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Usoro Antikythera

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Usoro Antikythera

Usoro Antikythera (/ ˌæntɪˈkɪθɪərə / AN-tih-KIH-ther-ə) bụ orrery aka Gris oge ochie (ihe atụ nke Sistemụ Anyanwụ), kọwara dị ka ihe atụ kacha ochie ama nke kọmpụta analog nke ejiri na ebu amụma ọnọdụ mbara igwe na n'ehihie. ọtụtụ iri afọ tupu. Enwere ike iji ya wee soro usoro egwuregwu egwuregwu afọ anọ yiri nke Olympiad, okirikiri egwuregwu Olympic oge ochie.

Ihe arịa a so na mkpọmkpọ ebe ụgbọ mmiri kpuru n'ụsọ oké osimiri nke àgwàetiti Gris Antikythera na 1901. N'afọ 1902, ọkà mmụta ihe ochie bụ́ Valerios Stais chọpụtara na ọ nwere ngwa. Ngwaọrụ ahụ, nke edobere n'ime mkpọ nkụ nke osisi (nke a na ejighị n'aka) n'ozuzu ya ruru 34 cm × 18 cm × 9 cm (13.4 na × 7.1 na × 3.5 in), chọtara dị ka otu kpọmkpọkpọ, emesịa kewapụrụ ya n'iberibe atọ bụ isi. nke e kewara ugbu a n'iberibe iri asatọ na abụọ dị iche iche mgbe mbọ nchekwa gasịrị. Anọ n'ime iberibe ihe ndị a nwere ngwo, ebe a na ahụ ihe odide n'ọtụtụ ndị ọzọ. Ngwa kacha ibu bụ ihe dịka 13 cm (5 in) na dayameta ma nwee ezé 223 na mbụ.

N'afọ 2008, otu ndị si na Mahadum Cardiff jiri kọmputa x-ray tomography na nyocha mkpebi dị elu iji see foto n'ime iberibe usoro ihe ahụ gbanyere mkpọrọgwụ wee gụọ ihe odide ndị kachasị njọ nke kpuchiri mkpuchi mpụta. Nke a na egosi na ọ nwere ngwa ọla kọpa 37 na eme ka ọ nwee ike ịgbaso mmegharị nke ọnwa na anyanwụ site na zodiac, ịkọ amụma chi jiri na iji mee ka ọnwa na adịghị agafe agafe, ebe ọnwa na agba dị elu na perigee karịa na apogee ya. . Onye na enyocha mbara igwe bụ Hipparchus nke Rhodes mụrụ ngagharị a na narị afọ nke abụọ BC, ọ pụkwara ịbụ na a tụlere ya n'iwu igwe ahụ. Enwere ntule na akụkụ nke usoro ahụ na efu ma gbakọọ ọnọdụ nke mbara ala ise oge ochie. A kọwakwuru ihe odide ndị ahụ na 2016, na ekpughe ọnụọgụgụ jikọtara ya na usoro synodic nke Venus na Saturn.

Ekwenyere na ọ bụ ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị ndị Gris chebere ma rụkwaa ngwa a wee dekwa ya n'ihe dịka 87 BC, n'etiti 150 na 100 BC, ma ọ bụ 205 BC. Ọ ga abụrịrị na a rụrụ ya tupu ụgbọ mmiri ahụ emebiwo, nke ejirila ọtụtụ ahịrị ihe akaebe depụta ya ruo ihe dịka 70–60 BC. N'afọ 2022 ndị nchọpụta tụpụtara ụbọchị mbido mbụ ya, ọ bụghị ụbọchị owuwu, nwere ike ịbụ 23 Disemba 178 BC. Ndị ọkachamara ndị ọzọ na atụ aro na 204 BC dị ka ụbọchị ngbanwe karịa. Igwe ndị nwere mgbagwoju anya yiri nke ahụ apụtaghị ọzọ ruo mgbe elekere mbara igwe nke Richard nke Wallingford na narị afọ nke 14. A na edobe iberibe ihe niile a ma ama nke usoro ahụ na National Archaeological Museum, Athens, yana nrụzigharị na ihe nṅomi, iji gosi ka o siri dị ma rụọ ọrụ.

