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Pea soup fog light

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Usòrò:Piccadilly Circus in Pea-Soup.jpg
Piccadilly Circus n'oge Great Smog nke London, 1952

Anwụrụ ọkụ ofe pea (nke a makwaara dị ka ofe pea, anwụrụ ojii ma ọ bụ anwụrụ ọkụ na-egbu egbu) bụ anwụrụ igwe ojii dị oke arọ ma na-acha odo odo, na-acha akwụkwọ ndụ akwụkwọ ndụ ma ọ bụ na-acha oji nke mmetọ ikuku nke nwéré ihe ndị na-esi ísì ụtọ na gas sulphur dioxide na-egbu mgbu kpatara. Anwụrụ ọkụ a siri ike na-eme n'obodo úkwú ma na-esite na anwụrụ ọkụ nke ọkụ na-ere ọkụ màkà okpomọkụ ụlọ na usoro ụlọ ọrụ. Anwụrụ ọkụ nke ike a na-egbukarị ndị na-adịghị ike dịka ndị agadi, ndị na-eto eto (ụmụ ọhụrụ) na ndị nwéré nsogbu iku ume. A maara nsonaazụ nkè ihe omume ndị a dị ka London ma ọ bụ London fog; na ntụgharị nke okwu ahụ, "London particular" ghọrọ aha màkà nnukwu ofe pea na ham.[1]

Ihe ndị e mere n'akụkọ ihe mere eme[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Site na mmalite n'ebe afọ 1200s, mmetọ ikuku bịara na-arịwanye elu, na nghọta kachasị na narị afọ nke irí na atọ bụ na anwụrụ ọkụ ga-emetụta ahụike mmadụ.[2][3][4][5][6] Site n'etiti afọ ébé 1600, n'obodo ndị Britain, ọkachasị London, a na-ekwu na ọ bụ anwụrụ ọkụ coal sitere na anwụrụ ọkụ ụlọ na ụlọ ọrụ na-ejikọta na anwụrụ na alụlụ nke Ndagwurugwu Thames. Luke Howard, onye ọsụ ụzọ na ọmụmụ ihu igwe obodo, bipụtara The Climate of London na 18181820, ébé o ji okwu ahụ bụ "obodo igwe ojii" ma kọwaa mmetụta agwaetiti okpomọkụ nke lekwasịrị ányà na mkpokọta anwụrụ ọkụ n'elu obodo ahụ.[7]

Ihe kachasị egbu egbu nkè anwụrụ ọkụ a na London mere na 1952 ma mee ka Iwu Mmiri Dị Ọcha 1956 na Iwu Mmiri Ịcha afọ 1968, nké a kagburu ugbu a ma jikọta ya na Iwu Mmụ Dị Ọcha afọ 1993, nké dị irè n'iwepụ sulphur dioxide na anwụrụ ọkụ, ihe kpatara anwụrụ ọkụ na-esi ísì ụtọ, ọ bụ ezie na a ejirila mmetọ ndị a na-adịghị ahụ ányà nke sitere na ụgbọala n'obodo ukwu dochie ha.[8]

Mmalite nke okwu a[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A na-achọta ntinye aka na isi iyi nke anwụrụ ọkụ, ya na ojiji mbụ nke "peas-soup" dị ka ónyé nkọwa, na akụkọ John Sartain bipụtara n'afọ 1820 banyéré ndụ dị ka ónyé na-ese ihe na-eto eto, na-akọ ihe ọ dị ka

Swee n'ụlọ site na alụlụ dị arọ ma na-acha odo odo dị ka ofe pea nke ụlọ iri nri; laghachi n'ime ụlọ ihe osise gị ... mgbe ị meghere windo gị mgbè ị na-apụ, iji hụ ísì nke ihe osise ahụ ka njọ, ma ọ bụrụ na o Kwèrè omume, site n'ọnụ ụzọ alụlụ, nke, ebe ọ bụ ihe sitere na nsị gas, oghere, anwụrụ ọkụ, ndị na-acha ihe na-acha ọbara, ụlọ ihe osisi, ụlọ ihe ọṅụṅụ, ụlọ ihe na-eme, nwéré ike iche n'echiche na ọ gaghị emezi ísì ụtọ![9]

Akụkọ New York Times nke afọ 1871 na-ezo ákà na "London, ọkachasị, ébé a na-etinye ndị mmadụ n'ime anwụrụ ọkụ nke ịdị n'otu nkè ofe pea". Anwụrụ ọkụ ahụ kpatara ọnụ ọgụgụ buru ibu nke ọnwụ site na nsogbu iku ume.[10]

Mgbanwe[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Tebụl na peeji isiokwu nke John Graunt's (16201674) Natural and political observations ... upon ... ọnwụ (1662) nke na-ekwu ọnwụ a na-ekwu maka mmetọ ikuku na London[11]

