Nje Korona

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Nje Korona bụ ụmụ nje nke na-ebute ụmụ ọrịa dị iche iche tụmadị n'ụmụ anụmanụ nakwa nnụnụ. Na mmadụ, nje korona na-ebute ihe ndi bekee kpọrọ respiratory tract infections nke nwere ike ịmalite dika obere ọria nkịtị wee ruo na-ịgbu mmadụ ọnwụọ. Obere ọria ndi a gụnyere oyi (bụ nke na- ebute ọria ndị ọzọ ọkachasị nke ndị oyibo kpọrọ rhinoviruses), ebe oke oyi nke na-ebute ọria ndi ọzọ na-egbu egbu dika SARS, MERS, na COVID-19. Otu ọria si egosi na adị n'ụdị n'ụdị: n'ọkụkọ ọria na-ebute upper respiratory tract disease, mana n'ehi na ezi ọ na-ebute diarrhea. Ka ọdị ugbu a, enwebeghị ọgwụ mgbochi vaccines mọọbụ antiviral drugs maka igbochi maọbụ ịgwọ ọria nje korona n'ahụ mmadụ .

Nje korona nwekwara subfamily

Orthocoronavirinae, si n'ezinụlọ Coronaviridae, Nidovirales, nakwa Riboviria . [2] [3] Ha kpuchiri nje ndi nwere positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome nakwa nucleocapsid nke helical symmetry. The genome size nke nje korona na-ebido ihe dika kilobases,iri abụọ, nje kacha bu nje nke akpọrọ RNA viruses. Njiri mara ha bụ na ha na-enwe ogwu n'ahụ ha niile bụ nke na enwe electron micrographsnke a na-emepụta inyinyo ha dika korona nke sitere n'anwụ ọchịcha a kpọrọ solar corona

Nchọpụta[mèzi | mèzi mkpụrụ]

Achọpụtara nje Korona n'afọ 1930 mgbe ọrịa nje na-efe efe nke ụmụ ọkụkọ gosiri na ọ bụ infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) na-ebute ya. N'afọ 1940, a chọpụtara anụmanụ abụọ ndị ọzọ, nwere ụdị nje korona a bụ nke nọpụrụ anọp<u>ụ</u> akpọrọ mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) nakwa transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), .

Achọpụtara nje korona nke na-aria mmadụ nafọ 1960s. Ndị mbụ mụrụ maka nje korona a bụ site na ndi mmadụ na-aria oyi nkiti bụ nke emechara kpọọ human coronavirus 229E na human coronavirus OC43. [4] Achọpụtakwara Nje Korona ndị ọzọ bu nke na- arịa ndi mmadụ, ha gụnyere SARS-CoV n'afọ 2003, HCoV NL63 n'afọ 2004, HKU1 n'afọ 2005, MERS-CoV n'afọ 2012, nakwa SARS-CoV-2 n'afọ 2019. Ọtụtụ n'ime ọria ndị a ebutela ọrịa akpọrọ respiratory tract infections. bụ nke na-efe efe na-ef.

Ọmụmụ[mèzi | mèzi mkpụrụ]

.Aha a bụ "coronavirus" sitere n'asụsụ Latin corona, nke putara "okpueze" ma ọ bụ "wreath", bụ nke agbazitere n'asụsụ ndị Greek κορώνη nke ha kpọrọ korṓnē, "garland, wreath". A kpọrọ aha nje korona a mbụ n'afọ 1968 ọ bụ ndị otu na-ahụ maka ịgwọ ọria nje dị iche iche mere nke n'ime akwụkwọ jonalụ akpọrọ Nature nke bụ iji wee gosipụta ezinaaụlọ nje di iche iche. Aha a na-egosi njiri mara nke virions ( bụ nje na-eme oji efe efe) site na nyocha nke electron microscopy, bụ nke na-egosi ụdịdị nje a dika okpu eze maọbụ solar corona. Ụdịdịmorphology pụtara ihe na ogwu ogwu nke akpọrọ peplomers, na-ejupụta na proteins n'ahụ/ihu nje a. [5][6]

Nhazi[mèzi | mèzi mkpụrụ]

Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
usoro ọnụnọ nke nje korona

Nje korona bụ nnukwu pleomorphic nwere kịrị kịrị ihe dika bọlụ na- etupụta n'ihu ya. Kịrịkịrị bọlụ ndi a di ya n' ahụ di ihe dika dayamita otu nari na iri abụọ (120 nm)/ (.12 μm). Dayamita nke na-ekpuchi ya di iri asatọ ~80 nm (.08 μm) ebe ihe dika ogwu di ya n'ahụ di iri abụọ ~20 nm (.02 μm) n'ogologo. Ihe na-ekpuchi nje a na-egosi dika okpokoro miri emi nke ndi oyibo kpọrọ electron dense shells.

Ihe a kpuchiri nje a gụnyere lipid bilayer ebe membrane (M), envelope (E) na spike (S) structural proteins na anọ. Ụfọdụ nje Korona (tụmadị ndi si n'otu betacoronavirus subgroup A) nwekwara ahụ ogwu nke akpọrọ hemagglutinin esterase .[2]

N'ime ihe a na-ekpuchi nje a e nwere ihe akpọrọnucleocapsid, bụ nke na- amụba site n' ụdị ọnọdụ beads-on-a-string . ọ bụ ihe ọnọdụ mkpuchi a , membrance protein,na nucleocapsid na-echedo nje a mgbe ọ na anọghị n'ahụ mmadụ maọbụ nke anụmanụ.[7]

Genome[mèzi | mèzi mkpụrụ]

Ngosiputa nhazi na ụdịdị nke ''genome'' na akparam agwa ihe ndi nwere S protein maka SAR maka SARS-CoV na MERS-CoV

Coronaviruses nwere positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome. genome size nke nje korona bidoro na kilobases iri abụọ na isii na ụma anọ wee ruo na iri atọ na otu na ụma asaa. Nke a so n'otu nje RNA si n'ezinaụlọ genome kacha ibu.. Genome nwere nke ndị oyibo kpọrọ <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Five-prime_cap" rel="mw:ExtLink" title="Five-prime cap" class="cx-link" data-linkid="196">methylated cap</a> ise na <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polyadenylation" rel="mw:ExtLink" title="Polyadenylation" class="cx-link" data-linkid="197">polyadenylated tail</a>. atọ.

