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Rainbow Warrior (1955)

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Rainbow Warrior (1955)
ship
Akụkụ nkeRainbow Warrior Dezie
aha njirimaraSir William Hardy, Rainbow Warrior Dezie
mba/obodoNew Zealand Dezie
nhazi ọnọdụ34°58′29″S 173°56′6″E Dezie
Nwe yaMinistry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Greenpeace Dezie
ihe omume dị ịrịba amaMmiri nke Rainbow Warrior, ship launching Dezie
Onye mmepụtaHall, Russell & Company Dezie
Ọnọdụ mmepụtaAberdeen Dezie
date of official opening1955 Dezie
service entry1955 Dezie
Ụlọ ọdụ ụgbọ mmiriAmsterdam Dezie
country of registryObodoézè Nà Ofú Dezie
category for ship nameCategory:Rainbow Warrior (ship, 1955) Dezie
Map

Rainbow Warrior bụ ụgbọ mmiri Greenpeace na-etinye aka na mkpọsa megide igbu whale, ịchụ nta seal, nnwale nuklia na ịtụfu ihe mkpofu nuklia n'oge ngwụcha afọ 1970 na mmalite afọ 1980. Direction Générale de la Sécurité Extérieure (ọrụ nzuzo nke France) tụrụ Rainbow Warrior bọmbụ na Port of Auckland, New Zealand na 10 Julaị 1985, na-emikpu ụgbọ mmiri ahụ ma gbuo onye na-ese foto Fernando Pereira.

Akụkọ ihe mere eme[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ọ bụ UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) nyere Rainbow Warrior ọrụ dị ka onye na-egbu azụ a na-akpọ Sir William Hardy. E wuru ya na 1955, na Aberdeen, Scotland. Ọ bụ ụlọ ọrụ na-ahụ maka gburugburu ebe obibi Greenpeace UK mechara zụta ya.

Na Greenpeace[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Rainbow Warrior (Amsterdam, 1981)

N'afọ 1977, Greenpeace UK nwetara ụgbọ mmiri ahụ na ọnụahịa nke £ 37,000 ma rụzigharịa ya ọnwa anọ. A maliteghachiri ya na 2 Mee 1978 dị ka Rainbow Warrior . Onye guzobere Greenpeace bụ Susi Newborn nyere ụgbọ mmiri ahụ aha n'ihi akwụkwọ Warriors of the Rainbow nke onye ọzọ guzobere Green Peace, Robert Hunter nyere ya. Okwu nke akwụkwọ ahụ gụnyere akụkụ a: "Ụwa na-arịa ọrịa ma na-anwụ anwụ, ndị mmadụ ga-ebili dị ka ndị agha nke ụyọkọ".[1] Mgbe usoro mkpọsa dị elu na North Atlantic, gụnyere mgbapụ abụọ site na ndọrọ n'agha na Spain nke mere ka Admiral nke Spanish Navy gbaa arụkwaghịm, Rainbow Warrior gara North America ebe a gbanwere ya na 1981 na itinye ụgbọ mmiri na ketch rig na 1985.

Na mbido afọ 1985, Rainbow Warrior nọ n'Oké Osimiri Pacific na-eme mkpọsa megide nnwale nuklia. N'ọnwa Mee, ọ kpọghachiri ndị Marshall Islanders 300 site na Rongelap Atoll, nke e metọrọ site na radiation sitere na nnwale nuklia America gara aga na Pacific Proving Grounds.[2][3]

Ọ gara New Zealand iji duru ụgbọ mmiri na-eme ngagharị iwe megide nnwale nuklia French na Mururoa Atoll dị na Tuamotu Archipelago nke French Polynesia.  N'oge ule nuklia gara aga na Mururoa, ndị French Commandos abanyela n'ụgbọ mmiri ngagharị iwe mgbe ha banyere n'ime mpaghara mwepu mbupu na gburugburu atoll.  Maka ule 1985, Greenpeace bu n'obi nyochaa mmetụta nke ule nuklia na-etinye ndị ngagharị iwe n'àgwàetiti ahụ iji nyochaa mgbawa ahụ.

