Okpomọkụ gburugburu ụwa

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okpomọkụ gburugburu ụwa
atmospheric phenomenon, environmental issue, Mmetutara mmadu na gburu gburu ebe obibi
obere ụdị nkeexternal risk, global climate change Dezie
mụrụ yaNkuzi ihu ígwè Dezie
ihe kpatara yaIhe ndị na-emepụta carbon dioxide, Griinhouse gas na-epupụta, ikuku griin ha na-esite n'ọrụ ugbo, igbukpọ osisi Dezie
contributing factor ofarctic sea ice decline Dezie
has contributing factorcoal-fired power station Dezie
megidere nkezuru ụwa ọnụ jụrụ Dezie
handled, mitigated, or managed bymgbanwe na okpomoku zuru ụwa ọnụ Dezie
kọwara na URLhttps://www.ipcc.ch Dezie
WordLift URLhttp://data.thenextweb.com/tnw/entity/global_warming Dezie
The global map shows sea temperature rises of 0.5 to 1 degree Celsius; land temperature rises of 1 to 2 degree Celsius; and Arctic temperature rises of up to 4 degrees Celsius.
Nkezi okpomọkụ ikuku elu 2011-21 tụnyere 1956–76
The graph from 1880 to 2020 shows natural drivers exhibiting fluctuations of about 0.3 degrees Celsius. Human drivers steadily increase by 0.3 degrees over 100 years to 1980, then steeply by 0.8 degrees more over the past 40 years.
. Gbanwee na nkezi ikuku dị elu ịdị mma ihe, ịgbakwunye ụgbọ ala maka ahụ.  Ụbọchị mmadụ ebutela okpomoku dị elu, yana ike okike na- ike ụfọdụ

N'ihe a na-ejikarị eme ihe, mgbanwe ihu igwe na-akọwa okpomoku zuru ụwa ọnụ - mmụba na-aga n'ihu na nkezi okpomọkụ zuru ụwa ọnụ - yana mmetụta ọ na-enwe na usoro ihu igwe nke ụwa.  Mgbanwe ihu igwe n'ụzọ sara mbara tinyekwara mgbanwe ogologo oge gara aga na ihu igwe ụwa.  Mmụba dị ugbu a na nkezi okpomoku zuru ụwa ọnụ na-agba ọsọ karịa mgbanwe ndị gara aga, ọ bụkwa isi ihe kpatara ụmụ mmadụ na-ere mmanụ ọkụ.  Iji mmanụ ọkụ, igbukpọsị osisi, na ụfọdụ omume ọrụ ugbo na ụlọ ọrụ mmepụta ihe na-agbakwunye na gas na-ekpo ọkụ, karịsịa carbon dioxide na methane.  Igwe ọkụ na-ekpo ọkụ nke griin ha na-amịkọrọ ụfọdụ okpomọkụ nke ụwa na-amụ mgbe ọ kpochara site na ìhè anyanwụ.  Ọnụ ọgụgụ ka ukwuu nke ikuku ndị a na-ejidekwu okpomọkụ na ikuku ikuku nke ụwa, na-akpata okpomọkụ zuru ụwa ọnụ.

Mgbanwe ihu igwe na-ebute oke mmiri na-elu na gburugburu ebe obibi .  Ọzara na-agbasawanye, ebe akụ na ebili mmiri na ọkụ ọkụ na-aghọwanye ihe.  [1] Okpomokụ na-ekpo ọkụ na Arctic enyela aka n'ịgbaze permafrost, mgbagha glacial na mfu ice.  [2] [3] Okpomọkụ dị elu na-ebutekwa oke mmiri mmiri, mmiri mmiri ozuzo na oke ihu igwe ndị ọzọ.  [4] Mgbanwe gburugburu ebe obibi ngwa n'ugwu, coral reefs na Arctic na-amanye ọtụtụ ụdị mkpuchi ma ọ bụ ndị agha.  [5]  aቀዳ na nnyanka ndị e mere iji Benekụ n' SIM ga-aga nke ọma, mgba ụfọdụ ga-aga n'ihu ruo ọtụtụ awụ.  egwu ikpo ọkụ oke osimiri, oke acidification na oke ndị oke osimiri.

