Nadine Gordimer

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Nadine Gordimer (Nọvemba 20, 1923). – 13 Julaị 2014) bụ onye odee South Afriika na onye ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị . O nwetara Nrite Nobel na Literature n'afọ 1991, nke a ghọtara dị ka onye ode akwụkwọ "onye site na ọmarịcha akwụkwọ akụkọ ya… [1]

Edemede Gordimer kwuru gbasara omume na agbụrụ, ọkachasị ịkpa ókè agbụrụ na South Africa . N'okpuru ọchịchị ahụ, amachibidoro ọrụ ndị dị ka Burger's Daughter na July's People . Ọ nọ na-arụsi ọrụ ike na mgbochi ịkpa ókè agbụrụ, na-esonyere African National Congress n'oge ụbọchị a machibidoro nzukọ ahụ, ma nye Nelson Mandela ndụmọdụ banyere okwu nchebe ya a ma ama n'afọ 1964 na ikpe nke dugara n'ikpe ya maka ndụ. Ọ na-arụkwa ọrụ n'ihe gbasara nje HIV/AIDS .

Ndụ mbido ya[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

A mụrụ Gordimer na nso Springs, Gauteng, obodo na- egwupụta akụ East Rand na mpụga Johannesburg . Ọ bụ ada nke abụọ nke nne na nna ya. Nna ya, Isidore Gordimer, bụ onye Lithuania onye Juu kwabatara na-eche nche si Žagarė (mgbe ahụ Alaeze Ukwu Russia ugbu a, Lithuania ugbu a), [2] [3] na nne ya, Hannah "Nan" (Myers) Gordimer, si London . [4] [5] Nne ya sitere n'ezinaụlọ ndị Juu; A zụlitere Gordimer n'ezinụlọ ndị Ego nkịtị. [2] [6]

Nzụlite ezinụlọ[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Mmasị mbụ Gordimer nwere na ahaghị nhata nke agbụrụ na akụ na ụba na South Africa bụ ndị nne na nna mere ya. Ahụmahụ nna ya dị ka onye gbara ọsọ ndụ sitere na Tsarist Russia nyere aka mee ka Gordimer bụrụ onye ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị, mana ọ bụghị onye na-akwado ma ọ bụ nwee ọmịiko karịsịa maka ahụmahụ nke ndị ojii n'okpuru ịkpa ókè agbụrụ. [7] N'aka nke ọzọ, Gordimer hụrụ mmegide site n'aka nne ya, bụ onye nchegbu banyere ịda ogbenye na ịkpa ókè nke ndị isi ojii chere na South Africa dugara ya n'ịchọta ebe obibi maka ụmụaka ojii. [5] Gordimer hụkwara mmegbu gọọmentị n'onwe ya mgbe ọ dị afọ iri na ụma; ndị uwe ojii wakporo ụlọ ezinaụlọ ya, napụrụ akwụkwọ ozi na akwụkwọ ndekọ aha n'ọnụ ụlọ otu ohu. [5]

Gordimer gụrụ akwụkwọ n'ụlọ akwụkwọ ndị na abughị Katọlik, mana ọ nọ n'ụlọ dịka nwata n'ihi na nne ya, maka "ihe dị iche iche nke onwe ya," etinyeghị ya n'ụlọ akwụkwọ (o doro anya na ọ na-atụ egwu na Gordimer nwere obi adịghị ike). [7] N'ime ụlọ na mgbe ọ na-anọpụ iche, ọ malitere ide ihe n'oge ọ bụ nwata, wee bipụta akụkọ mbụ ya n'afọ 1937 mgbe ọ dị afọ iri na ise. [8] Ọrụ e bipụtara nke mbụ ya bụ obere akụkọ maka ụmụaka, "The Quest for Seen Gold," nke pụtara na Children's Sunday Express n'afọ 1937; "Bịa Ọzọ Echi," akụkọ ụmụaka ọzọ, pụtara na Forum n'otu oge ahụ. Mgbe ọ dị afọ iri na isii, o mere ka e bipụta akụkọ ifo okenye mbụ ya.

Ọrụ ya[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Gordimer gụrụ akwụkwọ otu afọ na Mahadum Witwatersrand, ebe ọ gwara ndị ọkachamara ibe ya n'ofe mmanya agba . O tinyekwara aka na mgbanwe Sophiatown . Ọ gụchaghị akara ugo mmụta ya, mana ọ kwagara Johannesburg na 1948, bụ ebe o biri mgbe nke ahụ gasịrị. Ka ọ na-aga ọmụmụ ihe na Johannesburg, ọ gara n'ihu na-ede ihe, na-ebipụta ihe ka ukwuu n'akwụkwọ akụkọ ndị dị na South Africa. Ọ chịkọtara ọtụtụ akụkọ mbụ ndị a na ihu na ihu, nke e bipụtara n'afọ 1949.

N'afọ 1951, New Yorker nabatara akụkọ Gordimer "A Watcher of the Dead", [9] na-amalite mmekọrịta dị ogologo, na iweta ọrụ Gordimer n'ihu ọha ka ukwuu. Gordimer, onye kwuru na ya kwenyere na mkpirisi akụkọ bụ ụdị edemede maka afọ anyị, [8] gara n'ihu na-ebipụta akụkọ mkpirisi na New Yorker na akwụkwọ akụkọ edemede ndị ọzọ a ma ama. Onye mbipụta mbụ ya, Lulu Friedman, bụ nwunye onye omeiwu Bernard Friedman, ọ bụkwa n'ụlọ ha, "Toll Trees" na Avenue nke mbụ, Lower Houghton, Johannesburg, ka Gordimer zutere ndị edemede ndị ọzọ na-emegide ịkpa ókè agbụrụ. [10]

Akwụkwọ akụkọ mbụ Gordimer, The Liing Days, ka ebipụtara n'afọ 1953.

