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Orrery

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Obere ihe ngosi na egosi ụwa na mbara ala ndị dị n'ime

orrery bụ ihe nlereanya nke usoro anyanwụ nke na egosi ma ọ bụ na ebu amụma ọnọdụ na mmegharị nke mbara ala na ọnwa, na abụkarị dịka ihe nlereanya heliocentric. Ọ pụkwara ịnọchite anya nha nke ahụ ndị a; Otú ọ dị, ebe ọ bụ na ịbawanye ihe ziri ezi anaghị adịkarị irè n'ihi nnukwu ọdịiche dị iche iche, enwere ike iji ihe dị ala mee ihe kama. Ọ bụ ezie na ndị Gris nwere planetaria na arụ ọrụ, e mepụtara orrery mbụ nke bụ planetarium nke oge a na 1713, e nyekwara Charles Boyle, 4th Earl of Orrery - ya mere aha ahụ. A na ejikarị usoro elekere eme ihe na akwọ ha na ụwa na anọchite anya Anyanwụ n'etiti, yana mbara ala na njedebe nke ọ bụla n'ime ogwe aka.

Akụkọ ihe mere eme[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Nsụgharị Oge Ochie[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Usoro Antikythera, isi iberibe, c. 205 ruo 87 BC 
Carlo G Croce, nrụzigharị nke Dondi's Astrarium, nke e wuru n'etiti 1348 na 1364 na Padua

Antikythera_mechanism" id="mwJQ" rel="mw:WikiLink" title="Antikythera mechanism">Usoro Antikythera, nke a chọtara na 1901 n'ụgbọ mmiri dị n'àgwàetiti Gris nke Antikythèra n'Oké Osimiri Mediterenian, gosipụtara mmegharị nke Anyanwụ, Ọnwa, na mbara ala ise Ndị Gris oge ochie maara. [1] dere ya n'agbata 205 na 87 BC. [2] [3]  [4] na-ewere usoro ahụ dị ka otu n'ime orreries mbụ. [1] Ọ bụ geocentric ma jiri ya mee ihe dị ka onye na-agbakọ ihe iji gbakọọ ọnọdụ mbara igwe.

Cicero, onye ọkà ihe ọmụma Rom na onye ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị na ede na narị afọ mbụ BC, nwere ntụaka na akọwa ụdị igwe mbara ala. Dị ka o si kwuo, ndị Greek polymaths Thales [5] na Posidonius [6] rụrụ ngwaọrụ na egosipụta mmegharị eluigwe.

Nsụgharị ndị mbụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Oge elekere mbara igwe (akụkụ Venus-) nke Eberhard Baldewein, 1563-1568. Ihe ngosi na Mathematisch Physikalischer Salon nke Dresden, Germany.

N'afọ 1348, Giovanni Dondi wuru usoro elekere elekere mbụ a maara nke usoro ahụ. [7][8] na egosipụta Ọnọdụ ecliptic nke ọnwa, anyanwụ, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter na Saturn dị ka echiche dị mgbagwoju anya nke Ptolemaic. Oge elekere ahụ n'onwe ya furu efu, mana Dondi hapụrụ nkọwa zuru oke nke ụgbọ okporo ígwè ya.

[9] ọ na erule 1650, P. Schirleus wuru planetarium nke anyanwụ dị ka mbara ala, yana Mercury na Venus na agba anyanwụ gburugburu dị ka ọnwa ya.

N'ụlọ ikpe nke William nke Anọ, Landgrave nke Hesse Kassel, e wuru elekere abụọ dị mgbagwoju anya na 1561 na 1563-1568. [10] [11] na eji akụkụ anọ egosi ọnọdụ ecliptical nke Anyanwụ, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Ọnwa, Anyanwụ na Dragon (Nodes of the Moon) dị ka Ptolemy si kwuo, kalenda, ọwụwa anyanwụ na ọdịda anyanwụ, na ihe igwe na arụ ọrụ n'onwe ya nke nwere akara anyanwụ na eme ihe nkiri nke, na egosi ezigbo ọnọdụ Anyanwụ ahụ, gụnyere usoro oge. A na egosi elekere ndị ahụ ugbu a na Kassel na Astronomisch-Physikalisches Kabinett na Dresden na Mathematisch-Physicalischer Salon.