Onye ọrụ DGSE Christine Cabon batara n'ụlọ ọrụ Auckland nke nzukọ ahụ wee na-enyocha ozi na nzuzo sitere na Rainbow Warrior, na-anakọta maapụ, wee nyochaa akụrụngwa n'okpuru mmiri.  Ndị ọrụ France na-eme ka ndị na-akwado ma ọ bụ ndị njem nlegharị anya nwere mmasị gagharịa ụgbọ mmiri ahụ mgbe ọ na-emeghe maka ikiri ọha.[4][5]

Bọmbụ nke Rainbow Warrior[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ihe ncheta maka Rainbow Warrior na Matauri Bay, Northland

Rainbow Warrior, nke Peter Willcox bụ onyeisi ya n'oge ahụ, mebiri ma mikpuo ya tupu etiti abalị NZST na 10 Julaị 1985, site na ngwaọrụ abụọ na-agbawa agbawa nke ndị ọrụ nzuzo nke France (DGSE) jikọtara na ahụ. Otu n'ime mmadụ iri na abụọ nọ n'ụgbọ ahụ, onye na-ese foto Fernando Pereira, laghachiri n'ụmụ mmiri ahụ mgbe mgbawa mbụ ahụ gasịrị iji gbalịa iweghachite ngwá ọrụ ya, ma nwụọ mgbe mgbawa nke abụọ, nke ka ukwuu, mikpuru ụgbọ mmiri ahụ.

Nnyocha igbu mmadụ malitere mgbe ejidechara ndị ọrụ France abụọ.  Nkpughe nke ntinye aka French mere ka asịrị ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị na Minista nchekwa France Charles Hernu gbara arụkwaghịm.  A tụrụ ndị ọrụ France ejidere n'ụlọ mkpọrọ, ma emesịa bufee ha n'aka ndị France.  Akpọchiri ha na ọdụ ndị agha France dị na Island nke Hao maka obere oge tupu ahapụ ha.  Mgbe o chere nrụgide mba ụwa ihu, France kwetara ịkwụ ụgwọ Greenpeace ụgwọ, ma e mesịa nkwenye sitere n'aka onye bụbu onye isi nke DGSE kpughere na otu atọ mere bọmbụ ahụ.  Na mgbakwunye na ndị a gbara akwụkwọ nke ọma, ndị DGSE abụọ, Jacques Camurier na Alain Tonel, emeela ogbunigwe ahụ n'ezie, mana akwadobeghị aha ha n'ihu ọha..[6] N'abalị iri abụọ na abụọ n'ọnwa Septemba n'afọ 1985, Praịm Minista France bụ Laurent Fabius kpọrọ ndị nta akụkọ n'ọfịs ya ka ha gụọ nkwupụta okwu 200 nke o kwuru, sị: "Eziokwu ahụ bụ obi ọjọọ," ma kweta na e nwere ihe nzuzo, ọ gara n'ihu kwuo na "Ndị ọrụ nzuzo nke France mikpuru ụgbọ mmiri a. Ha na-eme ihe n'okpuru iwu. "[7]

Na-esochi imikpu ahụ, Greenpeace na French Republic abanyela na nkwekọrịta iji nyefee nkwupụta Greenpeace megide France na ikpe ikpe mba ụwa.  Ụlọ ikpe mkpezi ikpe, nke nọ ọdụ na Geneva, Switzerland, nwere ndị otu atọ (Prọfesọ Claude Reymond, Sir Owen Woodhouse na Prọfesọ Francois Terre) wee nye onyinye na 1987 maka Greenpeace, na-enye France iwu ka ọ kwụọ ya US $ 8.1 nde.  David McTaggart, onye isi oche Greenpeace, kọwara ihe nrite ahụ dị ka “nnukwu mmeri maka ndị na-akwado ikike ngagharị iwe n'udo ma na-akpọ iji ime ihe ike asị".[8] Ndị nnọchi anya Greenpeace bụ Lloyd Cutler na Gary Born nke Wilmer Cutler & Pickering.[8]