Ịrụ ọrụ na ndụ ọkachamara ya[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Njide nke ezigbo enyi ya, Bettie du Toit, [11] n'afọ 1960 na mgbuchapụ Sharpeville kpaliri Gordimer ịbanye na ngagharị mgbochi ịkpa ókè agbụrụ. [5] Mgbe nke ahụ gasịrị, ọ malitere ngwa ngwa na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị South Africa, ma bụrụ ezigbo enyi na ndị ọka iwu nchekwa Nelson Mandela ( Bram Fischer na George Bizos ) n'oge ikpe 1962 ya . [5] O nyekwara Mandela aka dezie okwu a ma ama bụ " Adị m njikere ịnwụ ", nke e nyere site n'ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri onye ebubo na ikpe ahụ. [12] Mgbe a tọhapụrụ Mandela n'ụlọ mkpọrọ n'afọ 1990, ọ bụ otu n'ime ndị mbụ ọ chọrọ ịhụ. [5]

N'ime afọ mgbe 1960s na 1970s, ọ gara n'ihu na-ebi na Johannesburg, n'agbanyeghị na ọ na-ahapụ oge ụfọdụ maka obere oge iji kụzie ihe n'ọtụtụ mahadum dị na United States. Ọ malitela inweta nnabata agụmagụ nke mba ụwa, na-anata ihe nrite edemede mbụ ya, WH Smith Commonwealth Literary Award, n'afọ 1961. N'ime oge a niile, Gordimer gara n'ihu na-achọ site na ma ederede ya na mmemme ya ka South Africa nyochaa ma dochie amụma ịkpa ókè agbụrụ nke ogologo oge.

N'ime oge a, gọọmentị South Africa machibidoro ọtụtụ ọrụ ya, abụọ ruo ogologo oge. Ụwa ikpeazụ nke Bourgeois bụ ahụmahụ mbụ Gordimer nwere na nyocha; Ndị ọchịchị South Africa machiri ya na afọ 1976 ruo afọ iri. [13] [14] A machibidoro ụwa ndị ọbịa iwu maka afọ iri na abụọ. [13] A na-enyocha ọrụ ndị ọzọ maka obere oge. Ada Burger, nke e bipụtara na June 1979, amachibidoro otu ọnwa ka e mesịrị. Kọmiti Mkpegharị Mkpegharị nke Kọmitii mbipụta weghaara mmachi nke ada Burger ọnwa atọ ka e mesịrị, na-ekpebi na akwụkwọ ahụ nwere otu akụkụ nke na ọ ga-abụ onye mgbagha. [15] Gordimer zara mkpebi a na Essential Gesture (1988), na-arụtụ aka na ụlọ ọrụ ahụ machibido akwụkwọ abụọ nke ndị odee ojii n'otu oge ahụ machibido ọrụ nke ya. [16] Machibidokwara ndị mmadụ Julaị n'okpuru ịkpa ókè agbụrụ, ma chekwa mkpesa n'okpuru ọchịchị ọchịchị ịkpa ókè agbụrụ. [17] N'afọ 2001, ngalaba mmụta ógbè wepụrụ ndị Julaị nwa oge na ndepụta ọgụgụ ụlọ akwụkwọ, yana ọrụ ndị ọzọ na-ede akwụkwọ na-emegide ịkpa ókè agbụrụ, na-akọwa ndị Julaị dị ka "oke ịkpa ókè agbụrụ, onye ka elu na onye nkwado" [18] - njirimara na Gordimer. weere dị ka mkparị dị egwu, na ọtụtụ ndị na-ede akwụkwọ na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị mere mkpesa. [19]

Na South Africa, ọ sonyeere African National Congress mgbe gọọmentị South Africa ka depụtara ya dị ka ọgbakọ iwu na-akwadoghị. [5] [20] Ọ bụ ezie na ọ naghị eguzosi ike n'ihe nye nzukọ ọ bụla, Gordimer hụrụ ANC dị ka olileanya kacha mma maka ịghaghachi mmeso South Africa na-emeso ụmụ amaala ojii. Kama ịkatọ nzukọ a nanị maka emezighị emezi ya, ọ kwadoro isonyere ya iji lebara ha anya. [5] O zoro ndị isi ANC n'ụlọ nke ya iji nyere ha aka mgbapụ n'aka gọọmentị nwụchiri ha, ma o kwuru na ụbọchị kacha dị mpako ná ndụ ya bụ mgbe ọ gbara akaebe na 1986 Delmas Treason Trial n'aha ndị ịrị abụọ na abụọ, South Africa na-emegide ịkpa ókè agbụrụ. [5] [20] (Lee Simon Nkoli, Mosiuoa Lekota, wdg. ) N'ime afọ ndị a, ọ na-ekerekwa òkè mgbe niile na ngosipụta mgbochi ịkpa ókè agbụrụ na South Africa, ma na-aga njem mba ụwa na-ekwu okwu megide apartheid South Africa na ịkpa ókè na mmegide ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị. [5]