Na De revolutionibus orbium coelestium, nke e bipụtara na Nuremberg na 1543, Nicolaus Copernicus mara ozizi ọdịda anyanwụ nke eluigwe na ala nke anyanwụ na agba gburugburu Ụwa kwa ụbọchị. Ọ chọpụtara na ụfọdụ ndị ọkà ihe ọmụma Gris dị ka Aristarchus nke Samos chepụtara eluigwe na ala dị n'etiti. Nke a mere ka mmegharị epicyclic nke mbara ala dị mfe, na eme ka ọ ga ekwe omume ịnọchite anya ụzọ mbara ala dị ka okirikiri dị mfe. Enwere ike iji gear mee ihe ngosi nke a. Ngwá ọrụ ka mma nke Tycho Brahe mere nchọpụta ziri ezi nke mbara igwe (1576-1601), ma site na ndị a Johannes Kepler (1621) kwubiri na mbara ala na agba anyanwụ gburugburu na ellipses. [12]'afọ 1687, Isaac Newton kọwara ihe kpatara mmegharị elliptic na ozizi ya nke ikike ndọda.

Ebe a na eme ihe nkiri n'oge a[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Orrery n'ime Sphaera Copernicana, nke Joseph nke Gottorp rụrụ ma Andreas Bösch wuru, 1653
A Philosopher Lecturing on the Orrery (Àtụ:Circa) by Joseph Wright of Derby
Nrụzigharị ọrụ nke oge a nke nnukwu orrery na Derby Museum na Art Gallery, England)
Ebe a na-arụ ọrụ site n'aka onye na akpụ ajị anụ Eise Eisinga site na 1774 ruo 1781 n'ime ụlọ ya, planetarium kachasị ochie na arụkọ ọrụ n'ụwa

Enwere orrery nke ndị na eme elekere George Graham na Thomas Tompion wuru ụbọchị   na History of Science Museum, Oxford. Graham nyere onye na emepụta ngwá ọrụ a ma ama bụ John Rowley nke London ihe nlereanya mbụ, ma ọ bụ nhazi ya, ka o mee otu maka Prince Eugene nke Savoy. Enyere Rowley ọrụ ka o meere onye na elekọta ya bụ Charles Boyle, 4th Earl of Orrery akwụkwọ ọzọ, nke ngwaọrụ ahụ wepụrụ aha ya na Bekee. E gosipụtara ihe nlereanya a n'aka nwa Charles John, emesịa 5th Earl of Cork na 5th Earl of Orrery. N'onwe ya, Christiaan Huygens bipụtara na 1703 nkọwa nke igwe heliocentric mbara ala nke o wuru mgbe o bi na Paris n'etiti 1665 na 1681. Ọ gbakọọ ụgbọ oloko gia chọrọ iji nọchite anya otu afọ nke ụbọchị 365.242, ma jiri ya mepụta okirikiri nke onye isi. mbara ala.

Ihe osise Joseph Wright Onye ọkà ihe ọmụma na enye nkuzi na Orrery ( ), nke kwụnyere na Derby Museum na Art Gallery, na egosi otu ìgwè na ege ntị nkuzi sitere n'aka onye ọkà ihe ọmụma okike. Anyanwụ dị na orrery brass na enye naanị ìhè dị n'ime ụlọ ahụ. Orrery nke e gosipụtara na eserese ahụ nwere mgbanaka, nke na enye ya ọdịdị yiri nke ogwe aka. Ngosipụta ahụ wee nwee ike igosi n'ehihie.