Mgbanwe ihu igwe na-eyi ndị mmadụ egwu ịba nke idei mmiri, oke ụmụ, ọnọdụra nri na mmiri mmiri, ọrịa akụkụ, na mfu akụ na-ahụ .  Mbugharị mmadụ na see ike ịhụta ya.  [1] Òtù Ahụ Ike mmetụta (WHO) na-akpọ ihu igwe bụ ihe iyi egwu na-egosi zuru ụwa ọnụ na ike awụ nke 21st.  [2] Ime ihe maka odi ihu igwe site na mbọ dị ka usoro ide mmiri ma ọ bụ ihe na-eme na--ahụ mmiri mmiri mmiri na-abụ ihe egwu, ihu igwe, n'agbanyeghị na ịbanyelarị n'ókè ụfọdụ.  [3] Obodo ndị dara ogbenye na-ahụ maka ngwá ọrụ oke nke ikuku ikuku zuru ụwa ọnụ, mana ha nwere ikike imeghari ma bụrụ ndị na-eje ozi mfe maka ịdị ihu igwe .  [4] [5] ego, oge mkpa, na oke nke nwa ịga nke ọma na ịmachi okpomoku zuru ụwa ọnụ.    Ọtụtụ ekiri ihu igwe ka enweelarị na 1.2 ugbu a ọkwa ọkwa.  Okpomọkụ ndị ọzọ ga- Bria ndị a ma nwee ike ike mmụtalite isi ihe, dị ka agbaze nke mpempe akwụkwọ ice Greenland .  [1] N'okpuru 2015 Paris, mba dị iche iche ichebara ka ha nche na-ekpo ọkụ "nke ọma n'okpuru 2 Celsius C".  ọkọlọtọ, site na nkwa ekwere n'okpuru ika, okpomoku zuru ụwa ọnụ ka ga-eru ihe dịka 2.7 Celsius C (4.9 °F) na njedebe nke ike apụ.  [2] Na-amachibido ikpo ọkụ na 1.5 Celsius C ga-achọ ibelata ihe site n'afọ 2030 yana imezu ikuku efu site na 2050..   N'afọ ndị 1980, okwu okpomoku zuru ụwa ọnụ na ebili ihu igwe ihe a na-ama.  Ọ bụ ebe na a na-eji okwu abụọ ahụ eme ihe mgbe ụfọdụ, [1] na nkà mgba, okpomoku zuru ụwa ọnụ na-ezo aka ikike n'ịbawanye okpomoku elu, ebe nche ihu igwe na-ịchịkọta ụkpụrụ na usoro usoro.  ihu igwe ụwa.  [2] Okpomọkụ zuru ụwa ọnụ —bụ́ nke e ji mee ihe n'oge dị ka 1975 [3] —ghọrọ okwu a na-ewu ewu mgbe ọchọrọ mkpọsa ihu igwe nke NASA bụ́ James Hansen ji ya mee ihe n'ihe.  àmà 1988 ọ gbara n' ụrọ Ndị Isi Omeiwu United States .  [4] nta awụ 2000, akara ihu igwe onyonyola na ojiji.  [5] Mgbanwe ihu igwe igwe ike na-ezo aka n'ụzọ sara mbara ma na-ahụ mmadụ ma ọ bụ ike okike n'ime mmetụta ntolite ụwa niile.

Otutu ihe ndekọ akụrụngwa nọọrọ onwe ya na-egosi na usoro ihu igwe na-ekpo ọkụ. Ihe a na-akpọ "ọkụ ọkụ zuru ụwa ọnụ" site na 1998 ruo 2013 mgbe okpomoku na-adịchaghị ngwa ngwa nwere ike ịbụ ihe na-adịghị mma nke Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) [1] na Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). [2] Afọ iri nke 2011-2020 dara na nkezi 1.09 Celsius C [0.95–1.20 Celsius C] ma e jiri ya tụnyere usoro mmalite ụlọ ọrụ (1850-1900). Okpomọkụ dị n'elu na-arị elu ihe dịka 0.2 Celsius C kwa afọ, na 2020 na-erute okpomọkụ nke 1.2 Celsius C n'elu tupu oge ụlọ ọrụ. [38] Kemgbe 1950, ọnụ ọgụgụ nke ehihie na abalị oyi ebelatala, ọnụ ọgụgụ nke ehihie na abalị na-ekpo ọkụ amụbawokwa.