Ọrụ ya malitere inweta nkwado agụmagụ n'oge ọrụ ya, na nnabata izizi ya na mba ụwa n'afọ 1961, wee nweta ọtụtụ ihe nrite agụmagụ n'ime iri afọ sochirinụ. Nkwenye akwụkwọ maka ihe ndị ọ rụzuru mechiri na Nrite Nobel maka akwụkwọ na 3 October 1991, [21] nke kwuru na Gordimer "site na edemede akụkọ ya mara mma nwere - n'okwu nke Alfred Nobel - bara ezigbo uru nye mmadụ". [1]

Ọ bụghị nanị n'ọgụ a na-alụ megide ịkpa ókè agbụrụ bụ ihe Gordimer mere. Ọ guzogidere mmachi na njikwa ozi steeti, wee kwalite nka agụmagụ. Ọ jụrụ ikwe ka ụlọ ọrụ mgbasa ozi South Africa wepụta ọrụ ya n’ihi na ọ bụ ọchịchị ịkpa ókè agbụrụ na-achị ya. [22] Gordimer jeekwara ozi na kọmitii nduzi nke otu Otu ihe mgbochi nyocha nke South Africa. Onye guzobere Congress of South African Writers, Gordimer na-arụsi ọrụ ike na akwụkwọ ozi South Africa na òtù mba ụwa. Ọ bụ osote onye isi oche nke International PEN .

N'ime afọ 1990s na narị afọ nke 21st ka apartheid gasịrị, Gordimer nọ na-arụsi ọrụ ike na nje HIV/AIDS, na-ekwu maka nnukwu nsogbu ahụike ọha na eze na South Africa. N'afọ 2004, ọ haziri ihe dị ka ndị edemede 20 bụ ndị isi ka ha nye aka maka akụkọ ifo dị mkpirikpi maka Telling Tales, akwụkwọ nchịkọta ego maka Mgbasa Ozi Ọgwụgwọ Ọgwụ na South Africa, bụ nke na-akwado ego gọọmentị maka mgbochi na nlekọta HIV / AIDS. [23] N'okwu a, ọ katọrọ ọchịchị South Africa, na-ekwupụta n'afọ 2004 na ọ kwadoro ihe niile President Thabo Mbeki mere ma e wezụga nguzo ya na AIDS. [23] [24]

N'afọ 2005, Gordimer gara njem nkuzi wee kwuo okwu gbasara amụma mba ofesi na ịkpa oke karịa South Africa. Dị ka ihe atụ, n'afọ 2005, mgbe Fidel Castro dara ọrịa, Gordimer sonyeere mmadụ isii ndị ọzọ nwetara ihe nrite Nobel n’akwụkwọ ozi o degaara United States n’ihu ọha na-adọ ya aka ná ntị ka ọ ghara ịchọ imebi ọchịchị Kọmunist Cuba. Nguzogide Gordimer na ịkpa ókè agbatịkwuru ya ọbụna na-ajụ ịnakwere "mkpirisi mkpirisi" n'afọ 1998 maka ihe nrite Orange, n'ihi na ihe nrite ahụ na-amata naanị ụmụ nwanyị na-ede akwụkwọ. Gordimer kụzikwara na Massey College nke Mahadum Toronto dị ka onye nkuzi na 2006. [25]

Ndụ onwe[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

N'afọ 2006, ndị ohi wakporo Gordimer n'ụlọ ya, nke kpalitere iwe na mba ahụ. O doro anya na Gordimer jụrụ ịkwaga n'ime ogige nwere oghere, megidere ndụmọdụ ụfọdụ ndị enyi. [26]

N'ajụjụ ọnụ 1979-80 Gordimer kọwara onwe ya dị ka onye na- ekweghị na Chineke, ma gbakwụnyere: "Echere m na m nwere àgwà okpukpe n'ụzọ bụ isi, ikekwe ọbụna nke okpukpe." [27]

Gordimer nwere nwa nwanyị, Oriane (a mụrụ 1950), site na alụmdi na nwunye mbụ ya n'afọ 1949 nye Gerald Gavron, onye dọkịta ezé obodo, onye ọ gbapụrụ n'ime afọ atọ. [13] N'afọ 1954, ọ lụrụ Reinhold Cassirer, onye na-ere ihe nka a na-akwanyere ùgwù nke hibere South Africa Sotheby's ma mesịa gbaa ụlọ ngosi nke ya; "alụmdi na nwunye magburu onwe ya" [7] dịgidere ruo mgbe ọ nwụrụ site na emphysema n'afọ 2001. A mụrụ nwa ha nwoke, Hugo n'afọ 1955, ma bụrụ onye na-eme ihe nkiri na New York, onye Gordimer rụkọrọ ọrụ na ọ dịkarịa ala akwụkwọ akụkọ abụọ.

Akụkọ ndụ enweghị ikike[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ronald Suresh Roberts bipụtara akụkọ ndụ Gordimer, No Cold Kitchen, n'afọ 2006. O nyela Roberts ajụjụ ọnụ na ịnweta akwụkwọ nkeonwe ya, na nghọta na ọ ga-enye ikike maka akụkọ ndụ ya maka ikike inyocha ihe odide ahụ tupu ebipụta ya. Agbanyeghị, Gordimer na Roberts enweghị nkwekọrịta n'ihe ndekọ ya gbasara ọrịa na ọnwụ nke di Gordimer Reinhold Cassirer na okwu Gordimer nwere na afọ mgbe 1950s, yana nkatọ echiche ya na esemokwu Israel-Palestine . Roberts bipụtara onwe ya, ọ bụghị dị ka "nwere ikike", Gordimer jụkwara akwụkwọ ahụ, na-ebo Roberts ebubo imebi ntụkwasị obi. [28]