Iji tinye nke a n'ọnọdụ oge, na 1762 John Harrison's marine chronometer bu ụzọ mee ka a tụọ ya nke ọma nke longitude. N'afọ 1766, onye na enyocha mbara igwe Johann Daniel Titius gosipụtara na nkezi nke mbara ala ọ bụla site na Anyanwụ nwere ike ịnọchite anya usoro ndị a:

Ya bụ, 0.4, 0.7, 1.0, 1.6, 2.8, ...  Nọmba ndị a na ezo aka na nkeji mbara igwe, nkezi dị n'etiti Anyanwụ na Ụwa, nke bụ 1.496 × 108 km (93 × 106 miles). Derby Orrery anaghị egosi ebe dị anya, mana gosipụtara mmegharị mbara ala.

Eisinga Planetarium bụ nke Eise Eisinga wuru site na 1774 ruo 1781 n'ụlọ ya na Franeker, na Netherlands. [13] na egosipụta mbara ala gafee obosara nke uko ụlọ, ọ nọwokwa na arụ ọrụ ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ mgbe niile kemgbe e kere ya. Orrery a bụ planetarium n'echiche abụọ nke okwu ahụ: igwe dị mgbagwoju anya na egosi usoro mbara ala, na ihe nkiri maka igosi mmegharị nke mbara ala. Ezinụlọ Eze Dutch zụrụ ụlọ Eisinga ma nye ya ezumike nká.

Benjamin Martin Orrery nke 1766

N'afọ 1764, Benjamin Martin chepụtara ụdị ihe nlereanya ọhụrụ nke mbara ala, nke a na ebute mbara ala na ogwe aka ọla na eduga site na usoro nke tubes concentric ma ọ bụ coaxial. Site na owuwu a, o siri ike ime ka mbara ala na agbagharị, na ime ka ọnwa na agba gburugburu mbara ala. Martin tụrụ aro na orrery omenala kwesịrị ịnwe akụkụ atọ: planetarium ebe mbara ala na agba gburugburu Anyanwụ, tellurion (nke a na akpọkwa tellurian ma ọ bụ tellurium) nke gosipụtara axis nke ụwa na otu o si agba gburugburu Anyanju, na lunarium nke gosipụtara ntụgharị nke ọnwa gburugburu ụwa. [4]'otu orrery, enwere ike itinye mmegharị atọ a na tebụl nkịtị, iche iche site na iji spindle dị n'etiti dị ka onye isi na ebugharị.

Nkọwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Orreries niile bụ planetariums (alternative plural planetaria). Okwu orrery adịla kemgbe afọ 1714. nnukwu orrery bụ nke na agụnye mbara ala ndị dị n'èzí a maara n'oge e wuru ya. Okwu planetarium agbanweela ihe ọ pụtara, ma ugbu a na ezo aka n'ụlọ ihe nkiri hemispherical ebe a na ese onyinyo nke igwe abalị n'elu. Planetariums (orreries) nwere ike ịdịgasị iche iche site na aka na ọnụ ụlọ. A na eji orrery egosi mmegharị njem mbara ala, ebe a na akpọ ngwaọrụ igwe eji ebu amụma eclipses na transits astrarium.

Orrery kwesịrị ịgụnye anyanwụ, ụwa na ọnwa (gbakwunyere nhọrọ mbara ala ndị ọzọ). A na akpọ ihe nlereanya nke na agụnye naanị Ụwa, Ọnwa, na Anyanwụ tellurion ma ọ bụ tellurium, otu nke na enye naanị Ụwa na Ọnwa bụ lunarium. [14] jovilabe bụ ihe nlereanya nke Jupiter na ọnwa ya.