E bughachiri ụgbọ mmiri Rainbow Warrior na 21 Ọgọstụ 1985 wee kwaga n'ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri maka nyocha. Ọ bụ ezie na a chọtara ụgbọ ahụ, mmebi ahụ buru oke ibu maka nrụzi ma tụba ụgbọ mmiri ahụ na Matauri Bay na Cavalli Islands, New Zealand, na 12 Disemba 1987, iji rụọ ọrụ dị ka ụgbọ mmiri na-adaba na ihe na-eme ka mmiri dị elu iji kwalite ndụ mmiri.[9] A na-ekpuchi ụgbọ ahụ ugbu a na nnukwu ìgwè anemones dị iche iche.[10] A zọpụtara osisi ndị ahụ ma guzo ugbu a n'èzí Dargaville Museum. E nwetara ụgbọ mmiri nke abụọ, nke a na-akpọkwa Rainbow Warrior, n'afọ 1989 ebe e wuru ụgbọ mmiri nke atọ nke otu aha ahụ site na mbido ma bido ya n'ọnwa Ọktoba afọ 2011.

Akwụkwọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Edewo ọtụtụ akwụkwọ gbasara ma akụkọ ihe mere eme nke Greenpeace na usoro ọmụmụ nke Rainbow Warrior.  A Bonfire na Ọnụ m: Ndụ, Mmasị na Egwurugwu Warrior nke Susi Newborn bipụtara na 2003 na Rex Wyler's Greenpeace: Akaụntụ Insider.  Otu otu ndị ọkà mmụta ihe ọmụmụ, ndị nta akụkọ na ndị ọhụụ si gbanwee ụwa na 2004. N'afọ 2014, e bipụtara akwụkwọ Pete Wilkinson From Deptford to Antarctica - The Long Way Home.

Akwụkwọ ndị e bipụtara banyere bọmbụ nke Rainbow Warrior gụnyere Eyes of Fire: The Last Voyage of the Rainbow Warrion, nke e mepụtara n'afọ mgbe ọ nwụsịrị ma bụrụ nke onye edemede ụgbọ mmiri bụ David Robie dere.[11]

Akwụkwọ ndị dị na French gụnyere L'affaire Greenpeace, na Les grands énigmes de notre temps, Jacques Derogy, Éditions de Cremille, Geneva, 1990, nke na-ekwu (na peeji nke 82) na ihe omume ahụ furu France nde francs 115, na mgbakwunye na ịbụ ihe ihere kachasị njọ n'oge ọchịchị Mitterrand.

N'omenala a ma ama[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ihe ndekọ ndị e mere banyere Rainbow Warrior gụnyere The Rainbow Warriors of Waiheke Island (2009), Departure and Return (2006) na The Women who Launched the Rainbow (2005).

E meela ọtụtụ ihe nkiri akụkọ ifo banyere ụgbọ mmiri ahụ, gụnyere The Rainbow Warrior Conspiracy (1989), The Rainbow warrior (1992), ihe nkiri abụọ nke France Opération Rainbow Warrion na Le Rainbow Warriors (ha abụọ 2006), na Bombshell (2016).[12][13][14] Ihe Steven Seagal duziri On Deadly Ground, ihe nkiri na-eme ihe nkiri nke ọrụ Greenpeace kpaliri, nwere aha ọrụ Rainbow Warrior.

Ndị na-agụ egwú na ndị otu na-ezo aka na Rainbow Warrior mbụ na mmiri ahụ, gụnyere ndị otu Danish / American White Lion na egwu ha "Little Fighter", ndị otu Belgian Cobalt 60, ndị otu New Zealand The Bats ("Green" na Silverbeet), onye na-agụ egwu Irish folk-rock Luka Bloom, ndị otu egwu Faroese Týr, na ndị otu egwu Argentine Rata Blanca. Geffen Records wepụtara abọm abụọ, Greenpeace Rainbow Warriors, na 1989 ma tinye egwu sitere n'aka ndị na-ese ihe dịka U2, INXS, The Pretenders, Talking Heads, Peter Gabriel, na White Lion. Ndị egwu egwu German bụ Die Toten Hosen kwukwara na ọ na-ada n'abụ ha "Walkampf", ọ bụ ezie na ọ bụghị aha.