Na mgbakwunye na nghọtahie ndị ahụ, Roberts katọrọ nkwado Gordimer na-akwado ndị isi ojii South Africa, ọkachasị mmegide ya megide njikwa gọọmentị na-ahụ maka nsogbu AIDS, dịka nna nna na nke ihu abụọ nke ndị ọcha liberalism. Akụkọ ndụ ahụ kwukwara na akwụkwọ akụkọ Gordimer dere na 1954 New Yorker, "Ụmụ South Africa", abụghị nke akụkọ ndụ zuru oke ma nwee ụfọdụ mmemme echepụtara echepụta. [28]

Ọnwụ ya[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Gordimer nwụrụ n'ụra ya na 13 Julaị 2014 mgbe ọ dị afọ iri itoolu. [29] [30] [31]

Ọrụ, gburugburu, na nnabata[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Gordimer nwetara nkwanye ùgwù na-adịgide adịgide nke mba ụwa maka ọrụ ya, ọtụtụ n'ime ha na-ahụ maka okwu ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị, yana "mgbagwoju anya nke omume na nke mmụọ nke obodo ya nke kewara ekewa." [32] Ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ ọrụ Gordimer niile na-ekwu maka isiokwu ịhụnanya na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị, ọkachasị gbasara agbụrụ na South Africa. Na-ajụkarị mmekọrịta ike na eziokwu mgbe niile, Gordimer na-akọ akụkọ banyere ndị nkịtị, na-ekpughe ambiguities omume na nhọrọ. Nkọwapụta ya dị iche iche, ekpughere karịa site na nhọrọ ndị agwa ya mere karịa site na njirimara na nkwenye ha na-ekwu. Ọ na-akpakwa nkọwa aghụghọ n'aha agwa ndị ahụ.

Nchịkọta nke ọrụ dị oke egwu[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Akwụkwọ akụkọ mbụ ya ebipụtara, The Liing Days (1953), na-ewere ọnọdụ n'obodo Gordimer nke Springs, Transvaal, obodo ebe a na-egwuputa ihe na East Rand dị nso na Johannesburg . Na-arụ ụka na ọ bụ ọkara akụkọ ihe mere eme, The Liing Days bụ Bildungsroman, na-akọwapụta mmata ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị na-eto eto nke nwa agbọghọ ọcha, Helen, na ndụ obere obodo na nkewa agbụrụ South Africa. [33]

N'ime ọrụ afọ 1963 ya, Oge maka ịhụ n'anya, Gordimer na-etinye apartheid na ịhụnanya ọnụ. Onye na-akwado ya, Ann Davis, lụrụ Boaz Davis, onye ọkà mmụta ethnomusic, mana ịhụnanya Gideon Shibalo, onye na-ese ihe nwere ọtụtụ mmekọrịta dara ada. Davis na-acha ọcha, Otú ọ dị, Shibalo bụ oji, na gọọmenti South Africa mebie mmekọrịta dị otú ahụ.

Gordimer chịkọtara ihe nrite James Tait Black Memorial Prize maka onye ọbịa nke nsọpụrụ n'afọ 1971 yana, yana ọtụtụ ndị meriri na nrite a, ọ ga-aga n'ihu iji nweta ihe nrite Booker . Enyere onye na-ede akwụkwọ ahụ Gordimer maka akwụkwọ akụkọ 1974 ya, The Conservationist, ma bụrụkwa onye mmeri ya na akwụkwọ akụkọ Stanley Middleton Holiday . Onye nchekwa nchekwa na-enyocha omenala Zulu na ụwa nke ndị na-emepụta ihe na-acha ọcha ọcha site n'anya Mehring, onye na-eme ihe ike. Per Wästberg kọwara The Conservationist dị ka Gordimer si "densest na kasị uri akwụkwọ". [5] Thematically na-ekpuchi otu ala dị ka Olive Schreiner 's Akụkọ nke African Farm (1883) na JM Coetzee 's In the Heart of the Country (1977), onye "nchekwa" na-achọ ichekwa ọdịdị iji chekwaa usoro ịkpa ókè agbụrụ, na-eme mgbanwe. na bay. Mgbe a hụrụ ozu a na-amaghị ama n'ugbo ya, Mehring na-eme "ihe ziri ezi" site n'inye ya ili kwesịrị ekwesị; mana onye ahụ nwụrụ anwụ na-akpagbu ọrụ ahụ, ihe ncheta nke arụ nke a ga-ewulite ọhụụ Mehring na ya.

Akwụkwọ akụkọ Gordimer's nke afọ 1979 Nwa nwanyị Burger bụ akụkọ nke nwanyị na-enyocha mmekọrịta ya na nna ya, onye nwụrụ n'ihi okwukwe na ngagharị mgbochi ịkpa ókè agbụrụ. Nwa nke ndị ọchịchị Kọmunist abụọ na ndị na-emegide apartheid, Rosa Burger na-ahụkwa onwe ya na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị. N'ịbụ nke e dere na njedebe nke ọgba aghara Soweto 1976, gọọmentị South Africa machibidoro akwụkwọ akụkọ ahụ n'oge na-adịghị anya. Gordimer kọwara akwụkwọ akụkọ ahụ dị ka "nkịtị nsọpụrụ" nye Bram Fischer, onye ọka iwu gbachitere Nelson Mandela na ndị ọzọ na-emegide ịkpa ókè agbụrụ. [5] [34]