[3]Ihe ọkụ nke ikpo ọkụ sitere na nha ikuku ikuku na-emesi ike site n'ọtụtụ ndị ọzọ.  [1] [41] Dị ka ihe atụ, e buru akara ma hụ hụ n'okirikiri mmiri dị n'okike, dị ka ngo nke ugboro na oke mmiri mmiri, agbaze nke snow na ice, na-amara iru mmiri .  [2] Osisi na anụ ụfọdụ na-akpakwa n'ụzọ ike na ikpo ọkụ;  dịka ọmụmaatụ, osisi na-ama ọkọlọtọ na-abụ mmiri.  [3] Ihe ọzọ dị mkpa na-egosi bụ oyi nke ikuku dị n'elu, nke na-egosi na gas na-ekpo ọkụ na-ejide, n'ụdị elu ụwa ma na- igba ya ịgbanye n'ime mbara igwe.

. [4]dị iche iche nke ụwa na-ekpo ọkụ na ịdị iche iche .  Usoro a na-adabere na ebe ikuku ikuku na-eku pụta, n'ihi na gas na-adịru ogologo oge iji n'ofe ụwa.  Ebe ọ bụ na tupu ụlọ ọrụ ihe, nke ọma dị n'elu mpaghara ala aamụbaala ihe mmụta nke nta ka ọ bụrụ okpukpu abụọ ngwa ụzọ nkezi ime elu ụwa.  [1] Nke a bụ n'ihi nnukwu ike akụ nke oke osimiri, na n'ihi na oké osimiri na-efunahụ yankin ebe site na evaporation .  [2] Ike mfe dị n'usoro ihu igwe zuru ụwa ọnụ etoola site na mmetụtatụ dị ndị ndọrọ ndọrọ 1970, na ihe ụmụaka 90% nke ume a ka njikere n'oké osimiri .  [3] [4] Ndị ọzọ emewo ka ikuku dị ọkụ, gbazee ice, ma mee ka kọntinent dị ọkụ.

Ebe ugwu na North Pole ejirila ọkụ na-ekpo ọkụ ngwa ngwa ebe ndịda Pole na Southern Hemisphere .  Northern Hemisphere ọ bụghị naanị na ọ nwere ọtụtụ ala, kamakwa ọ na-ekpuchi snow n'oge na ice oké osimiri.  Ka ihe ndị a na- መሪ site n'igosipụta ọtụtụ ìhè na-agba mgbe ice gbazechara, ha na-amalite ikenye ọkụ .  [1] Ebe nchekwa carbon ojii dị na snoo na ice na-atụnyekwa aka na okpomoku Arctic.  [2] Okpomọkụ Arctic na-akụkụ akụkụ abụọ nke ụwa ndị ọzọ .  [3] Agbaze nke glaciers na ice mpempe akwụkwọ na Arctic na-akpaghasị mgbasa nke oké osimiri, ike ike nke Ọwara Stream, na- mgbanwe ihu igwe.