"Anchor Me" bụ egwu egwu nke afọ 1994 nke otu egwu egwu New Zealand bụ The Mutton Birds nke otu ndị na-ese ihe na New Zealand dere na 2005 iji cheta ncheta afọ iri abụọ nke bọmbụ nke Rainbow Warrior. Abụ ahụ rutere n'ọkwa # 3 na chaatị ndị na-alụbeghị di na New Zealand.

E mere egwu uru nke Greenpeace Rainbow Warrior na 5 Eprel 1986 na Mt. Smart Stadium, Auckland, gụnyere Herbs, Neil Young, Jackson Browne, Graham Nash, Topp Twins, Dave Dobbyn na nnọkọ Split Enz.[15][16] N'afọ 2013, Rainbow Warrior sooro ndị okenye nke Mentawi Islands gaa n'àgwàetiti Indonesia, nleta ahụ gụnyere nkwụsịtụ n'àlla Bali ebe ndị egwu egwu na-ewu ewu bụ Navicula mere ihe nkiri egwu ha bụ Busur Hujan.[17] Vidio nke Erick Est mere gụnyere ihe nkiri sitere na akụkọ ihe mere eme nke Greenpeace na Rainbow Warrior mbụ. Vidio ahụ, nke e kesara na YouTube, wetara akụkọ Rainbow Warrior n'ime omenala a ma ama nke ndị ntorobịa Indonesia.[18]

A na-akpọ Rainbow Quay na Rotherhithe, London, aha ụgbọ mmiri ahụ, nke a kwụsịrị n'akụkụ a nke ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri Greenland tupu mmepe nke ụlọ obibi a na-akpọkwa Rainbow Quy.[19]

'Murder in the Pacific' bụ ihe ngosi nwere akụkụ atọ banyere mmiri nke ụgbọ mmiri ahụ, nke Chloe Campbell duziri. A na-agbasa ya na BBC2 na Machị 2023.[20]

Hụkwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Rainbow Warrior (1957), ụgbọ mmiri enyemaka 3-mast, nke Greenpeace nwetara na 1989
  • Rainbow Warrior (2011), ụgbọ mmiri Greenpeace e mere maka nzube

Edensibia[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. Rainbow Warrior I. Greenpeace. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011.
  2. The evacuation of Rongelap (from the Greenpeace website.
  3. Castle Bravo (en). Atomic Heritage Foundation. Retrieved on 2021-05-12.
  4. Rainbow Warrior spy tracked down in France 32 years after bombing (9 July 2017).
  5. The French Government and Greenpeace Agents back in court on Friday The Canberra Times, 20 November 1985, at Trove
  6. Field, Catherine. "'Third team' in Rainbow Warrior plot", The New Zealand Herald, 30 June 2005. Retrieved on 4 November 2011.
  7. Evening Mail – Monday 23 September 1985
  8. 8.0 8.1 Shabecoff. "France Must Pay Greenpeace $8 Million in Sinking of Ship", The New York Times, 3 October 1987.
  9. (Jul–Sep 1994) "Wreck to reef-the transfiguration of the Rainbow Warrior". New Zealand Geographic (23). Retrieved on 30 October 2012. 
  10. Bombing of the Rainbow Warrior
  11. South Pacific Books
  12. The Rainbow Warrior Conspiracy na IMDb
  13. Opération Rainbow Warrior na IMDb
  14. Le Rainbow Warrior na IMDb
  15. Rainbow Warrior music festival. NZHistory. History Group of the New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved on 17 April 2014.
  16. Rainbow Warrior concert 1986. Frenz Forum (14 July 2006). Retrieved on 17 April 2014.
  17. Navicula – Green Grunge Gentlemen. www.naviculamusic.com. Archived from the original on 2008-09-30.
  18. Archived at Ghostarchive and the Navicula – Busur Hujan [Rainbow Warrior]. YouTube. Archived from the original on 2013-06-11. Retrieved on 2023-08-16.: Navicula – Busur Hujan [Rainbow Warrior]. YouTube.
  19. Rainbow Quay – History. www.rainbowquay.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2008-05-13.
  20. Nicholson. "Murder in the Pacific review – the bombing of the Rainbow Warrior boat makes for thrilling, urgent TV", The Guardian, 2 March 2023. Retrieved on 27 April 2023.

Njikọ mpụga[dezie | dezie ebe o si]