Nhazi ụdịdị genome maka nje korona gụnyere 5′-leader-UTR ha bụ spike (S)-envelope (E)-membrane (M)-nucleocapsid (N)-3′UTR-poly (A) tail. Mkpughe nke ọgụgụ frame ya bụ 1a na 1b nke a mejupụtara okara atọ nke UTR ise ahụ bụ nke mebere nonstructural proteins.

Ihe anọ ndị a mechara mejupụta ụdidị protin , ha bụ ogwu(spike), envelope, membrane,nakwa nucleocapsid. akọrọngwa ndia nakwa ọrụ ha na-arụgasi dị iche iche na-esite n'ụdị nje korona.

Obibi ndụ nje Korona[mèzi | mèzi mkpụrụ]

Ntinye[mèzi | mèzi mkpụrụ]

Usoro ndụ nke coronavirus

Ofufe Ọrịa a na-amalite mgbe ogwu ya (viral spike (S) gbasara wee nyado n'ahụ onye o fere, .

Mgbe ọ ịbanye n' ahụ onye bu ya, kịrị kịrị nje dị uncoated, na genome na-adanye n'ime cell cytoplasm.[8] Dịka anyị kwuru na mbụ gbasara ọnọdụ nje a, na o nwere 5′ methylated cap na 3′ polyadenylated tail, bụ nke na enyere ogwu nje a aka ịnyado n;ahụ onye bu ya.

Menwogharị[mèzi | mèzi mkpụrụ]

Ọtụtụ ihe nke ndi oyibo kpọrọ nonstructural proteins biakọtara ọnụ wee mebe ihe akpọrọ multi-protein replicase-transcriptase complex (RTC). Isi sekpụ ntị na replicase-transcriptase protein bụ RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Ọ bụ ihe ndia na ọnọdụ na ihe ndia na-ebute mmụba nje a mgbe ọ nọ n'ahụ onye maọbụ ihe bu ya.

Otu n'ime ọrụ ihe ndị mebere nje a bụ ịmụnwogharị maọbụ ịmụba ''viral genome''. RdRp dika anyị tulere na mbụ na ebu n'obi synthesis iji gosi ndi iche di n'etiti ( negative-sense genomic RNA) na (positive-sens genomic RNA).

Nzipụ[mèzi | mèzi mkpụrụ]

Mmekorita nke ogwu nje korona na emejupụta host cell recepto bụ isi sekpụ nti n'igosipụta tissue tropism, infectivity, na species range nke nje a.[9][10] Ọmumaatụ bụ na SARS coronavirus, na-efe mmadụ site na-inyado naihe a kpọrọ angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor.[11] .

Okike/Ụdịdị[mèzi | mèzi mkpụrụ]

Osisi phylogenetic nke nje korona

Aha sayensi kpọrọ nje korona bụ Orthocoronavirinae ma ọbu Coronavirinae . Nje korona sitere n'ezinaaụlọCoronaviridae, Nidovirales nakwa Riboviria. E kewara ha na alphacoronaviruses na betacoronaviruses bụ ndị nke na-efe mmadụ ebe gammacoronaviruses na deltacoronaviruses na-efe ụmụ nnụnụ .

Nsinweta[mèzi | mèzi mkpụrụ]

  1. (March 2014) "The SARS coronavirus nucleocapsid protein—forms and functions". Antiviral Research 103: 39–50. DOI:10.1016/j.antiviral.2013.12.009. PMID 24418573. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 Ninth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. 
  3. International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (24 August 2010). ICTV Master Species List 2009—v10 (xls).
  4. (November 2012) "Human coronaviruses: insights into environmental resistance and its influence on the development of new antiseptic strategies". Viruses 4 (11): 3044–68. DOI:10.3390/v4113044. PMID 23202515. 
  5. (November 1968) "Virology: Coronaviruses". Nature 220 (5168). DOI:10.1038/220650b0. 
  6. (1983-01-01) "The molecular biology of coronaviruses". Advances in Virus Research 28: 35–112. DOI:10.1016/s0065-3527(08)60721-6. PMID 6362367. 
  7. (April 2011) "A structural analysis of M protein in coronavirus assembly and morphology". Journal of Structural Biology 174 (1): 11–22. DOI:10.1016/j.jsb.2010.11.021. PMID 21130884. 
  8. (2015) "Coronaviruses: an overview of their replication and pathogenesis". Methods in Molecular Biology 1282: 1–23. DOI:10.1007/978-1-4939-2438-7_1. PMID 25720466. 
  9. (1 January 2006) "The molecular biology of coronaviruses". Advances in Virus Research 66: 193–292. DOI:10.1016/S0065-3527(06)66005-3. PMID 16877062. 
  10. (March 2019) "Origin and evolution of pathogenic coronaviruses". Nature Reviews. Microbiology 17 (3): 181–92. DOI:10.1038/s41579-018-0118-9. PMID 30531947. 
  11. (September 2005) "Structure of SARS coronavirus spike receptor-binding domain complexed with receptor". Science 309 (5742): 1864–68. DOI:10.1126/science.1116480. PMID 16166518. 
  12. Nextstrain, phylogenetic tree of Beta-CoV