Akụkọ ihe mere eme[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Nchọpụta[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Derek J. de Solla Price (1922-83) nwere ihe nlereanya nke usoro Antikythera

Captain Dimitrios Kontos (Δημήτριος Κοντός) na ndị ọrụ ụgbọ mmiri si n'agwaetiti Symi chọtara mkpọmkpọ ebe Antikythera na mmalite 1900, wee nweta arịa n'oge njem mbụ ya na ndị agha mmiri Hellenic Royal, na 1.000. Ahụrụ mkpọmkpọ ebe nke ụgbọ mmiri ndị Rome na omimi nke mita 45 (148 ft) site na Point Glyphadia n'agwaetiti Greek nke Antikythera. Ndị otu ahụ wetara ọtụtụ nnukwu ihe, gụnyere ihe oyiyi ọla kọpa na mabụ, ite, iko pụrụ iche, ihe ịchọ mma, mkpụrụ ego na usoro. Ewepụtara usoro a na mkpọmkpọ ebe na 1901, ikekwe Julaị. A maghị ka usoro si bụrụ n'ụgbọ mmiri ibu.

A bufere ihe niile ewepụtara site na mkpọmkpọ ebe ahụ na National Museum of Archaeology na Athens maka nchekwa na nyocha. Usoro ahụ yiri ka ọ bụ ùkwù ọla na osisi chara acha; Achọpụtaghị ya ruo afọ abụọ, ebe ndị ọrụ ụlọ ngosi ihe mgbe ochie na arụ ọrụ n'ịkọkọta akụ ndị ọzọ doro anya, dị ka ihe oyiyi ahụ. Mgbe e wepụsịrị ya na mmiri mmiri, a naghị agwọta usoro ahụ, na ebute mgbanwe nrụrụ.

Na 17 Mee 1902, ọkà mmụta ihe ochie bụ Valerios Stais hụrụ otu n'ime iberibe nkume nwere wiil ngwo dị n'ime ya. O kweere na mbụ na ọ bụ elekere na enyocha mbara igwe, ma ọtụtụ ndị ọkà mmụta lere ngwaọrụ ahụ anya dị ka ihe na eme ka ọ dịrị ogologo oge, dịkwa mgbagwoju anya nke a na apụghị ịrụ ya n'otu oge ahụ e wuru ya n'otu oge ndị ọzọ a chọtara.

German ọkà ihe ọmụma Albert Rehm nwere mmasị na ngwaọrụ; ọ bụ ya bụ onye mbụ tụrụ aro na ọ bụ ihe mgbako gbasara mbara igwe.

E wepụrụ nchọpụta banyere ihe ahụ ruo mgbe onye ọkọ akụkọ ihe mere eme sayensị Britain na prọfesọ Mahadum Yale bụ Derek J. de Solla Price nwere mmasị na 1951. N'afọ 1971, Price na ọkà mmụta sayensị nuklia Gris Charalampos Karakalos mere X-ray na gamma-ray ihe oyiyi nke iberibe 82. Price bipụtara akwụkwọ na nchoputa ha na 1974.

Nchọ abụọ ọzọ maka ihe dị na saịtị mbibi Antikythera na 2012 na 2015 wepụtara ihe nka na ụgbọ mmiri nke abụọ nwere ike, ma ọ bụ enweghị ike jikọọ na ụgbọ mmiri akụ nke a chọtara usoro ahụ. A chọtakwara diski ọla kọpa, nke e ji ihe oyiyi ehi chọọ ya mma. Diski ahụ nwere "ntị" anọ nke nwere oghere n'ime ha, e wee chee na ọ nwere ike ịbụ akụkụ nke usoro Antikythera, dịka "wheel cog". O yiri ka enwere ntakịrị ihe akaebe na ọ bụ akụkụ nke usoro ahụ; o yikarịrị ka diski ahụ bụ ihe ịchọ mma ọla n'elu otu ngwá ụlọ.

Mmalite[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A na akpọkarị usoro Antikythera dị ka kọmpụta analog nke mbụ amaara. Ịdị mma na mgbagwoju anya nke nrụpụta usoro ahụ na egosi na ọ ga abụrịrị na ọ nwere ndị bu ya ụzọ achọpụtaghị n'oge oge ndị Grik. Ihe owuwu ya dabere na echiche nke mbara igwe na mgbakọ na mwepụ nke ndị na enyocha mbara igwe Gris mepụtara na narị afọ nke abụọ BC, a na echekwa na e wuru ya na njedebe narị afọ nke abụọ BC ma ọ bụ mmalite narị afọ mbụ BC.