N'ime ndị Julaị (1981), ọ na-eche mgbanwe mgbanwe ọbara na South Africa, bụ nke a na-achụgharị ma gbuo ndị ọcha mgbe ndị isi ojii nupụrụ isi megide ọchịchị ịkpa ókè agbụrụ. Ọrụ ahụ sochiri Maureen na Bamford Smales, bụ́ di na nwunye bụ́ ndị ọcha gụrụ akwụkwọ, na July, bụ́bu ohu ha jerela ozi ruo ogologo oge, zoro maka ndụ ha. Akwụkwọ akụkọ ahụ na-egwuri egwu dị iche iche nke "ndị July": ezinụlọ ya na obodo ya, yana Smales. Akụkọ ahụ na-enyocha otú ndị mmadụ si anagide nhọrọ dị egwu nke ime ihe ike, ịkpọasị agbụrụ, na steeti na-amanye ha. [35]

Egbe Ụlọ (1998) bụ akwụkwọ akụkọ nke abụọ nke apartheid nke Gordimer. Ọ na-esote akụkọ banyere otu di na nwunye, Claudia na Harald Lingard, na-emekọ ihe banyere ogbugbu nwa ha nwoke Duncan gburu otu n'ime ndị ezinụlọ ya. Akwụkwọ akụkọ a na-ahụ maka mpụ na-arị elu na South Africa na egbe nke ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ ezinụlọ niile nwere, yana ihe nketa nke ịkpa ókè agbụrụ South Africa na nchegbu di na nwunye ahụ nwere banyere ọkàiwu nwa ha nwoke, bụ onye isi ojii. Ahọpụtara akwụkwọ akụkọ a maka ikike ihe nkiri na mmepụta Granada. [36] [37] [38]

Akwụkwọ akụkọ 2002 nke Gordimer nwetara nturu ugo, The Pickup, tụlere okwu gbasara nchụpụ, mwepu, na mbata na ọpụpụ; klaasị na ike akụ na ụba; okwukwe okpukpe; na ikike nke ndị mmadụ ịhụ, na ịhụnanya, gafee ndị a nkewa. Ọ na-akọ akụkọ banyere otu di na nwunye: Julie Summers, nwanyị ọcha sitere n'ezinụlọ nwere ego, na Abdu, onye Arab kwagara South Africa n'ụzọ iwu na-akwadoghị. Mgbe a jụrụ visa Abdu, di na nwunye ahụ laghachiri n'ala nna ya, ebe ọ bụ onye ọbịa. Ahụmahụ ya na uto ya dị ka ọbịa na omenala ọzọ na-eme ka obi dị n'ọrụ ahụ. [39]

Nweta ndụ, nke edere na 2005 mgbe ọ nwụsịrị nke di ya ogologo oge, Reinhold Cassirer, bụ akụkọ banyere otu nwoke na-enweta ọgwụgwọ maka ọrịa na-eyi ndụ egwu. Ọ bụ ezie na e nwetara nke ọma site na ahụmahụ ndụ onwe onye, akwụkwọ akụkọ ahụ gara n'ihu n'ịchọgharị Gordimer nke isiokwu ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị. Onye na-akwado ya bụ ọkachamara n'ihe gbasara gburugburu ebe obibi, na-alụ ọgụ maka ntinye nke ụlọ ọrụ nuklia akwadoro. Ma n'otu oge ahụ ọ na-enweta ọgwụgwọ radieshon maka ọrịa kansa ya, na-akpatara ya iru újú na, n'ụzọ dị ịtụnanya, na-eme ka ọ bụrụ ihe ize ndụ ahụike nuklia n'ụlọ nke ya. N'ebe a, Gordimer na-agbasokwa ajụjụ nke otu esi ejikọta ndụ kwa ụbọchị na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị. [20] New York Times nkatọ JR Ramakrishnan, onye kwuru na myirịta ya na onye edemede Mia Alvar dere na Gordimer dere banyere "ndị di na nwunye nwere ogologo ntachi obi na (ndị) ezinụlọ na-enyere ndị nwoke ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị aka" na akụkọ ifo ya. [40]

Nkwanye ugwu na ihe nrite[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • WH Smith Commonwealth Award Award for Friday's footprint (1961) [41]
  • James Tait Black Memorial Prize maka Onye ọbịa nke nsọpụrụ (1972) [41]
  • Booker Prize for the Conservationist (1974) [41]
  • Akwụkwọ akụkọ Central News Agency maka onye nchekwa (1974) [42]
  • Grand Aigle d'Or (France) (1975) [43]
  • Ndepụta ihe nrite Orange ; ọ jụrụ [25]
  • Akwụkwọ akụkọ Central News Agency maka ada Burger (1979) [42]
  • Akwụkwọ akụkọ Central News Agency maka ndị Julaị (1981) [42]
  • Ndị otu Scottish Arts Council Neil M. Gunn Fellowship (1981) [41]
  • Ndị otu nkwanye ugwu asụsụ ọgbara ọhụrụ (1984) [44]
  • Ihe nrite Rome (1984) [45] [46]
  • Premio Malaparte (Italy) (1985) [41]
  • Nrite Nelly Sachs (Germany) (1985) [41]
  • Onyinye Bennett (United States) (1987) [47]
  • Anisfield-Wolf Akwụkwọ Award maka Egwuregwu nke okike (1988) [48]
  • Ewebatara dị ka onye otu nsọpụrụ na Phi Beta Kappa (1988) [49]
  • Ihe nrite akwụkwọ akụkọ Central News Agency maka akụkọ nwa m nwoke (1990) [42]
  • Nrite Nobel maka akwụkwọ (1991) [25]
  • International Botev Prize Laureate (1996) [50]
  • Ihe nrite nke ndị ode akwụkwọ Commonwealth maka akwụkwọ kacha mma sitere na Africa maka ịkpọrọ (2002) [51]
  • Ndekọ ihe nrite Booker maka The Pickup (2001) [52]
  • Onye isi nke Legion of Honor (2007)
  • American Philosophical Society, Onye otu (2008) [53]
  • American Academy of Arts and Letters, Onye Ọpụrụiche (1979) [43]
  • American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Onye Ọpụrụiche (1980) [43]
  • Royal Society of Literature, Onye otu [54]
  • Congress nke ndị ode akwụkwọ South Africa, Onye enyemaka [55]
  • Ordre des Arts et des Lettres, Ọchịagha [43]
  • Nrịgo nsọpụrụ 15 [54]
  • Onye isi otu, Massey College nke Mahadum Toronto
  • Golden Plate Award nke American Academy of Achievement nke onye otu Awards Council Archbishọp Desmond Tutu nyere na emume onyinye na St. George's Cathedral na Cape Town, South Africa (2009) [56] [57]
  • Usoro nke Ugo Aztec [58]

