiri na-erughị 10 metres (33 ft) n'elu oke osimiri. Ọzọkwa, ụzọ abụọ n'ụzọ atọ nke obodo ndị dị n'ụwa nwere ihe karịrị nde mmadụ ise dị n'ebe ndị a dị ala dị n'ụsọ oké osimiri. [119] Na mkpokọta, ihe dị ka nde mmadụ 600 bi kpọmkwem n'ụsọ oké osimiri gburugburu ụwa. [120] N'iji nyocha laser dịpụrụ adịpụ nke a na-akpọ LiDAR iji tụọ elu elu n'elu ụwa, ndị nchọpụta chọpụtara na n'afọ 2021 nde mmadụ 267 n'ụwa nile bi n'elu ala na-erughị mita 2 n'elu ọkwa oké osimiri yana na nrịgo elu nke mita 1 n'oké osimiri na ọnụ ọgụgụ efu efu. ọnụ ọgụgụ ahụ nwere ike ịbawanye ruo nde mmadụ 410. [121] [122]

Uru ndị bi n'akụkụ osimiri nwere bụ na ha ga-eji teknụzụ nwee akụkụ ndị ọzọ nke obodo ma ọ bụ mpaghara ha nwere ike ịkwaga ma ọ bụ kwaga na ya. Ọzọkwa, echiche dị na mba ndị a bụ na ha nwere ike nweta enyemaka site n'aka gọọmentị ma ọ bụ ọha na eze. Ihe ịma aka ndị mmadụ nọ ná mba ndị dị ala bụ na ha aghaghị iwepụ ndụ ha na omenala ha nile iji kwaga n'ebe ndị dị nchebe karị. Ndị mmadụ na-esi n'ụsọ oké osimiri ga-enwekwa mmetụta na-efunahụ ihe ha ji ebi ndụ ma nwee ike bụrụ nnukwu nsogbu na mpaghara ma ọ bụ obodo ndị ha bịara ibi. [123] Ọzọkwa, ma gọọmenti mbụ ha ma ọ bụ mba ndị na-anata ihe nwere ike ghara inwe ma ọ bụ gbochie ihe onwunwe iji nyere ndị a na-akwaga n'ihu igwe aka, nke na-eme ka ọkwa ịda ogbenye ha dịkwuo elu.

Mmetụta dị ugbu a[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ejikọtakwa oke osimiri na-arị elu na nnukwu ihe egwu sitere na mbufịt mbufịt, nwere ike imetụta obodo ndị dị n'ụsọ oké osimiri dị na Pacific na Atlantic Ocean . [10]

Otu n'ime ebe dị ize ndụ bụ Venice nke nwere nnukwu idei mmiri . Obodo a dị n'àgwàetiti ndị dị na delta nke osimiri Po na Piave . Oke oke osimiri na-ebute mmụba nke ugboro na oke idei mmiri n'obodo ahụ nke mefuola ihe karịrị ijeri $6 na usoro mgbochi ide mmiri. [124] [125] N'otu aka ahụ, Florida, nke dị oke ngwa ngwa maka mgbanwe ihu igwe, na-enwe oke mbibi idei mmiri yana idei mmiri eze . [126]

Oke oke osimiri na-emetụtakwa mmepụta nri n'akụkụ oke osimiri. N'ihi idei mmiri na ntinye mmiri nnu n'ime ala, salinity nke ala ubi dị nso na oké osimiri na-abawanye, na-ebute nsogbu maka ihe ọkụkụ na-adịghị eguzogide nnu. Ọzọkwa, ntinye nnu n'ime mmiri mmiri mmiri ọhụrụ na-ebute nsogbu nke abụọ maka ihe ọkụkụ a na-agba mmiri. Ụdị dị iche iche nke ihe ọkụkụ na-eguzogide nnu emepụtara ọhụrụ dị ọnụ ahịa ugbu a karịa ihe ọkụkụ ndị a ga-edochi anya. [127] Iju mmiri nnu na-emetụta ala ubi dị na Delta Nile, [128] na enwekwara nnu karịa na ala na mmiri ogbugba mmiri na Red River Delta na Mekong Delta na Vietnam. [127] A na-emetụta Bangladesh na China n'otu aka ahụ, karịsịa osikapa ha na-emepụta. [129]