Mbara ala Nkezi nke ịdị anya site na Sun (AU) Diameter (na diameters nke ụwa) Mass (n'ime Earth masses) Mkpụrụ (g/cm3) Mba nke ọnwa Oge okirikiri (afọ) Mmetụta maka ecliptic (ogo) Axial tilt (degree) Oge ntụgharị (n'akụkụ)
Mercury 0.39 0.38 0.05 5.5 0 0.24 7.0° Ụbọchị 59
Venus 0.72 0.95 0.82 5.3 0 0.62 3.4° 177° -243 ụbọchị
Ụwa 1.00 1.00 1.00 5.5 1 1.00 23° 23.9 awa
Mars 1.52 0.53 0.11 3.9 2 1.88 1.9° 25° awa 24.5
Jupiter 5.20 11.21 317.9 1.3 95 11.9 1.3° Awa iri
Saturn 9.54 9.45 95.2 0.7 146 29.5 2.5° 27° Awa iri na otu
Uranus 19.2 4.01 14.5 1.3 27 84 0.8° 98° - awa iri na asaa
Neptune 30.1 3.88 17.1 1.6 14 165 1.8° 28° Awa iri na isii

Planetarium ga egosi Oge orbital nke mbara ala ọ bụla na ọnụego ntụgharị, dịka egosiri na tebụl dị n'elu. A tellurion ga egosi Ụwa na Ọnwa na-agba anyanwụ gburugburu. Ọ ga eji akụkụ nke inclination nke equator site na tebụl dị n'elu iji gosi etu o si agbagharị gburugburu axis nke ya. [15] ga egosi ọnwa ụwa, na agba gburugburu ụwa. A na emepụta lunarium iji gosipụta mmegharị dị Mgbagwoju anya nke ọnwa ka ọ na agba gburugburu ụwa.

A naghị arụkarị Orreries n'ọ̀tụ̀tụ̀. E wuru orreries mmadụ, ebe ụmụ mmadụ na agagharị dị ka mbara ala, mana ọtụtụ n'ime ha bụ nke nwa oge. E nwere ebe obibi mmadụ na adịgide adịgide na Armagh Observatory na Northern Ireland, nke nwere mbara ala oge ochie isii, Ceres, na Halley na Encke. [16] na egosikwa Uranus na karịa ya, mana n'ụzọ dị oke ala. Onye ọzọ dị na Sky's the Limit Observatory na Nature Center na Twentynine Palms, California; ọ bụ eziokwu maka nha (20 ijeri na otu), eziokwu maka ọnọdụ (nke ziri ezi n'ime ụbọchị anọ) orrery mmadụ. Mbụ anọ ahụ [17] nso na ibe ha, mana anọ na esote chọrọ ụfọdụ njem iji gaa leta ha. Otu ndị [18] F-HOU amalitela ọnụ ọgụgụ mmadụ niile na adịgide adịgide na mgbalị ọhụrụ iji mụọ mmetụta ha maka agụmakwụkwọ n'ụlọ akwụkwọ. [19] na enweta map nke orreries mmadụ a ma ama.

Enwere ike iji elekere igwe nkịtị mepụta ihe dị mfe nke ukwuu na anyanwụ n'etiti, ụwa na aka nkeji na Jupiter na aka awa; ụwa ga eme 12 gburugburu anyanwụ maka 1 ntụgharị ọ bụla nke Jupiter. Afọ Jupiter n'ezie bụ afọ 11.86 n'ogologo, yabụ ihe atụ a ga efunahụ izi ezi ngwa ngwa. Ezigbo orrery ga abụ nke ziri ezi ma gụnye ọtụtụ mbara ala, ma eleghị anya ọ ga eme ka mbara ala na agbagharị.

Ihe ngosi[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ọtụtụ planetariums (ụlọ) nwere projection orrery, nke na eme ka anyanwụ dị n'elu dome nke planetarium na ntụpọ ma ọ bụ obere foto nke mbara ala. Ndị a na ejikarị mbara ala site na Mercury ruo Saturn, ọ bụ ezie na ụfọdụ gụnyere Uranus. A na atụle ihe ndị na enye ìhè maka mbara ala na enyo ndị a na ejikọta na moto nke na akwọ ihe oyiyi na dome. Dị ka ọ na adịkarị, ụwa ga agba anyanwụ gburugburu n'otu nkeji, ebe mbara ala ndị ọzọ ga emecha usoro ha na agba gburugburu n'oge kwekọrọ na mmegharị ha. Ya mere Venus, nke na ewe ụbọchị 224.7 iji gbaa anyanwụ gburugburu, ga ewe sekọnd 37 iji mezue orbit na orrery, na Jupiter ga-ewe nkeji 11, 52 sekọnd.