N'afọ 2008, nyocha nke Antikythera Mechanism Research Project tụrụ aro na echiche maka usoro ahụ nwere ike ịbụ na ọ malitere na mpaghara Kọrịnt, ebe ọ bụ na ha chọpụtara kalenda dị na Metonic Spiral ka ọ si Kọrịnt, ma ọ bụ otu n'ime ógbè ya dị na ugwu ọdịda anyanwụ Gris ma ọ bụ Sicily. Syracuse bụ ógbè Kọrịnt na ebe obibi Archimedes, na Antikythera Mechanism Research Project rụrụ ụka na 2008 na ọ nwere ike ịpụta njikọ na ụlọ akwụkwọ Archimedes. E gosipụtara na 2017 na kalenda na Metonic Spiral bụ nke ndị Kọrịnt, mana enweghị ike ịbụ nke Syracuse. Ozizi ọzọ na egosi na mkpụrụ ego Jacques Cousteau chọtara na ebe ahụ mebiri emebi n'afọ ndị 1970 bụ oge arụrụ ngwaọrụ ahụ, ma kwupụta na o nwere ike ịbụ na o sitere na obodo Gris oge ochie bụ́ Pagamọn, ebe obibi nke Ọ́bá Akwụkwọ Pagamọm. Site n'ọtụtụ akwụkwọ mpịakọta nke nkà na sayensị, ọ bụ nke abụọ dị mkpa naanị n'ọbá akwụkwọ Alexandria n'oge oge ndị Gris.

Ụgbọ mmiri bu ngwá ọrụ ahụ nwere vases n'ụdị Rhodia, na eduga n'echiche bụ́ na e wuru ya n'ụlọ akwụkwọ mmuta nke ọkà ihe ọmụma Stoic bụ́ Posidonius tọrọ n'agwaetiti Gris ahụ. Rhodes bụ ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri na ekwo ekwo na ebe etiti nke mbara igwe na injinia igwe, ebe obibi nke onye na enyocha mbara igwe Hipparchus, onye na arụ ọrụ site n'ihe dịka 140-120 BC. Usoro ahụ na eji echiche Hipparchus maka ngagharị nke ọnwa, nke na egosi na o nwere ike mebere ya ma ọ bụ opekata mpe rụọ ọrụ na ya. A na arụ ụka na ihe omume mbara igwe na Parapegma nke usoro na arụ ọrụ kacha mma maka latitudes na nso nke 33.3-37.0 degrees n'ebe ugwu; Agwaetiti Rhodes dị n'etiti latitudes nke 35.85 na 36.50 degrees n'ebe ugwu.

Na 2014, otu ọmụmụ rụrụ ụka maka mkpakọrịta ọhụrụ nke ihe dị ka 200 BC, dabere na ịchọpụta ụbọchị mmalite na Saros Dial, dị ka ọnwa ọnwa nke mbara igwe nke malitere obere oge ka ọnwa ọhụrụ nke 28 Eprel 205 BC gasịrị. Dị ka echiche a si dị, ụdị amụma amụma gbasara mgbakọ na mwepụ nke Babilọn dabara nke ọma n'ụdị amụma ngwaọrụ karịa ụdị trigonometric Greek ọdịnala. Nnyocha nke Iversen mere na 2017 kpatara na prototype maka ngwaọrụ ahụ sitere na Rhodes, mana na a gbanwere ihe nlereanya a maka onye ahịa si Epirus na ugwu ọdịda anyanwụ Gris; Iversen na arụ ụka na ọ ga abụ na e wuru ya n'oge na adịbeghị anya karịa ọgbọ tupu ụgbọ mmiri ahụ emebi, ụbọchị Jones kwadoro na 2017.

Emere mmiri mmiri ndị ọzọ na 2014 na 2015, n'olileanya nke ịchọpụta ọtụtụ usoro. Mmemme nyocha afọ ise malitere na 2014 wee kwụsị na Ọktoba 2019, yana nnọkọ afọ ise ọhụrụ malite na Mee 2020.

N'afọ 2022 ndị nchọpụta tụpụtara ụbọchị mbido usoro a, ọ bụghị ụbọchị owuwu, nwere ike ịbụ 23 Disemba 178 BC. Ndị ọkachamara ndị ọzọ na atụ aro na 204 BC dị ka ụbọchị ngbanwe karịa. Machines ndị yiri mgbagwoju anya apụtabeghị ọzọ ruo mgbe elekere mbara igwe nke Richard nke Wallingford na Giovanni de' Dondi na narị afọ nke iri na anọ.