Ụtụ[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Na 20 Nọvemba 2015, Google jiri Google Doodle mee mmemme ụbọchị ọmụmụ ịrị itoolu na abụọ ya. [59]

Akwụkwọ akụkọ[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Akwụkwọ akụkọ[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Ụbọchị Ụgha (1953)
  • Ụwa nke ndị ọbịa (1958)
  • Oge maka ịhụnanya (1963)
  • Ụwa Bourgeois Late (1966)
  • Onye ọbịa nke nsọpụrụ (1970)
  • The Conservationist (1974) - nkwonkwo mmeri nke Booker nrite na 1974
  • Ada Burger (1979)
  • Ndị Juu (1981)
  • Egwuregwu nke okike (1987)
  • Akụkọ nke Ọkpara m (1990)
  • Ọ nweghị onye ga-eso m (1994)
  • Ụlọ egbe (1998)
  • Mkpebi (2001)
  • Nweta ndụ (2005)
  • Ọ dịghị oge dị ka ugbu a (2012) [60]

Ejije[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Gburugburu Mbụ, na Egwuregwu isii One-act nke ndị ode akwụkwọ South Africa (1949)

Akụkọ ifo dị mkpụmkpụ[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

mkpokọta[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Ihu na ihu (1949)
  • Olu Agwọ ahụ dị nro (1952)
  • Ụkwụ isii nke Obodo (1956)
  • Kedu Oge Ọhụrụ nke ahụ ga-abụ? (1956)
  • Ụkwụ Fraịde (1960)
  • Ọ bụghị maka mbipụta (1965)
  • Ndị enyi Livingstone (1970)
  • Akụkọ ahọpụtara (1975)
  • Ụfọdụ Mọnde n'ezie (1976)
  • Enweghị ebe dị ka: Akụkọ ahọpụtara (1978)
  • Nnabata nke onye agha (1980)
  • Ndị hụrụ obodo na obodo (1982), nke Sylvester & Orphanos bipụtara
  • Ihe dị n'ebe ahụ (1984)
  • Agụmakwụkwọ nzikọrịta ozi na akụkọ ndị ọzọ (1984)
  • Oge Tupu egbe ahụ apụọ (1988)
  • N'otu oge (1989)
  • Mpụ nke akọ na uche (1991)
  • Jump: na akụkọ ndị ọzọ (1991)
  • Gịnị kpatara na ị debeghị: Akụkọ ahọpụtara 1950-1972 (1992)
  • Ihe maka oge a 1950-1972 (1992)
  • Loot na akụkọ ndị ọzọ (2003)
  • Beethoven dị ojii nke otu na iri na isii (2007)
  • Oge ndụ: Akụkọ (2011)

Edemede, mkpesa na ntinye aka ndị ọzọ[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Ihe mere ada Burger ma ọ bụ ka South Africa censorship si arụ ọrụ (1980)
  • Mmegharị ahụ dị mkpa: Edemede, ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị na ebe (1988)
  • Ndị ntụgharị okwu ojii (1973)
  • Edemede na ịbụ: nkuzi Charles Eliot Norton (1995)
  • Ibi na olileanya na akụkọ ihe mere eme (1999)

Ọrụ ndị edeziri[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Akụkọ ifo (2004)
  • Oge Ịkọ: Ode na Ndụ, 1950-2008 (2010)

Ndị ọzọ[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • "The Gordimer Akụkọ" (1981-82) - mmegharị nke asaa obere akụkọ; o dere screenplays maka anọ n'ime ha
  • Na Mines (1973)
  • Ndụ n'okpuru Apartheid (1986)
  • "Ịhọrọ maka ikpe ziri ezi: Allan Boesak" (1983) (akwụkwọ na Hugo Cassirer)
  • "Berlin na Johannesburg: The Wall and the Color Bar" (akwụkwọ ya na Hugo Cassirer)

Isi mmalite: [61]

Nyocha[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Girdwood, Alison (1984), Gordimer's South Africa, ntụleghachi nke Something Out There, na Parker, Geoff (ed. ), Cencrastus Nke 18, Mgbụsị akwụkwọ 1984, p. 50, 