Mmetụta n'ọdịnihu[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Isi obodo egwu n'ihi oke oke osimiri. Obodo ndị egosipụtara nọ n'ihe egwu nke ọbụna obere ịrị elu oke osimiri (nke 1.6 ụkwụ / 49 cm) ma e jiri ya tụnyere ọkwa dị na 2010. Ọbụlagodi amụma ndị na-agafeghị oke na-egosi na ịrị elu dị otú ahụ ga-abụ n'afọ 2060. [130] [131]

Ọdịnihu nke oke osimiri n'ọdịniihu nwere ike ibute nnukwu nsogbu maka obodo ndị dabere n'ikpere mmiri na narị afọ ndị na-esote: dịka ọmụmaatụ, a ga-emetụta ọtụtụ nde mmadụ na obodo ndị dị ka Miami, Rio de Janeiro, Osaka na Shanghai ma ọ bụrụ na-agbaso usoro nke ugbu a nke 3. Celsius C (5.4 °F). [11] Obodo Alexandria nke Ijipt chere ọnọdụ yiri ya ihu, ebe ọtụtụ narị puku mmadụ bi na mpaghara ndị dị ala nwere ike ibugarịrị n'ime afọ iri na-abịanụ. [128] Otú ọ dị, ntakịrị mmụba n'ókè oké osimiri nwere ike ịkwụsị mgbe obodo dị iche iche na-eme mgbanwe site n'ịrụ mgbidi oké osimiri ma ọ bụ site n'ịkwagharị. [132]

Ndị na-abụghị ndị na-eche echiche nke ọma Resources for the Future na -akọwa Miami dị ka "isi obodo dị n'ụsọ oké osimiri nke kachasị emerụ ahụ" na mmebi metụtara oke idei mmiri na oke osimiri. [133] Oké ifufe ga-abụ otu n'ime ọdachi ndị dị mkpa nke oke oke osimiri na-ebute n'ọdịniihu nke nwere ike ịkpata nnukwu ọnwụ nke ndụ na ihe onwunwe na mpaghara ụwa dị n'ụsọ oké osimiri. A na-emetụta oke mmiri ozuzo n'afọ ndị na-adịbeghị anya site na mmụba nke oke osimiri, bụ nke mụbara ugboro ugboro na ike. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, otu n'ime mpaghara ndị kacha emetụta bụ New York City, ebe nyocha ọmụmụ na-egosi na mmetụta nke oke oke osimiri na mpaghara New York ga-ebelata site na idei mmiri 100 afọ ruo 19-68 afọ site na 2050 na 40-60. afọ 2080. [134]

Mba agwaetiti[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Atolls, àgwàetiti ndị dị ala na ebe ndị dị n'ụsọ oké osimiri dị n'àgwàetiti dị nnọọ mfe maka oke oke osimiri. Mmetụta nwere ike ime gụnyere mbuze nke oke osimiri, idei mmiri na ntinye nnu n'ime ala na mmiri dị ọcha. Ọ dịghị nke dị mfe karịa mba ndị nwere obere agwaetiti, ọkachasị ndị nwere ọnụ ọgụgụ mmadụ na atolls. Atolls na nkezi na-eru ụkwụ atọ ma ọ bụ isii karịa ọkwa oke osimiri. [135] Ụdị àgwàetiti a bụ ọkwa ikpeazụ n'ime akụkọ ihe mere eme nke geologic nke agwaetiti sitere na mgbawa ugwu (agwaetiti niile nke mgbawa ugwu na-aghọkarị atoll, n'ikpeazụ). N'ihi mgbanwe ihu igwe na-eme ka ọ̀tụ̀tụ̀ mmiri dị elu na-arị elu, usoro nhazi nke atoll agbasala ngwa ngwa. Ebe ọ bụ na atolls bụ àgwàetiti ndị dị ala, mmiri na-ebili ma ọ bụ oké ifufe na-ekpuchi ha na mmiri na-adị mfe. Atolls dị oké mkpa n'ihi na ha bụ ebe obibi nke ọtụtụ omenala na mba ndị nwere ikike. Dị ka mmiri oké osimiri na-ekpuchi n'ike n'ike, mmiri nnu nwere ike ịbata n'ime mmiri ọñụñụ wee mebie gburugburu ebe obibi nke ndị mmadụ na-eji na-adị ndụ. [136] Oke oke osimiri nwere ike imebi njem nlegharị anya na akụ na ụba obodo; ịrị elu oke osimiri nke 1.0 m (3 ft 3 na) ga-eme ka mgbụsị akwụkwọ 29% zuru oke ma ọ bụ zuru oke nke ogige ntụrụndụ dị na Caribbean . 49 – 60% nke ebe ntụrụndụ dị n'ụsọ osimiri ga-anọ n'ihe ize ndụ site na mbuze nke dị n'ụsọ osimiri. [137] Ọ na-esiri ike ịchọpụta oke mbuze na idei mmiri gara aga kpatara mgbanwe ọkwa oke osimiri, ma e jiri ya tụnyere ihe omume gburugburu ebe obibi ndị ọzọ dị ka ajọ ifufe. Ime mgbanwe na ịrị elu oke osimiri na-efu ọnụ maka mba ndị dị nta n'agwaetiti dị ka akụkụ buru ibu nke ndị bi na ha bi na mpaghara ndị nwere nsogbu. [138]