Ihe ndekọ okpomọkụ tupu okpomoku zuru ụwa ọnụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Agwaetiti ndị dị ala na obodo ndị dị n'ụsọ oké osimiri na-eyi egwu n'ihi mmụba nke oke osimiri, nke na-eme ka idei mmiri na-adịkarị. Mgbe ụfọdụ, oke osimiri na-efunahụ ala kpamkpam. [222] Nke a nwere ike ime ka ndị bi ná mba ndị dị n’àgwàetiti dị ka Maldives na Tuvalu ghara inwe obodo . N'akụkụ ụfọdụ, ịrị elu nke okpomọkụ na iru mmiri nwere ike ịdị oke njọ maka mmadụ ime mgbanwe. [224] N'ọnọdụ mgbanwe ihu igwe kachasị njọ, ụdị atụmatụ nke ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ otu ụzọ n'ụzọ atọ nke ihe a kpọrọ mmadụ nwere ike ibi na ihu igwe na-ekpo oke ọkụ na ebe obibi, dị ka ihu igwe dị na Sahara. Ihe ndị a nwere ike ịkpali mbugharị gburugburu ebe obibi, ma n'ime ma n'etiti mba. A na-atụ anya na a ga-achụpụ ọtụtụ ndị mmadụ n'ihi oke oke oke osimiri, oke ihu igwe na esemokwu site n'ịsọ mpi maka akụrụngwa sitere n'okike. Mgbanwe ihu igwe nwekwara ike ịbawanye adịghị ike, na-eduga na "ndị mmadụ tọrọ atọ" ndị na-enweghị ike ịkwaga n'ihi enweghị ihe onwunwe.

Enwere ike ibelata mgbanwe ihu igwe site n'ibelata ọnụego ikuku ikuku na-ekupụta n'ime ikuku, yana site n'ịbawanye ọnụego a na-ewepụ carbon dioxide na ikuku. Iji belata okpomoku zuru ụwa ọnụ ihe na-erughị 1.5 Celsius C ikuku ikuku griin ha ga-abụ net-efu site na 2050, ma ọ bụ site na 2070 nwere 2 °C lekwasịrị anya. Nke a na-achọ mgbanwe dị ukwuu n'usoro n'ụzọ a na-enwetụbeghị ụdị ya na ike, ala, obodo, ụgbọ njem, ụlọ, na ụlọ ọrụ. Mmemme gburugburu ebe obibi nke United Nations na-eme atụmatụ na mba kwesịrị ịgbakọ nkwa ha ugboro atọ n'okpuru nkwekọrịta Paris n'ime afọ iri na-abịanụ iji gbochie okpomoku zuru ụwa ọnụ na 2. Celsius C. A na-achọ ọkwa dị elu nke ukwuu iji zute 1.5 goolu Celsius C. Site na nkwa ekwere n'okpuru nkwekọrịta Paris dị ka nke Ọktọba 2021, okpomoku zuru ụwa ọnụ ka ga-enwe ohere 66% iru ihe dịka 2.7 Celsius C (oke: 2.2–3.2 Celsius C) na njedebe nke narị afọ. N'ụwa niile, na-amachi okpomoku ka ọ bụrụ 2 Celsius C nwere ike ibute uru akụ na ụba dị elu karịa ọnụ ahịa akụ na ụba.

Ụzọ ndị ọzọ iji belata mgbanwe ihu igwe nwere nnukwu ihe ize ndụ. Ọnọdụ ndị na-amachi okpomoku zuru ụwa ọnụ ka ọ bụrụ 1.5 Celsius C na-arụkwa ọrụ n'ọtụtụ buru ibu nke ụzọ iwepụ carbon dioxide n'ime narị afọ nke 21st. Enwere nchegbu, n'agbanyeghị, ịdabere na teknụzụ ndị a gabiga ókè, yana mmetụta gburugburu ebe obibi. Mgbanwe nke radieshon anyanwụ (SRM) bụkwa ihe mgbakwunye ga-ekwe omume na mbelata miri emi na anwuru. Otú ọ dị, SRM na-ebuli nchegbu gbasara ụkpụrụ omume na nke iwu, na ihe ize ndụ ndị ahụ na-aghọtaghị nke ọma.