Hụkwa ihe ọzọ[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Ndepụta ụmụ nwanyị nwetara ihe nrite Nobel
  • Ndepụta ndị Juu nwetara ihe nrite Nobel

Edensibia[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. 1.0 1.1 The Nobel Prize in Literature 1991. Nobelprize (7 October 2010). Retrieved on 7 October 2010.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Ettin (1993). Betrayals of the Body Politic: The Literary Commitments of Nadine Gordimer. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 29, 30. ISBN 978-0-8139-1430-5. “although she had always referred to her father as Lithuanian, in recent years she has noted that his parents lived and worked in Riga, and now she identifies him as Latvian .” 
  3. (2003) in Newman: Nadine Gordimer's 'Burger's daughter': A Casebook. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-514717-9. “She believed for many years that he was Lithuanian (like many South African Jewish immigrants) and only discovered later in life that he was Latvian.” 
  4. Gordimer (1990). in Bazin: Conversations with Nadine Gordimer. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 978-0-87805-445-9. “1923 – Born, 20 November in Springs, a small mining town in the Transvaal, South Africa. Second daughter of Isidore Gordimer, Jewish watchmaker and jeweler who had emigrated from Latvia at age 13, and Nan Myers Gordimer, a native of England.” 
  5. 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 Wästberg (26 April 2001). Nadine Gordimer and the South African Experience. Nobelprize.org. Retrieved on 16 August 2010.
  6. Heroes – Trailblazers of the Jewish People. Beit Hatfutsot.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 "A Writer's Life: Nadine Gordimer", Telegraph, 3 April 2006.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Nadine Gordimer, Guardian Unlimited (last visited 25 January 2007).
  9. New Yorker, 9 June 1951.
  10. A mixture of ice and fulfilled desire. Mail & Guardian (14 November 2005). Retrieved on 16 August 2010.
  11. Nadine Gordimer Biography and Interview. www.achievement.org. American Academy of Achievement.
  12. Glen Frankel. "The Speech at Rivonia Trial that Changed History", Washington Post, 5 December 2013.
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 Jonathan Steele, "White magic", The Guardian (London), 27 October 2001.
  14. Gail Caldwell, "South African Writer Given Nobel", The Boston Globe, 4 October 1991.
  15. "Radiation, Race, and Molly Bloom: Nadine Gordimer Talks with BookForum", BookForum, Feb / March 2006.
  16. Gordimer wrote an account of the censorship in "What Happened to Burger's Daughter or How South African Censorship Works".
  17. BBC News, "South Africa reinstates authors", 22 April 2001.
  18. Anuradha Kumar, "New Boundaries", The Hindu, 1 August 2004.
  19. Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named news24
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 Donald Morrison, "Nadine Gordimer", Time Magazine, 60 Years of Heroes (2006).
  21. Nobel Prize in Literature 1991 – Press Release. Nobel Media AB (2014). Retrieved on 10 December 2017.
  22. Christopher S. Wren, "Former Censors Bow Coldly to Apartheid Chronicler", New York Times, 6 October 1991.
  23. 23.0 23.1 Agence France-Presse, "Nobel laureates join battle against AIDS", 1 December 2004.
  24. Nadine Gordimer and Anthony Sampson, Letter to The New Review of Books, 16 November 2000.
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 Nadine Gordimer, anti-apartheid author, dies aged 90. The Telegraph (14 July 2014). Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. Retrieved on 1 October 2018.
  26. Johnson. "Nobel writer Nadine Gordimer, 82, attacked and robbed", The Times, 29 October 2006. Retrieved on 22 February 2010.
  27. Jannika Hurwitt, Interview with Gordimer, Paris Review, 88, Summer 1983.
  28. 28.0 28.1 Donadio. "Nadine Gordimer and the Hazards of Biography", New York Times, 31 December 2006. Retrieved on 12 April 2007.
  29. "SA novelist Nadine Gordimer dies", News24.com, 14 July 2014. Retrieved on 14 July 2014.
  30. Smith (15 July 2014). Nadine Gordimer dies aged 90. The Guardian. Retrieved on 15 July 2014.
  31. Becker (September 2014). Nadine Gordimer: 'Comrade Madam'. Standpoint. Retrieved on 24 September 2014.
  32. Liukkonen. Nadine Gordimer. Books and Writers (kirjasto.sci.fi). Kuusankoski Public Library. Archived from the original on 4 December 2008.
  33. Judith Newman Special Commissioned Essay on The Lying Days by Nadine Gordimer Essay – Critical Essays. eNotes.com (20 November 1923). Retrieved on 2 November 2016.
  34. Bram Fischer Human Rights Programme. Wits School of Law (2005). Archived from the original on 4 July 2007. Retrieved on 16 August 2010.
  35. The Nobel Prize in Literature 1991 (en-US). NobelPrize.org. Retrieved on 29 May 2020.
  36. Garner (March 1998). The Salon Interview: Nadine Gordimer. salon.com.
  37. ReadingGroup Guide, The House Gun by Nadine Gordimer, Bookreporter.com
  38. David Medalie, "'The Context of the Awful Event': Nadine Gordimer's The House Gun", Journal of Southern African Studies, v.25, n.4 (December 1999), pp. 633–644.
  39. J.M. Coetzee Review of The Pickup and Loot and Other Stories, nytimes.com, 23 October 2003.
  40. J. R. Ramakrishnan. "'In the Country,' by Mia Alvar", The New York Times, 19 June 2015. Retrieved on 6 April 2016. “... Alvar’s elegant examination of the political wife is reminiscent of the long-suffering spouses and familial enablers of political men in Nadine Gordimer’s fiction...”
  41. 41.0 41.1 41.2 41.3 41.4 41.5 Nadine Gordimer. British Council. Retrieved on 1 October 2018.
  42. 42.0 42.1 42.2 42.3 Nadine Gordimer. LibraryThing. Retrieved on 1 October 2018.
  43. 43.0 43.1 43.2 43.3 Brendon Nicholls (2013). Nadine Gordimer's July's People: A Routledge Study Guide. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-71871-9. 
  44. Past Honorary Fellows | Modern Language Association. Mla.org (27 December 1959). Retrieved on 2 November 2016.
  45. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (20 November 1923). UNHCR Gordimer, Nadine. Unhcr.org. Retrieved on 14 July 2014.
  46. Mehren. "Merger Of The Arts, Scholarship, Funding : Rome Prize Sidesteps The Cutbacks", Los Angeles Times, 16 May 1985. Retrieved on 15 September 2013.
  47. Bennett Award Acceptance Speech, 1986. The Hudson Review. Retrieved on 1 October 2018.
  48. Winners by Year. Anisfield-Wolf (2018). Retrieved on 1 October 2018.
  49. Nobel Laureates Who Are BK Members (through 2009). Pbk.org. Archived from the original on 14 October 2016. Retrieved on 2 November 2016.
  50. На колене пред слънцето на свободата!. Retrieved on 1 October 2018.
  51. Nadine Gordimer. Macmillan Publishers. Retrieved on 1 October 2018.
  52. Sue Kossew (February 2005). Nadine Gordimer, The Pickup. Quodlibet: The Australian Journal of Trans-national Writing. Retrieved on 1 October 2018.
  53. APS Member History. search.amphilsoc.org. Retrieved on 3 May 2021.
  54. 54.0 54.1 (2007) in Mohit K. Ray: The Atlantic Companion to Literature in English. Atlantic Publishers & Dis. ISBN 978-81-269-0832-5. 
  55. Scott Kraft (4 October 1991). Perceptive Works Earned Respect of S. African Blacks : Nobel: Nadine Gordimer's opposition to apartheid, evident in her books, also took her to court. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved on 1 October 2018.
  56. Golden Plate Awardees of the American Academy of Achievement. www.achievement.org. American Academy of Achievement.
  57. 2009 Summit Photo. “Nobel Prize-winning author Nadine Gordimer receives the Golden Plate Award from Archbishop Desmond Tutu.”
  58. Francisco González receives Mexico's Order of the Aztec Eagle honor. BBVA (18 April 2018). Retrieved on 1 October 2018.
  59. Nadine Gordimer's 92nd Birthday. Google (20 November 2015).
  60. Davies. A Very Long Engagement. The Oxonian Review.
  61. Nadine Gordimer. Biblio. Retrieved on 2 October 2018.

