Nchịkọta ihu igwe

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Nchịkọta ihu igwe
classification scheme, type of classification
obere ụdị nkespecialised classification scheme Dezie
Map of world dividing climate zones, largely influenced by latitude. The zones, going from the equator upward (and downward) are Tropical, Dry, Moderate, Continental and Polar. There are subzones within these zones.
Nhazi ihu igwe Köppen zuru ụwa ọnụ

[1]Nhazi ihu igwe bụ usoro na-hazi ihu igwe nke ụwa.  Nhazi ihu igwe nwere ike iche ya na nhazi nke biome, ebe ihu igwe bụ nnukwu ụgbọ na ndụ na mpaghara.  Otu n'ime ihe ndị a na-ahụ bụ nhazi ihu igwe nke Köppen nke mbụ nke na 1884

Enwere ụzọ dị iche iche isi kewaa ihu igwe n'ime usoro echiche ndị yiri ya.  Na mbụ, a kọwapụtara climes na Gris oge ochie ijiji ihu igwe dabere n'okirikiri ebe.  Enwere ike kewaa usoro nhazi ihu igwe nke oge a ka ọ bụrụ usoro ihe nkiri ndụ ihe nketa, nke na-bụ anya n'ihe na-akpata ihu igwe, na ụzọ dị egwu, nke na-anya anya na nche nke ihu igwe.  Ọmụmaatụ nke dabere ndị ndụ ihe nketa ụzọ n'ụdị oke ikuku dị iche iche ma ọ bụ ọnọdụ dị n'ime ọgba aghara egwuregwu ihu igwe synoptic.  Ọmụmaatụ nke nhazi ọkwa ndị mpaghara ihu igwe ebe na hardiness osisi, [1] evapotranspiration, [2] ma ọ bụ ibu nwere ụfọdụ biomes, dị ka ọ dị na nhazi ihu igwe nke Köppen .  Mmejọ a na-enwekarị na akpara ọkwa ọkwa ndị a bụ na ha na-ahụ oke dị iche iche n'etiti mpaghara ndị ha na-eso, kama iji ngwaọrụ na-enwe ire ihu igwe na-emekarị na-amị.

Ụdị ihu igwe[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Systems[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Leslie Holdridge's Life Zone Classification system is essentially a climate classification scheme.

Bergeron and Spatial Synoptic[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

. [2]Nkewa ozi mfe bụ nke ike oke ikuku .  Nhazi Bergeron bụ ụdị nke oke ikukuanabata nke ọma.  [1] Nhazi oke ikuku egwu atọ.  Akwụkwọ ozi nke mbụ na-akpọ mmiri ya, na c ejiri maka ikuku continental (akọrọ) na m maka oke ikuku mmiri (mmiri).  Akwụkwọ ozi nke abụọ na-egosi ụdị nke mpaghara isi ya: T maka akwụkwọ, P maka polar, A maka Arctic ma ọ bụ Antarctic, M maka udu mmiri, E maka equatorial, na S maka ikuku dị elu (ikuku akọrọ na-  Ibi site na ike ala dị mfe ama na ikuku. ).  A na-eji akwụkwọ ozi nke atɔ kụkụsi ike nke ikuku.  Ọ bụrụ na oke ikuku dị iche ala dị n'okpuru ya, a na-akpọ ya k.  Ọ bụrụ na oke ikuku dị iche ala dị n'okpuru ya, a na-akpọ ya w.  [2] Ọ bụ ebe na e bu ụzọ jiri ikuku na-ebu mgbasa ihu igwe n'ime afụ 1950, ndị ọkàṣi ihu igwe mgbasa iguzobe climatologies synoptic dabere na echiche a na 1973.

.Dabere na atụmatụ nhazi Bergeron bụ Sistemụ Nhazi Synoptic (SSC).  Enwere ngalaba isii n'ime atụmatụ SSC: Dry Polar (nke yiri polar kọntinent), Dry Moderate (nke yiri ka mmiri dị elu), Dry Tropical (dị ka ebe okpomọkụ kọntinent), Moist Polar (nke yiri polar mmiri), Moist Moderate (ngwakọ).  n'etiti polar mmiri na ebe okpomọkụ mmiri), na Moist Tropical (dị ka ebe okpomọkụ nke oke mmiri, mmiri ozuzo, ma ọ bụ mmiri mmiri equatorial).