Ọtụtụ nde mmadụ nọ na mba ndị a ma ọ bụ mba ndị nwere ọtụtụ agwaetiti nwere nnukwu nsogbu n'oke oke osimiri na-arị elu. Ụfọdụ mba na mpaghara ga-emikpu, nke ga-eme ka ndị mmadụ bi n'ebe ahụ mgba mgba, ime mgbanwe, ma ọ bụ ịkwaga ebe ọzọ. Mba ndị mepere emepe nwere ike ịhụ nnukwu ebili mmiri nke ndị gbara ọsọ ndụ na-abịarute n'ihi mfu nke ụlọ ndị gbara ọsọ ndụ ma si otú ahụ nwee nsogbu nchekwa. [139] Ọ bụ ezie na ndị bi n’àgwàetiti ndị dị n’ụwa nile bụ ndị na-eme mgbanwe nke ukwuu, ha adaberewokwa nnọọ n’ihe onwunwe ha na-enweta n’àgwàetiti ha. Ọ bụ ezie na ọ nwere ike ịdị ka oke osimiri bara ụba ma nwee ike inye ihe niile, ha na-abụkarịkwa ebe siri ike nke ga-eme nke ọma. Ihe na-adọrọ mmasị bụ ka oke oke osimiri ga-esi metụta ụmụaka nọ n'obodo ndị a. Ịbụ nwata na-enweghị nkwụsi ike n'ụlọ na obodo ha nwere ike ịmepụta nsogbu dị iche iche na mmepe ha. Ugbua, ụmụaka nọ na steeti ndị dị n'agwaetiti dị iche iche na-enwe nsogbu ịnweta nri na mmiri, nchụpụ, na nsogbu uche na mmekọrịta ọha na eze na-akpata site na nrụgide ndị a. [140]

Maldives, Tuvalu, na mba ndị ọzọ dị ala bụ otu n'ime ebe ndị nọ n'ọkwa kachasị elu. N'ọnụego dị ugbu a, ọkwa oke osimiri ga-adị elu nke ga-eme ka Maldives ghara ibi na 2100. [141] [142] Ihe omume geomorphological dị ka oké ifufe na-enwekarị mmetụta dị ukwuu n'àgwàetiti mmiri karịa oke oke osimiri, dịka ọmụmaatụ n'otu n'ime Marshall Islands . Mmetụta ndị a na-agụnye mbuze ozugbo na usoro mmụgharị na-esote nke nwere ike ịdịgasị iche n'ogologo site na iri afọ ruo ọtụtụ narị afọ, ọbụna na-ebute mpaghara ala karịa ụkpụrụ tupu oké ifufe. Site na ịrị elu a na-atụ anya na ọ na-abawanye na oke oke mmiri ozuzo, ha nwere ike ịba uru karịa n'ịchọpụta ọdịdị na nha agwaetiti karịa ịrị elu oke osimiri. [143] Ngoli elu oke osimiri na-emetụta mba agwaetiti Fiji. [144] Ise n'ime Solomon Islands apụọla n'anya n'ihi ngwakọta nke ịrị elu oke oke osimiri na ifufe azụmahịa siri ike nke na-ebugharị mmiri na Western Pacific . [145]