Coal, mmanụ, na gas ka bụ isi mmalite ike zuru ụwa ọnụ ọbụna ka mmeghari ohuru amalitela ibu ngwa ngwa.
Ikuku na ike anyanwụ, Germany

Ike mmeghari ohuru bụ isi ihe na-egbochi mgbanwe ihu igwe. Mmanụ ọkụ fosil nwetara 80% nke ike ụwa na 2018. E kewara òkè nke fọdụrụ n'etiti ike nuklia na ihe ndị a na-emegharị emegharị (gụnyere ike mmiri, ike bioenergy, ikuku na ike anyanwụ na ike geothermal ). Atụmatụ na ngwakọta ahụ ga-agbanwe nke ukwuu n'ime afọ 30 na-abịa. Igwe ọkụ anyanwụ na ikuku dị n'ikpere mmiri bụ ugbu a n'ime ụdị dị ọnụ ala nke ịgbakwunye ikike mmepụta ike ọhụrụ n'ọtụtụ ebe. Ihe mmeghari ohuru na-anọchi anya 75% nke ọgbọ eletrik ọhụrụ arụnyere na 2019, ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ anyanwụ na ikuku niile. Ụdị ike ndị ọzọ dị ọcha, dị ka nuklia na ike mmiri, nwere ugbu a nnukwu òkè nke ike na-enye ike. Agbanyeghị, amụma uto ha n'ọdịniihu na-egosi oke ma e jiri ya tụnyere.

Iji nweta nnọpụiche carbon site na 2050, ike mmeghari ga-abụ ụdị kachasị nke ọgbọ ọkụ eletrik, na-ebili ruo 85% ma ọ bụ karịa site na 2050 n'ọnọdụ ụfọdụ. A ga-ekpochapụ itinye ego na coal ma ọ fọrọ nke nta ka ọ kwụsịlata iji coal n'afọ 2050.

Eletrik a na-enweta site na isi mmalite ga-adịkwa mkpa ka ọ bụrụ isi ike maka ikpo ọkụ na njem. Ụgbọ njem nwere ike ịpụ n'ụgbọ ala injin combustion na ime ụgbọ ala eletrik, njem ọha, na njem na-arụsi ọrụ ike (ịgba ígwè na ije ije). [5] Maka mbupu na ụgbọ elu, mmanụ ọkụ nwere obere carbon ga-ebelata ihe ọkụkụ. [6] Enwere ike iji teknụzụ dị ka nfuli ọkụ na-emewanye ọkụ.

Enwere ihe mgbochi na-aga n'ihu na-eto ngwa ngwa nke ike dị ọcha, gụnyere ihe ndị a na-emegharị emegharị. Maka ikuku na anyanwụ, enwere nchegbu gburugburu ebe obibi na ala maka ọrụ ọhụrụ. Ikuku na anyanwụ na-emepụtakwa ume obere oge yana mgbanwe oge . Na omenala, a na-eji mmiri mmiri mmiri na mmiri mmiri na ụlọ ọrụ ọkụ eme ihe mgbe mmepụta ike na-agbanwe agbanwe dị ala. N'ịga n'ihu, enwere ike ịgbasa nchekwa batrị, ike ike na ọkọnọ nwere ike dakọtara, na nnyefe ogologo nwere ike ime mgbanwe dị mma nke mmepụta ọhụrụ. Bioenergy anaghị anọpụ iche na carbon ma nwee ike inwe nsonaazụ ọjọọ maka nchekwa nri. A na-egbochi uto nke ike nuklia site na arụmụka gbasara mkpofu redioaktivu, mmụba ngwa agha nuklia, na ihe ọghọm . [7] Mmụba ike mmiri nwere oke site n'eziokwu na emepụtara saịtị kachasị mma, yana ọrụ ọhụrụ na-eche nsogbu mmekọrịta ọha na eze na gburugburu ebe obibi ihu. [8]

Ike carbon dị ala na-eme ka ahụike mmadụ dịkwuo mma site na ibelata mgbanwe ihu igwe. O nwekwara uru dị nso nke ibelata ọnwụ mmetọ ikuku, nke e mere atụmatụ na nde asaa kwa afọ na 2016. Imezu ebumnuche nkwekọrịta Paris na-amachi ikpo ọkụ na 2 Mmụba Celsius C nwere ike ịzọpụta ihe dị ka otu nde ndụ ndị ahụ kwa afọ site na 2050, ebe ịmachi okpomoku zuru ụwa ọnụ ka ọ bụrụ 1.5 Celsius C nwere ike ịzọpụta nde mmadụ ma na-abawanye nchekwa ike n'otu oge ma belata ịda ogbenye. Ịkwalite ogo ikuku nwekwara uru akụ na ụba nke nwere ike ibu karịa ego mbelata.