Okpomọkụ dị elu kwa ọnwa site na 1961 ruo 1990. Nke a bụ ọmụmaatụ etu ihu igwe si dị iche na ọnọdụ na oge
Monthly global images from NASA Earth Observatory (interactive SVG)
  1. Beck (30 October 2018). "Present and future Köppen-Geiger climate classification maps at 1-km resolution" (in en). Scientific Data 5: 180214. DOI:10.1038/sdata.2018.214. ISSN 2052-4463. PMID 30375988. 
  2. Schwartz, M.D. (1995). "Detecting Structural Climate Change: An Air Mass-Based Approach in the North Central United States, 1958–1992". Annals of the Association of American Geographers 85 (3): 553–68. DOI:10.1111/j.1467-8306.1995.tb01812.x. 

Nhazi Köppen na-adabere na nkezi ụkpụrụ okpomọkụ na mmiri ozuzo kwa ọnwa.  Ụdị nke Köppen nke a na-ejikarị eme ihe nwere ụdị isi ise nke akpọrọ A ruo E. Ụdị ndị a bụ A) okpomọkụ, B) nkụ, C) etiti etiti, D) oyi etiti etiti, na E) polar.

A kọwapụtara ihu igwe okpomọkụ dị ka ebe ebe okpomọkụ kacha dị mma kwa ọnwa dị n'elu 18 C (64.4 F). A na-agbajikwa mpaghara okpomọkụ a ka ọ bụrụ ọhịa mmiri ozuzo, udu mmiri na savanna dabere na mmiri ozuzo n'oge. Ọnọdụ ihu igwe ndị a na-adịkarị n'etiti Equator na 25 n'ebe ugwu na ebe ndịda.

.Ụjọ mmiri bụ ifufe na-efe efe n'oge nke na-adịru ọtụtụ ọnwa, na-ebute oge mmiri ozuzo na mpaghara.[1]  Mpaghara dị n'ime North America, South America, Sub-Saharan Africa, Australia na East Asia bụ ọchịchị mmiri ozuzo

Ebe urukpuru na anwụ na-acha n'ụwa. NASA Earth Observatory map na-eji data anakọtara n'etiti Julaị 2002 na Eprel 2015. [1]

. Savanna na-ekpo ọkụ bụ ndị njem nke dị na mpaghara ihu igwe nke nwere obere ala ezi nkụ ruo ọkara iru mmiri nke mpaghara ebe na ebe ebe, yana nkezi dị na ma ọ bụ akụkụ 18 .  n'afọ niile, na mmiri ozuzo n'etiti 750 millimeters (30 na) na 1,270 millimeters (50 na) otu afọ.  Ha na-agbasa n'Africa, a na-ahụkwa ha na India, n'ekiri ugwu nke South America, Malaysia, na Australia

.Mpaghara ihu igwe dị n'okpuru mmiri na-ekpo ọkụ bụ ebe mmiri ozuzo oyi (na mgbe ụfọdụ obere snow) na-ejikọta ya na oké ifufe nke ndị ọdịda anyanwụ na-esi n'ebe ọdịda anyanwụ gaa n'ebe ọwụwa anyanwụ n'oge anwụ dara (oyi).  N'oge ọkọchị, nrụgide dị elu na-achịkwa ka ndị ọdịda anyanwụ na-aga n'ebe ugwu.  Ọtụtụ mmiri ozuzo n'oge okpomọkụ na-abịa n'oge égbè eluigwe na site na cyclones okpomọkụ mgbe ụfọdụ.[1]  Ọnọdụ ihu igwe dị n'okpuru mmiri iru mmiri dị n'akụkụ ọwụwa anyanwụ nke kọntinent, ihe dị ka n'etiti latitudes 20° na 40° n'ebe dịpụrụ adịpụ site na equator.

A na-eji ụdị ihu igwe na-agbanwe agbanwe na nnukwu mgbanwe okpomọkụ nke oge, oyi na oge oyi na-enwe oke snow, na oge okpomọkụ na-eji ihu igwe kọntinent mara mmiri mara mma. Ebe nwere ihe karịrị ọnwa atọ nke nkezi okpomọkụ kwa ụbọchị karịa 10 Celsius C (50 Celsius F) na ọnwa oyi kacha dị n'okpuru −3 Celsius C (27 °F) na nke na-emezughị ụkpụrụ maka ihu igwe kpọrọ nkụ ma ọ bụ nke kpọrọ nkụ, bụ nkewa dị ka kọntinent. A na-ahụ ọtụtụ ihu igwe dị na mpaghara a site na latitude 35 ruo 55, nke ka ukwuu na mpaghara ugwu. [2]

An oceanic climate is typically found along west coasts in higher middle latitudes of all the world's continents, and in southeastern Australia, and is accompanied by plentiful precipitation year-round, cool summers, and small annual ranges of temperatures. Most climates of this type are found from 45 latitude to 55 latitude.