N'ihe banyere àgwàetiti niile nke mba agwaetiti na-aghọ nke a na-agaghị ebi ebi ma ọ bụ bụrụ nke oké osimiri na-emikpu kpamkpam, steeti ndị ahụ n'onwe ha ga-agbazekwa. Ozugbo nke a mere, a ga-ewepụ ikike niile dị na mpaghara (oké osimiri). Mpaghara a nwere ike ịdị mkpa dịka ikike gbatịpụrụ na radius nke 415 kilometres (224 nautical miles) gburugburu steeti agwaetiti ahụ dum. Akụ ọ bụla, dị ka mmanụ fosil, mineral na ọla, dị n'ime mpaghara a nwere ike gwupụta onye ọ bụla wee ree ya n'enweghị mkpa ịkwụ ụgwọ ọrụ ọ bụla na steeti agwaetiti (nke gbazere ugbu a).

Usoro gburugburu[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Bramble Cay melomys Melomys rubicola . Na 2016 kwupụtara na ọ ga-apụ n'anya na Bramble Cay, ebe ọ nọworo na-efe efe, ma eleghị anya ọ ga-apụkwa n'ụwa nile, na ọnwụ ebe obibi n'ihi oke oke osimiri bụ ihe kpatara ya.

Usoro gburugburu ebe obibi dị n'ụsọ oké osimiri na-eche mgbanwe dị egwu ihu n'ihi ịrị elu oke osimiri. Ọtụtụ sistemụ nwere ike ịla n'iyi mgbe ọkwa oke osimiri na-ebili nke ukwuu ma ọ bụ ngwa ngwa. Ụfọdụ gburugburu ebe obibi nwere ike ibubata ala n'ime ya na akara mmiri dị elu, mana ọtụtụ na-egbochi ịkwaga n'ihi ihe mgbochi eke ma ọ bụ ihe mgbochi. Mbelata nke dị n'ụsọ oké osimiri, nke a na-akpọ mgbe ụfọdụ 'mkpụrụ mmiri dị n'ụsọ osimiri' mgbe a na-atụle ihe mgbochi mmadụ mere, nwere ike ịkpata ọnwụ nke ebe obibi dị ka ala apịtị na ala mmiri . [14] [146]

Usoro gburugburu ebe obibi nke mangrove bụ otu n'ime gburugburu ebe obibi nke ịrị elu oke osimiri na-emetụta. Ọ bụ gburugburu ebe obibi mejupụtara osisi mangrove na-eto na na gburugburu apịtị dị n'ụsọ oké osimiri ebe okpomọkụ. Uru gburugburu ebe obibi ya dị elu n'ihi na ọ bụ ebe obibi dị mma maka ọtụtụ ụdị. N'ime afọ ndị na-adịbeghị anya, mangroves na-akwaga n'ime ala, ma ihe ịga nke ọma ha na-adabere na ozi gburugburu ebe obibi dị iche iche dị ka ọdịdị ọdịdị ala na ọdịdị ala. Ka ihu igwe na-ekpo ọkụ, ka ha na-eto eto. Mkpọrọgwụ iku ume ma ọ bụ pneumatophores nke mangrove nwere ike itolite ruo ọkara mita n'ịdị elu. [147] [148] Osisi Mangrove na mmiri mmiri na-adaba n'ogo oke osimiri na-arị elu site n'ịrụ ụlọ kwụ ọtọ site n'iji sedimenti na ihe ndị na -emepụta ihe na-emekọ ihe . Ọ bụrụ na ịrị elu oke osimiri dị oke ngwa ngwa, ha agaghị enwe ike ịkwado ya kama a ga-emikpu. [149] Kpọmkwem, ọ bụrụ na ọnụ ọgụgụ nke ntinye ego nke mangrove adịghị agbaso nrịgo elu nke oke osimiri, isi ihe na-eme ka ikpochapụ nke gburugburu ebe obibi nke mangrove bụ mmekọrịta dị n'etiti ọnụ ọgụgụ nke ịkwaga n'ime obodo na ọnụ ọgụgụ nke oke osimiri. Ọ bụrụ na ọkwa oke osimiri na-ebili ngwa ngwa karịa ka mangroves nwere ike ịkwaga n'ala, nke a nwere ike iduga na-efunahụ ihe ndị dị ndụ. [150] Ikike nke mangroves ịlanarị ihe omume ịrị elu nke oke osimiri dabere na ikike ha nwere ịkwaga n'ime ime obodo. [148] Dị ka ihe gburugburu ebe obibi abụọ ahụ na-echebe megide oke ifufe, ebili mmiri na mbufịt, ịla n'iyi na-eme ka mmetụta nke oke osimiri na-abawanye njọ. [151] [152] Ihe omume mmadụ, dị ka iwu ụlọ mgbochi mmiri, nwere ike igbochi sedimenti na ala mmiri, wee si otú a gbochie usoro mmegharị nke okike. Ọnwụ nke ụfọdụ mmiri iyi mmiri bụ ihe a na-apụghị izere ezere n'ihi ya. [153]