Ụfọdụ planetariums ejirila nke a mee ihe iji mepụta mbara ala na ọnwa ha. N'ụzọ dị otú a, Mercury na agba anyanwụ gburugburu na 0.24 nke afọ ụwa, ebe Phobos na Deimos na agba Mars gburugburu n'otu oge ahụ. Ndị na arụ ọrụ na Planetarium na achọ igosi nke a etinyela okpu uhie n'Anyanwụ (iji mee ka ọ dị ka Mars) ma gbanyụọ mbara ala niile ma e wezụga Mercury na Ụwa. Enwere ike iji ihe atụ yiri nke a mee ihe iji gosi Pluto na ọnwa ise ya.

Ihe atụ ndị a ma ama[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ihe osise nke Robert Brettell Bate mere, c. 1812. Ugbu a na Thinktank, Birmingham Science Museum.

Onye na emepụta akpụkpọ ụkwụ John Fulton nke Fenwick, Ayrshire, wuru atọ n'etiti 1823 na 1833. Nke ikpeazụ dị na Glasgow's Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum.

Eisinga Planetarium nke onye na ebu ajị anụ aha ya bụ Eise Eisinga wuru n'ime ụlọ nke ya, na obere obodo Franeker na Friesland, bụ n'ezie orrery. E wuru ya n'agbata afọ 1774 na 1781. Ntọala nke ihe nlereanya ahụ na eche ihu site n'uko ụlọ ahụ, na ọtụtụ ọrụ igwe na oghere dị n'elu uko. Ọ na akpali ya site na elekere pendulum, nke nwere arọ 9 ma ọ bụ ọdọ mmiri. Mbara ala [20]-agagharị gburugburu ihe nlereanya ahụ n'oge.

Echiche ọhụrụ bụ ka ndị mmadụ rụọ ọrụ nke mbara ala na agagharị agagharị na ihe ndị ọzọ nke usoro anyanwụ. [16] debere ụdị ihe nlereanya dị otú ahụ, nke a na akpọ orrery mmadụ, na Armagh Observatory.

N'omenala a ma ama[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Usoro iwu Meccano bụ ngwá ọrụ a ma ama maka iwu ụlọ ọrụ ziri ezi. [21] kọwara Model 391, nke mbụ Meccano Orrery, na June 1918 Meccano Manual. [22]
  • Ala Dune Messiah, nke 1969 sochiri Dune, enwere nkọwa nke ụlọ ọrụ desktọọpụ na anọchite anya ọnwa abụọ nke mbara ala Arrakis na anyanwụ ya.
  • N'akụkọ ihe mere eme nke ihe nkiri 1982 The Dark Crystal, UrSkek TekTih mere nnukwu orrery na akpaghị aka, site n'enyemaka nke onye ibe ya UrSkek ShodYod, maka Aughra, na ụlọ nyocha ugwu ebe ọ bi.
  • Na mbipụta 1999 nke Tarzan, onye na ede aha na amụ ihe na mbara ala na ya.
  • Na ihe nkiri akụkọ sayensị nke afọ 2000 bụ Pitch Black, e ji orrery mee ihe iji gosipụta chi jiri n'ehihie nke mbara ala.
  • N'ime akwụkwọ akụkọ ihe mere eme nke afọ 2020 A Room Made of Leaves nke Kate Grenville dere, ihe eji eme ihe na enweghị isi nke onye mbụ na enyocha mbara igwe nke mpaghara ahụ, William Dawes, ji ihe atụ maka ọchịchọ nke ịhụnanya mmadụ n'ozuzu ya, na mmekọrịta akụkọ ifo nke Elizabeth Macarthur na Dawes karịsịa.

Hụkwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

 

Ihe odide[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. Markoff. "On the Trail of an Ancient Mystery – Solving the Riddles of an Early Astronomical Calculator", The New York Times, 24 November 2014. Retrieved on 25 November 2014.
  2. de Solla (1974). "Gears from the Greeks. The Antikythera Mechanism: A Calendar Computer from ca. 80 BC". Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 64 (7): 1–70 (page 19). DOI:10.2307/1006146. 
  3. Carman (15 November 2014). "On the epoch of the Antikythera mechanism and its eclipse predictor". Archive for History of Exact Sciences 68 (6): 693–774. DOI:10.1007/s00407-014-0145-5. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 Calvert (1967). Astronomy: Globes Orreries and other Models. London: H.M.S.O.  Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; name "HMSO" defined multiple times with different content
  5. Cicero. de Re Publica I (in la). “dicebat enim Gallus sphaerae illius alterius solidae atque plenae vetus esse inventum, et eam a Thalete Milesio primum esse tornatam, post autem ab Eudoxo Cnidio, discipulo ut ferebat Platonis, eandem illam astris quae caelo inhaererent esse descriptam;” 
  6. Cicero. De Natura Deorum, 253. “But if that sphere which was lately made by our friend Posidonius, the regular revolutions of which show the course of the sun, moon, and five wandering stars, as it is every day and night performed, were carried into Scythia or Britain, who, in those barbarous countries, would doubt that that sphere had been made so perfect by the exertion of reason?” 
  7. Lloyd (1958). Some Outstanding Clocks Over Seven Hundred Years. London: Leonard Hill Books Limited, 9–24. 
  8. King (1978). Geared to the stars : the evolution of planetariums, orreries, and astronomical clocks. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 28–41. ISBN 0-8020-2312-6. 
  9. Brewster (1830). "Planetary Machines", The Edinburgh Encyclopedia. Edinburgh: William Blackwood et al., 624. 
  10. Poulle (2008). Die Planetenlaufuhr : ein Meisterwerk der Astronomie und Technik der Renaissance geschaffen von Eberhard Baldewein 1563 - 1568, 1ª, Stuttgart: Dt. Gesellschaft für Chronometrie. ISBN 978-3-89870-548-6. 
  11. Lloyd (1958), pp. 46–57.
  12. Ronan [First published 1981] (1992). The Practical Astronomer. London: Bloomsbury Books, 108–112. ISBN 1-85471-047-8. 
  13. Welcome - Planetarium Friesland. www.planetarium-friesland.nl.
  14. Pentz (1971). The Earth, Its Shape, Internal Structure and Composition. Bletchley: Open University Press. ISBN 978-0-335-02034-8. 
  15. Adler Planetarium:Research Collections. Adler Planetarium. (2010). Archived from the original on 27 January 2012. Retrieved on 22 June 2011.
  16. 16.0 16.1 Human Orrery. Armagh Observatory and Planetarium. Archived from the original on 2023-04-02. Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Armagh Observatory" defined multiple times with different content
  17. Orrery. Sky's The Limit Observatory & Nature Center.
  18. The Human Orrery. planetaire.over-blog.com.
  19. Emmanuel Rollinde's "Planetaires Humains - Human Orreries" List. Emmanuel Rollinde's "Planetaires Humains - Human Orreries" List.
  20. Sixma (November 1934). "The Franeker Planetarium". Popular Astronomy XLII (9): 489–495. Retrieved on 2011-06-22. 
  21. Whiting (2007). "Orrery Developments:The Use of Meccano in Constructing Planetaria". Bulletin of the Scientific Instrument Society (94): 26–30. Retrieved on 2017-05-03. 
  22. Analysis of Meccano Manuals - Manual Models Listings. www.meccanoindex.co.uk.

Njikọ mpụga[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Àtụ:Solar System models