Ọchịchị ihu igwe nke Mediterenian yiri ihu igwe nke ala ndị dị na Basin Mediterranean, akụkụ ọdịda anyanwụ North America, akụkụ nke Western na South Australia, na ndịda ọdịda anyanwụ South Africa na akụkụ nke etiti Chile . A na-eji ihu igwe na-ekpo ọkụ, ọkọchị ọkọchị na oyi na oyi na-atụ mmiri.

Steeti bụ ala ahịhịa kpọrọ nkụ nke na-enwe okpomọkụ kwa afọ n'oge ọkọchị ruru 40 Celsius C (104 Celsius F) na n'oge oyi ruo −40 Celsius C (-40 °F) .

Ihu igwe subarctic nwere ntakịrị mmiri ozuzo, na okpomọkụ kwa ọnwa nke karịrị 10 Celsius C (50 °F) maka otu ọnwa ruo ọnwa atọ n'afọ, yana permafrost n'akụkụ buru ibu nke mpaghara n'ihi oyi oyi. Oge oyi n'ime ihu igwe subarctic na-agụnyekarị ọnwa isii nke okpomọkụ na-erughị 0 Celsius C (32 °F) .

Tundra occurs in the far Northern Hemisphere, north of the taiga belt, including vast areas of northern Russia and Canada.[3]

Okpu ice polar, ma ọ bụ mpempe ice polar, bụ mpaghara elu- elu nke mbara ala ma ọ bụ ọnwa nke kpuchie na ice . Okpu ice na-etolite n'ihi na mpaghara ndị dị elu na-enweta obere ume dị ka radieshon anyanwụ sitere na anyanwụ karịa mpaghara equatorial, na-ebute ihu igwe dị ala.

A desert is a landscape form or region that receives very little precipitation. Deserts usually have a large diurnal and seasonal temperature range, with high or low, depending on location daytime temperatures (in summer up to Àtụ:Convert), and low nighttime temperatures (in winter down to Àtụ:Convert) due to extremely low humidity. Many deserts are formed by rain shadows, as mountains block the path of moisture and precipitation to the desert.

WikUsoro nhazi ihu igwe nke Trewartha (TCC) ma ọ bụ Köppen-Trewartha ihu igwe (KTC) bụ usoro nhazi ihu igwe nke onye America bụ Glenn Thomas Trewartha bipụtara na 1966. Ọ bụ ụdị usoro Köppen–Geiger gbanwetụrụ, nke emebere iji zaa ụfọdụ adịghị ike ya. [4] Usoro Trewartha na-anwa ịkọwapụta ebe etiti ka ọ bịaruo nso nsonye ahịhịa na sistemụ ihu igwe mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa. A na-ewere ya ka ọ bụrụ eziokwu karịa ma ọ bụ "ezigbo ụwa" nke ihu igwe zuru ụwa ọnụ. [5]

A na-ahụ mgbanwe mgbanwe ihu igwe Trewartha dị ka nke kachasị dị irè na nnukwu ala dị na Asia na North America, ebe ọtụtụ ebe na-adaba n'otu ìgwè ( C ) na usoro Köppen-Geiger. [6] Dịka ọmụmaatụ, n'okpuru usoro Köppen ọkọlọtọ, Washington na Oregon na-ekewa n'ime otu mpaghara ihu igwe ( Csb ) dị ka akụkụ nke Southern California, n'agbanyeghị na mpaghara abụọ ahụ nwere ihu igwe dị iche iche na ahịhịa. Ihe atụ ọzọ bụ nkewa obodo dịka London ma ọ bụ Chicago n'otu ụdị ihu igwe ( C ) dị ka Brisbane ma ọ bụ New Orleans, n'agbanyeghị nnukwu ọdịiche dị na oge okpomọkụ na ndụ osisi. [7]