Mgbe mmiri osimiri rutere n'ime ime obodo, nsogbu ndị metụtara ala ndị mmetọ nwere ike ime. Ọzọkwa, azụ, nnụnụ, na osisi ndị dị n'ụsọ oké osimiri nwere ike tufuo akụkụ nke ebe obibi ha. [12] Coral, nke dị mkpa maka ndụ nnụnụ na azụ, kwesịrị itolite na kwụ ọtọ ka ọ nọrọ nso n'elu oke osimiri iji nweta ume zuru oke site na ìhè anyanwụ. Ka ọ dị ugbu a enweela ike ịkwalite uto kwụ ọtọ na oke osimiri na-arị elu, mana nwere ike ọ gaghị enwe ike ime ya n'ọdịnihu. [154] Na 2016, a kọrọ na Bramble Cay melomys, nke bi na Great Barrier Reef Island, nwere ike bụrụ na ọ ga-ala n'iyi n'ihi oke mmiri n'ihi oke oke osimiri. [155] Gọọmenti etiti mba Ọstrelia kwadoro akụkọ a mgbe o kwuputara na Bramble Cay melomys ga-apụ n'anya ka ọnwa Febụwarị 2019, na-eme ka ụdị a bụrụ anụmanụ mbụ ama ama na-apụ n'anya n'ihi oke oke osimiri. [156]

Ntughari[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

 

Mpempe akwụkwọ akụkọ "Osimiri na-ebili", na ihu igwe nke ndị mmadụ na March (2017) .

Enwere ike kewaa nhọrọ mmegharị maka ịrị elu oke osimiri ka ọ bụrụ ebe mgbagha, ịnabata na nchekwa . Ịlaghachi azụ bụ ịkwaga ndị mmadụ na akụrụngwa gaa n'ebe ndị na-adịghị ahụkebe na igbochi mmepe ọzọ na mpaghara ndị dị ize ndụ. Ụdị mmegharị ahụ nwere ike ịkpaghasị, n'ihi na nchụpụ nke ndị mmadụ nwere ike ịkpata esemokwu. Nhọrọ ebe obibi bụ nha na-eme ka ọha mmadụ na-enwekwu mgbanwe na ịrị elu oke osimiri. Ọmụmaatụ bụ ịkọ ihe ọkụkụ nke na-anabata nnukwu nnu n'ime ala na ime ụkpụrụ ụlọ ọhụrụ nke chọrọ ka ewuru ụlọ elu ma nwee obere mmebi ma ọ bụrụ na idei mmiri emee. N'ikpeazụ, enwere ike ichebe mpaghara site na ịrụ mmiri mmiri, mmiri mmiri na site n'ịkwalite ihe nchebe sitere n'okike. [13] [157] N'ụzọ zuru ezu, e kewara nsogbu ndị dị ugbu a ụzọ abụọ: otu bụ mmetọ mmiri, nke ọzọ bụ oké ifufe na idei mmiri. [158] E wezụga nke ahụ, oke mmiri ozuzo na idei mmiri nwere ike ịdị ngwa ngwa ma na-agbawa obodo ukwu, na mpaghara ụfọdụ dị n'ụsọ oké osimiri amalitela itinye ego na valvụ mmiri mmiri ozuzo iji nagide idei mmiri ugboro ugboro na nke siri ike n'oge oke mmiri. [158]