Eze Edward nke Mbụ nke England machibidoro ọkụ nke coal-oké osimiri site na nkwupụta na London n'afọ 1272, mgbè anwụrụ ọkụ ya ghọrọ nsogbu.[12][13] Ka ọ na-erule na narị afọ nke iri na asaa, mmetọ nke London aghọwo nnukwu nsogbu, ka n'ihi, karịsịa, ọkụ nke coal dị ọnụ ala, nke dị mfe. John Evelyn, onye ndụmọdụ Eze Charles nke Abụọ, kọwara nsogbu ahụ na mpempe akwụkwọ ya, Fumifugium: Ma ọ bụ, Inconvenience of the Aer and Smoak of London Dissipated nke e bipụtara na 1661, na-ebo coal, "ihe na-agbanye n'okpuru" nke nwéré "ụdị ikuku na-egbu egbu ma ọ bụ arsenical nké na-esite na ya" màkà igbu ọtụtụ.[14][15][16] Ọ tụrụ aro ka a kpọpụ ụlọ ọrụ ahụ n'obodo ahụ ma kụọ nnukwu ogige nke "flowers dị íchè ichè" iji "na-eme ka ikuku dị mmá" ma si otú a kpuchie mmetọ ahụ.

Iwu Mmiri Dị Ọcha[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ihe kachasị njọ e dekọrọ bụ Great Smog nkè afọ 1952, mgbè a kọrọ na mmadụ puku anọ nwụrụ n'obodo ahụ n'ime ụbọchị ole na ole, na ọnwụ puku asatọ metụtara ya, na-eduga n'ịgafe Iwu Mmiri Dị Ọcha nke 1956, nke machibidoro iji coal maka ọkụ ụlọ n'obodo ụfọdụ.[10] A na-ekwere ugbu a na ọnụ ọgụgụ ndị nwụrụ n'ihe omume ahụ dị ka puku iri na abụọ.[17][18]

Hụkwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Nnukwu anwụrụ ọkụ nke London
  • Nnyocha na Mgbasa Ozi (FIDO) bụ ihe enyemaka ụgbọelu na-ada iji nye ohere ịnya ụgbọ elu n'enweghị nsogbu n'oge oke nke 'sorepe' igwe ojii

Edensibia[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. Jo Swinnerton (1 October 2004). The London Companion. Pavilion Books. ISBN 978-1-86105-799-0. 
  2. P. Brimblecombe, "Industrial air pollution in thirteenth century Britain", Weather 30:388 (1975).
  3. Peter Brimblecombe (1976) "Attitudes and Responses Towards Air Pollution in Medieval England", Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association, 26:10, 941–945, DOI: 10.1080/00022470.1976.10470341
  4. Cantril (1914). Coal Mining. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 3–10. OCLC 156716838. 
  5. Calendar of Close Rolls, 35 Ed. 1. m6d
  6. Calendar of Patent Rolls, 13 Ed. 1.ml8d.
  7. Landsberg, Helmut Erich (1981). The urban climate. Academic Press, New York, p.3.
  8. Brimblecombe, P. (2006). "The clean air act after 50 years". Weather, 61(11), 311–314.
  9. John Sartain (1820). Annals of the fine arts. London, Sherwood, Neely, and Jones, digitised by Moore College of Art, Philadelphia, p.80
  10. 10.0 10.1 Fouquet, Roger (June 2001). External Cost and Environmental Policy in the UK and the EU. Imperial College Centre for Energy Policy and Technology. ISBN 1-903144-02-7. 
  11. GRAUNT, John. (1620-1674). Natural and political observations mentioned in a following index and made upon the bills of mortality... (en). Christies.
  12. David Urbinato (Summer 1994). London's Historic "Pea-Soupers". United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved on 6 October 2021.
  13. Deadly Smog. PBS (17 January 2003). Archived from the original on 6 October 2021. Retrieved on 6 October 2021.
  14. Evelyn (9 September 1976). Fumifugium. Exeter, Eng. : University of Exeter, the Rota. Retrieved on 9 September 2022.
  15. HTML text of Fumifugium.
  16. "He shewes that 't is the seacoale smoake That allways London doth Inviron, Which doth our Lungs and Spiritts choake, Our hanging spoyle, and rust our Iron. Lett none att Fumifuge be scoffing Who heard att Church our Sundaye's Coughing." from; "Ballad of Gresham College". Original text.
  17. Bell (January 2004). "A retrospective assessment of mortality from the London smog episode of 1952: the role of influenza and pollution". Environ Health Perspect 112 (#1): 6–8. DOI:10.1289/ehp.6539. PMID 14698923. 
  18. "Counting the Cost of London's Killer Smog" Richard Stone Science 13 December 2002: Vol. 298, Issue 5601, pp. 2106-2107 DOI: 10.1126/science.298.5601.2106b

Ịgụ ihe ọzọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Cavert, William M. (2016) The Smoke of London: Energy and Environment in the Early Modern City. Cambridge University Press.
  • Corton, Christine L. (2015) London Fog: The Biography. Harvard University Press. Ihe E wepụtara Ihe kpatara ya bụ na a maara London maka ịbụ Foggy
  • New York Times, 2 Eprel 1871, pg. 3: "London... fog the consistency of pea-soup..."