Mgbanwe Trewartha na 1899 Köppen ihu igwe chọrọ ịhazigharị etiti etiti ka ọ bụrụ otu atọ: C ( subtropical ) -8 ma ọ bụ karịa ọnwa nwere oke okpomọkụ nke 10 Celsius C (50 °F) ma ọ bụ karịa; D oyi - ọnwa 4 ruo 7 nwere oke okpomọkụ nke 10 Celsius C ma ọ bụ karịa; na ihu igwe E boreal — ọnwa 1 ruo 3 nwere ọ̀tụ̀tụ̀ okpomọkụ nke 10 Celsius C ma ọ bụ karịa. Ma ọ bụghị ya, ihu igwe na-ekpo ọkụ na ihu igwe pola ka dị ka nke mbụ Köppen nhazi ihu igwe.

Onye America na-ahụ maka ihu igwe na onye na-ahụ maka mbara ala CW Thornthwaite chepụtara, usoro nhazi ihu igwe a na-enyocha mmefu ego mmiri ala site na iji evapotranspiration. [8] Ọ na-enyocha akụkụ nke mkpokọta mmiri ozuzo ejiri na-azụ ahịhịa n'akụkụ ụfọdụ. Ọ na-eji ihe nrịbama dị ka ndeksi iru mmiri na ndekọ kpọrọ nkụ iji chọpụta usoro mmiri nke mpaghara dabere na nkezi okpomọkụ ya, nkezi mmiri ozuzo, na nkezi ụdị ahịhịa. [9] N'ịbelata uru nke index na mpaghara ọ bụla enyere, ebe ahụ na-akpọ nkụ.

The moisture classification includes climatic classes with descriptors such as hyperhumid, humid, subhumid, subarid, semi-arid (values of −20 to −40), and arid (values below −40). Humid regions experience more precipitation than evaporation each year, while arid regions experience greater evaporation than precipitation on an annual basis. A total of 33 percent of the Earth's landmass is considered either arid or semi-arid, including southwest North America, southwest South America, most of northern and a small part of southern Africa, southwest and portions of eastern Asia, as well as much of Australia.[10] Studies suggest that precipitation effectiveness (PE) within the Thornthwaite moisture index is overestimated in the summer and underestimated in the winter.[11] This index can be effectively used to determine the number of herbivore and mammal species numbers within a given area.[12] The index is also used in studies of climate change.

Thermal classifications within the Thornthwaite scheme include microthermal, mesothermal, and megathermal regimes. A microthermal climate is one of low annual mean temperatures, generally between Àtụ:Convert and Àtụ:Convert which experiences short summers and has a potential evaporation between Àtụ:Convert and Àtụ:Convert. A mesothermal climate lacks persistent heat or persistent cold, with potential evaporation between Àtụ:Convert and Àtụ:Convert. A megathermal climate is one with persistent high temperatures and abundant rainfall, with potential annual evaporation in excess of Àtụ:Convert.

References[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. Central. The Bright Side of 13 Years of Clouds in 1 Map. Scientific American. Retrieved on 2015-05-17.
  2. Peel, M. C. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification". Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11 (5): 1633–1644. DOI:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007. ISSN 1027-5606. 
  3. The Tundra Biome. The World's Biomes. Retrieved on 2006-03-05.
  4. Peel MC, Finlayson BL, McMahon TA (2007) Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 11: 1633–1644
  5. Akin, Wallace E. (1991). Global Patterns: Climate, Vegetation, and Soils. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-2309-5. 
  6. Köppen, 1936, Trewartha & Horn 1980, Bailey 2009, Baker et al. 2010
  7. Bailey RG (2009) Ecosystem geography:from ecoregions to sites, 2nd edn. Springer, New York, NY
  8. Glossary of Meteorology. Thornthwaite Moisture Index. Retrieved on 2008-05-21.
  9. Eric Green. Foundations of Expansive Clay Soil. Retrieved on 2008-05-21.
  10. Fredlund, D.G. (1993). Soil Mechanics for Unsaturated Soils. Wiley-Interscience. ISBN 978-0-471-85008-3. OCLC 26543184. Retrieved on 2008-05-21. 
  11. Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named greg
  12. Hawkins, B.A. (2004). "Does plant richness influence animal richness?: the mammals of Catalonia (NE Spain)". Diversity & Distributions 10 (4): 247–52. DOI:10.1111/j.1366-9516.2004.00085.x. Retrieved on 2008-05-21.