Enwere ike kewaa nhọrọ mmegharị ndị a n'ime siri ike na nro . Mgbanwe siri ike na-adabere na akụrụngwa mmadụ wuru nnukwu ego yana gụnyere nnukwu mgbanwe n'obodo mmadụ na sistemu gburugburu ebe obibi. N'ihi nnukwu ọnụ ọgụgụ ya, ọ naghị agbanwekarị. Ntugharị dị nro na-agụnye iwusi ihe nchebe sitere n'okike na atụmatụ mgbanwe n'ime obodo yana iji teknụzụ dị mfe na nke modular, nke nwere ike ịbụ nke mpaghara. Ụdị ngbanwe abụọ a nwere ike ịbụ nkwado ma ọ bụ nke na-ekewapụ onwe ya. [157] [159]

Azụmahịa oke osimiri bụ ụdị akụ na ụba na ezi azụmaahịa kachasị n'ụwa niile. Mgbe a na-ekwu maka oke oke osimiri na-arị elu, enwere ike inwe nnukwu nsogbu maka ịzụ ahịa nke oké osimiri na ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri ndị a na-eji. Ihe dịkwa mkpa maka ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri ndị a bụ na anyị amabeghị ka oke oke osimiri ga-esi na-aga n'ihu na-emetụta ha ka oge na-aga. [160] Ihe dị iche iche na-etinye aka na ntinye ego nke ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri maka nke a. Ihe ndị dị mkpa maka ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri na-ezo aka n'ọkwa mmiri na-arị elu bụ ebe ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri dị mkpa ga-abụ n'ọdịnihu, anyị nwere ike ịgbanwe ma chebe ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri ndị a na-eji ugbu a, ego ole achọrọ iji chebe ahia n'egbughị oge ma ọ bụ ego. . Ọkwa mmiri na-arị elu maka ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri bụ ihe na-echegbu, mana ọ na-esiri ike ịkọwa mgbanwe dị mkpa a ga-eme ebe ọ bụ na ọkwa mmiri adịghị ebili n'otu ọnụego ahụ n'ụwa nile. [161]

Ihe oriri na-edozi ahụ na-aga n'ihu na Barcelona .

Ọtụtụ mba na-emepe emepe atụmatụ maka mmegharị. Otu ihe atụ bụ ịgbatị Delta Works na Netherlands, obodo nke na-anọdụ ala n'okpuru oke osimiri ma na-ebelata. [162] Na 2008, Dutch Delta Commission, nyere ndụmọdụ na akụkọ na Netherlands ga-achọ nnukwu usoro ihe owuwu ụlọ ọhụrụ iji mee ka nchebe mmiri nke mba ahụ sikwuo ike megide oké osimiri na-ebili maka afọ 190 na-esote. Nke a gụnyere iwepụta atụmatụ kacha njọ maka mbupụ. Atụmatụ a tinyekwara ihe karịrị ijeri euro 100 na mmefu ọhụrụ ruo n'afọ 2100 maka ịkpachara anya, dị ka ịgbasa mkpọmkpọ mmiri dị n'ụsọ oké osimiri na ime ka oke osimiri na oke osimiri sie ike. Kọmishọna ahụ kwuru na mba ahụ ga-eme atụmatụ maka ịrị elu na oke osimiri North ruo 1.3 m (4 ft 3 na) site na 2100 wee mee atụmatụ maka 2–4 m (7–13 ft) bilie site na 2200. [163]

Iji lebara ihe iyi egwu ịrị elu oke osimiri anya na Bangladesh, ewepụtala atụmatụ Bangladesh Delta Plan 2100 na 2018. [164] [165] N'ihe dị ka afọ 2020, a hụrụ ka ọ dara n'ọtụtụ ebumnuche mbụ ya. [166] A na- enyocha ọganihu a. [167]