Atụmatụ iji belata agụụ ike dị iche iche site na ngalaba. Na ngalaba njem, ndị njem na ibu nwere ike ịgbanwe gaa n'ụdị njem dị mma, dị ka ụgbọ ala na ụgbọ oloko, ma ọ bụ jiri ụgbọ ala eletrik. Atụmatụ mmepụta ihe iji belata ọchịchọ ike gụnyere imeziwanye sistemu kpo oku na moto, imepụta ngwaahịa ndị na-adịghị ike ike, na ịbawanye ndụ ngwaahịa. Na mpaghara ụlọ a na-elekwasị anya na nhazi nke ụlọ ọhụrụ ka mma, na ọkwa dị elu nke ike ike na nhazigharị. Ojiji nke teknụzụ dị ka nfuli ọkụ nwekwara ike ịbawanye nrụpụta ike ụlọ.

N'iburu n'uche ihe ikuku na-apụta kpọmkwem na nke na-apụtaghị ìhè, ụlọ ọrụ bụ ngalaba nwere oke kachasị elu nke ikuku ikuku zuru ụwa ọnụ. Data dị ka nke 2019 sitere na IPCC.

Ọrụ ugbo na oke ohia na-eche ihe ịma aka atọ ihu nke ịmachi ikuku ikuku griin haus, igbochi ntughari ọzọ nke oke ohia gaa n'ala ugbo, na nzuko na-abawanye n'ọchịchọ nri ụwa. Otu ihe omume nwere ike ibelata ọrụ ugbo na ihe ọkụkụ sitere na oke ọhịa site na ụzọ abụọ n'ụzọ atọ site na ọkwa 2010. Ndị a gụnyere ibelata mmụba nke agụụ nri na ihe ndị ọzọ a na-emepụta n'ugbo, ịba ụba nke ala, ichekwa na iweghachi ọhịa, na ibelata ikuku ikuku na-esi na mmepụta ugbo.   

  1. Xie (June 2017). "What Caused the Global Surface Warming Hiatus of 1998–2013?" (in en). Current Climate Change Reports 3 (2): 128–140. DOI:10.1007/s40641-017-0063-0. ISSN 2198-6061. Retrieved on 20 September 2023. 
  2. Yao (January 2016). "The global warming hiatus—a natural product of interactions of a secular warming trend and a multi-decadal oscillation" (in en). Theoretical and Applied Climatology 123 (1–2): 349–360. DOI:10.1007/s00704-014-1358-x. ISSN 0177-798X. Retrieved on 20 September 2023. 
  3. Global Warming. NASA JPL (3 June 2010). Retrieved on 11 September 2020. “Satellite measurements show warming in the troposphere but cooling in the stratosphere. This vertical pattern is consistent with global warming due to increasing greenhouse gases but inconsistent with warming from natural causes.”
  4. von Schuckman (7 September 2020). "Heat stored in the Earth system: where does the energy go?". Earth System Science Data 12 (3): 2013–2041. DOI:10.5194/essd-12-2013-2020. 
  5. Transport emissions. Climate action. European Commission (2016). Archived from the original on 10 October 2021. Retrieved on 2 January 2022.
  6. Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named IPCC-2018 p142
  7. Horvath (January 2016). "Nuclear power in the 21st century: Challenges and possibilities". Ambio 45 (Suppl 1): S38–49. DOI:10.1007/s13280-015-0732-y. ISSN 1654-7209. PMID 26667059. 
  8. Hydropower. iea.org. International Energy Agency. Retrieved on 12 October 2020. “Hydropower generation is estimated to have increased by over 2% in 2019 owing to continued recovery from drought in Latin America as well as strong capacity expansion and good water availability in China (...) capacity expansion has been losing speed. This downward trend is expected to continue, due mainly to less large-project development in China and Brazil, where concerns over social and environmental impacts have restricted projects.”