Ọgụgụ ọzọ[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Akụkọ ndụ dị nkenke[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Obituaries[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ọmụmụ ihe dị egwu[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Stephen Clingman, Akwụkwọ akụkọ Nadine Gordimer: Akụkọ si n'ime ime (1986)
  • John Cooke, Akwụkwọ akụkọ nke Nadine Gordimer
  • Andrew Vogel Ettin, Nrara nke Ọchịchị nke Ahụ: Nkwekọrịta Akwụkwọ nke Nadine Gordimer (1993)
  • Dominic Head, Nadine Gordimer (1994)
  • Christopher Heywood, Nadine Gordimer (1983)
  • Santayana, Vivek. 2021. Kacha sie ike na kacha mara mma : ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị nke ịke na ọrụ ikpeazụ nke Nadine Gordimer. Mahadum nke Edinburgh: akwụkwọ nyocha nke doctoral.
  • Rowland Smith, onye nchịkọta akụkọ, Critical Essays on Nadine Gordimer (1990)
  • Barbara Temple-Thurston, Nadine Gordimer letara (1999) 
  • Kathrin Wagner, Nadine Gordimer na-agụgharị (1994)
  • Louise Yelin, Site na oke ala nke Alaeze Ukwu: Christina Stead, Doris Lessing, Nadine Gordimer (1998)
  • Ọchịchị Nadine Gordimer  Nkeji edemede nke Jillian Becker na Commentary, February 1992

Akụkọ[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ian Fullerton, ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị na akwụkwọ akụkọ South Africa na Bekee, na Bold, Christine (ed. ) Cencrastus Nke 3, Summer 1980, p. 22 & 23

Nlebanya dị mkpirikpi[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Okwu na ajụjụ ọnụ[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Ian Fullerton & Glen Murray, Ajụjụ ọnụ Nadine Gordimer, na Murray, Glen (ed. ), Cencrastus Nke 6, Mgbụsị akwụkwọ 1981, p. 2-5
  • Nadine Gordimer, Nancy Topping Bazin, na Marilyn Dallman Seymour, Mkparịta ụka ya na Nadine Gordimer (1990)
  • Nadine Gordimer </img> ya na nkuzi Nobel, 7 Disemba 1991 Ide na Ịbụ
  • Nadine Gordimer: Ọgụgụ Safari kacha elu sitere na 2007 PEN World Voices Festival
  • Mkparịta ụka ya na Nadine Gordimer na Arthur Miller Freedom ide akwụkwọ nkuzi, 2007 sitere na PEN American Center
  • Ronald Suresh Roberts, Enweghị kichin oyi: akụkọ ndụ Nadine Gordimer (2005)

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Àtụ:Nadine Gordimer