Obodo ndị dị n'ụsọ oké osimiri US na-eduzi nri n'ụsọ osimiri, nke a makwaara dị ka ihe mejupụtara osimiri, ebe a na-ebuba ájá na-egwupụta akụ ma gbakwunye ya, na mgbakwunye na usoro mmegharị ndị ọzọ dị ka zoning, mmachi na ego steeti, na ụkpụrụ ụkpụrụ ụlọ. [168] [169] Ụfọdụ mba ndị dị n'àgwàetiti, dị ka Republic of Maldives, Kiribati na Tuvalu na-atụle ịkwaga mba ụwa nke ndị bi na ha na nzaghachi maka oke osimiri. Ịkwaga mba dị iche iche abụghị ihe ngwọta dị mfe, n'ihi na ndị na-akwagharị kwesịrị inwe ego na-akwụ ụgwọ na netwọk mmekọrịta na obodo ọhụrụ ha. Ọ nwere ike ịdị mfe ime mgbanwe na mpaghara site n'ịga n'ihu n'ime ala yana ịba ụba sedimenti dị mkpa maka nchebe mbuze eke. [170] Na mba Fiji nke dị n'àgwàetiti ahụ, ndị bi na-eweghachite coral reefs na mangrove iji chebe onwe ha pụọ na idei mmiri na mbuze, bụ nke a na-eche na ọ ga-efu ọnụ karịa iwu mgbidi oké osimiri. [171]

Ntughari na ịrị elu oke osimiri na-abụkarị ajụjụ maka nsogbu gburugburu ebe obibi ndị ọzọ, dị ka ibi ndụ ma ọ bụ mbibi ebe obibi . Na 2019, onye isi ala Indonesia, Joko Widodo, kwupụtara na obodo Jakarta na- adaba n'ókè nke chọrọ ka ọ kwaga isi obodo ahụ gaa n'obodo ọzọ. [172] Nnyocha e mere n'agbata 1982 na 2010 chọpụtara na mpaghara ụfọdụ na Jakarta anọwo na-emikpu ihe ruru 28. cm (nkeji iri na otu) kwa afọ [173] n'ihi igwu mmiri n'ala na ịdị arọ nke ụlọ ya, nsogbu a na-akawanye njọ ugbu a site n'oke oke osimiri. Otú ọ dị, e nwere nchegbu na iwu ụlọ n'ebe ọhụrụ ga-amụba igbutu osisi n'ebe okpomọkụ . [174] [175] Obodo ndị ọzọ a na-akpọ imirikiti obodo, dị ka Bangkok ma ọ bụ Tokyo, na-adịghị ike na ndị a compounding subsidence na oké osimiri ịrị elu. [176]

Mbelata[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Atụmatụ, teknụzụ na omume iji belata ịrị elu oke osimiri dị. Ndị a bụ ọmụmaatụ mbelata gas griin haus, ịkọ oke ọhịa, ijide carbon teknụzụ na nchekwa ma ọ bụ mwepụ nke enyemaka carbon zoro ezo. Usoro ndị a, ọ bụrụ na etinyere ya n'ọ̀tụ̀tụ̀ zuru ụwa ọnụ, nwere ike ịkwụsị ịrị elu oke osimiri. Atụmatụ Blue-Carbon, ya bụ igbu osisi nke gburugburu ebe obibi dị n'ụsọ oké osimiri, nke na-arụ ọrụ nke ọma na nchekwa carbon ogologo oge na ala, bụ otu ihe atụ. Ụzọ ọrụ ugbo mmiri nke oké osimiri bụ atụmatụ ọzọ na-aga nke ọma. Atụpụtala ọtụtụ ọrụ akụrụngwa dị ka mweghachi nke oke osimiri Salton [177] [178] [179] nke jikọtara atụmatụ abụọ nke ịkọ mmiri n'oké osimiri na mwegharị osisi na mwepu mmiri nke oke osimiri. Nnukwu Ọzara-Greening na oké osimiri-mmiri na ulo oru ọnụ ọgụgụ ojiji nke Desalination, ma ọ bụ Seawater Greenhouses bụ ihe atụ.

Hụkwa[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Nkwupụta ihe mberede ihu igwe [180]
  • Injinia ihu igwe [181]
  • Ihe egwu mmepe nke oke osimiri [182]
  • Ọdụdọ mmiri n'ụsọ oké osimiri [183]
  • Mmefu mkpebi [184]
  • Mmetụta mgbanwe ihu igwe na oke osimiri [185] [186]
  • Mmetụta mgbanwe ihu igwe na mba ndị dị n'àgwàetiti [187]
  • Hydrosphere [188]
  • Agwaetiti mbụ [189]
  • Ndepụta mba site na nkezi elu [190]
  • Mmehie mmiri [191]

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