Nhazi[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

O doro anya na usoro mbụ ahụ si n'Oké Osimiri Mediterenian pụta dị ka otu mpempe akwụkwọ. N'oge na adịghị anya, ọ gbawara n'ime isi atọ. Iberibe ndị ọzọ emebiela n'ime oge site na nhicha na njikwa, na ndị njem Cousteau chọtara ndị ọzọ n'elu oke osimiri. Iberibe ndị ọzọ ka nwere ike ịnọ na nchekwa, achọpụtaghị kemgbe mgbake mbụ ha; Achọpụtara iberibe F n'ụzọ ahụ n'afọ 2005. N'ime iberibe iri asatọ na abụọ ahụ a ma ama, asaa dị mkpa n'usoro ma nwee ọtụtụ n'ime usoro na ihe odide. Akụkụ 16 ndị ọzọ dị nta nwere ihe odide ndị pere mpe na ezughị oke.

Major fragments
Fragment Size [mm] Weight [g] Gears Inscriptions Notes
A 180 × 150 369.1 27 Yes The main fragment contains the majority of the known mechanism. Clearly visible on the front is the large b1 gear, and under closer inspection further gears behind it (parts of the l, m, c, and d trains are visible as gears to the naked eye). The crank mechanism socket and the side-mounted gear that meshes with b1 is on Fragment A. The back of the fragment contains the rearmost e and k gears for synthesis of the moon anomaly, noticeable also is the pin and slot mechanism of the k train. It is noticed from detailed scans of the fragment that all gears are very closely packed and have sustained damage and displacement due to their years in the sea. The fragment is approximately 30 mm thick at its thickest point.

Fragment A also contains divisions of the upper left quarter of the Saros spiral and 14 inscriptions from said spiral. The fragment also contains inscriptions for the exeligmos dial and visible on the back surface the remnants of the dial face. Finally, this fragment contains some back door inscriptions.

B 125 × 60 99.4 1 Yes Contains approximately the bottom right third of the Metonic spiral and inscriptions of both the spiral and back door of the mechanism. The Metonic scale would have consisted of 235 cells of which 49 have been deciphered from fragment B either in whole or partially. The rest so far are assumed from knowledge of the Metonic cycle. This fragment also contains a single gear (o1) used in the Olympic train.
C 120 × 110 63.8 1 Yes Contains parts of the upper right of the front dial face showing calendar and zodiac inscriptions. This fragment also contains the Moon indicator dial assembly including the Moon phase sphere in its housing and a single bevel gear (ma1) used in the Moon phase indication system.
D 45 × 35 15.0 1 Contains at least one unknown gear; according to Michael T. Wright it contains possibly two, and according to Xenophon Moussas it contains one gear (numbered 45 "ME") inside a hollow gear giving the position of Jupiter reproducing it with epicyclic motion. Their purpose and position has not been ascertained to any accuracy or consensus, but lends to the debate for the possible planet displays on the face of the mechanism.
E 60 × 35 22.1 Yes Found in 1976 and contains six inscriptions from the upper right of the Saros spiral.
F 90 × 80 86.2 Yes Found in 2005 and contains 16 inscriptions from the lower right of the Saros spiral. It also contains remnants of the mechanism's wooden housing.
G 125 × 110 31.7 Yes A combination of fragments taken from fragment C while cleaning.

Ọtụtụ n’ime iberibe ihe ndị a chọtara enweghị ihe ọ bụla bara uru, ma ole na ole nwere ihe odide na ha. Iberibe 19 nwere ihe odide azụ azụ gụnyere otu ọgụgụ "... 76 afọ ..." nke na ezo aka na okirikiri Callipic. Ihe odide ndị ọzọ yiri ka ọ na akọwa ọrụ nke ọkpụkpọ azụ. Na mgbakwunye na obere iberibe a dị mkpa, obere iberibe iri na ise nwere ihe fọdụrụ n'ihe odide n'elu ha: 7.

Mechanics[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A kọwapụtara ozi gbasara data a kapịrị ọnụ nke enwetara site na mpekere ndị ahụ na mgbakwunye na akụkọ 2006 Nature sitere na Freeth et al.

Ọrụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

N'ihu ihu nke usoro ahụ, enwere ọkpụkpọ mgbanaka edobere na anọchi anya eklips, akara zodiacal iri na abụọ nwere ngalaba nha nha 30. Nke a kwekọrọ n'omenala ndị Babịlọn bụ́ inye otu ụzọ n'ụzọ iri na abụọ nke eklips n'aka akara zodiac nke ọ bụla n'otu aka ahụ, n'agbanyeghị na ókèala kpakpando na agbanwe agbanwe. N'èzí ọkpụkpọ ahụ bụ mgbanaka ọzọ nke na agbanwe agbanwe, nke edobere ọnwa na ụbọchị nke kalenda Sothic Egypt, ọnwa iri na abụọ nke ụbọchị 30 gbakwunyere ụbọchị ise. E ji aha ndị Ijipt akara ọnwa ndị ahụ maka ọnwa ndị e degharịrị n'asụsụ Grik. Ọrụ mbụ bụ ịtụgharị mgbanaka kalenda Ijipt ka ọ dabara na akara zodiac dị ugbu a. Kalenda ndị Ijipt leghaara ụbọchị ịwụli elu anya, ya mere ọ gara n'ihu na akara zodiac n'ihe dị ka afọ 120.

A na arụ usoro ahụ site n'ịtụgharị obere crank aka (ugbu a furu efu) nke ejikọtara site na okpueze okpueze na ngwa kachasị ukwuu, ngwa ahụ nwere ọnụ anọ na ahụ n'ihu nke iberibe A, gear b1. Nke a kpaliri akara ụbọchị dị na ọkpụkpọ ihu, nke a ga edobe na ụbọchị kalenda ndị Ijipt ziri ezi. A naghị ahọpụta afọ ahụ, n'ihi ya, ọ dị mkpa ịmara afọ edobere ugbu a, ma ọ bụ site n'ịlele usoro okirikiri nke usoro okirikiri kalenda dị iche iche gosipụtara n'azụ na tebụl ephemeris nke Babilọn maka ụbọchị nke afọ edobere ugbu a, ebe ọ bụ na ọtụtụ n'ime ha. okirikiri kalenda anaghị emekọrịta n'afọ. crank ahụ na emegharị akara ụbọchị ihe dị ka ụbọchị 78 kwa ntụgharị zuru oke, yabụ ịkụtu otu ụbọchị na ọkpụkpọ ahụ ga adị mfe ma ọ bụrụ na usoro ahụ dị mma na arụ ọrụ. Omume nke ịtụgharị crank aka ga emekwa ka ihe niile jikọtara ọnụ n'ime usoro ahụ na atụgharị, na-ebute ngụkọ oge nke ọnọdụ nke anyanwụ na ọnwa, usoro ọnwa, n'ehihie, na kalenda, na ikekwe ọnọdụ nke mbara ala.

Onye na arụ ọrụ ahụ kwesịkwara ịma maka ọnọdụ nke ihe nrịbama ọkpụkpọ spiral na nnukwu ọkpụkpọ abụọ dị n'azụ. Ihe nrịbama ahụ nwere “onye na eso ụzọ” nke na enyocha ebe mgbaba dị na igwe ahụ ka ọkpụkpọ ahụ gbakwunyere ntụgharị anọ na ise zuru oke nke ntụnye ahụ. Mgbe ihe nrịbama ruru ebe ọnwa njedebe dị na ngwụcha nke ọ bụla nke okirikiri ahụ, a ga eji aka bugharịa onye na eso ụzọ ahụ gaa n'akụkụ nke ọzọ nke okirikiri tupu ọ gawa n'ihu.: 10

Ihu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Usòrò:Computer graphic for front of Antikythera mechanism.jpg
Kọmputa n'ihu panel nke ụdị Freeth

Ihu ihu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ọkpọ oku n'ihu nwere akpịrịkpa okirikiri concentric abụọ. Ọnụ ọgụgụ dị n'ime na egosi akara ndị Gris nke zodiac, na nkewa na ogo. Ọnụ ọgụgụ dị n'elu, nke bụ mgbanaka na agagharị agagharị nke na anọdụ ala na elu ma na agba ọsọ na ọwa, na eji ihe dị ka ụbọchị ma nwee usoro nke oghere kwekọrọ n'okpuru mgbanaka na ọwa.

Kemgbe achọpụtara usoro a, mgbanaka mpụta a bụ nke a na eche na ọ na anọchi anya kalenda Egypt ụbọchị 365, mana nyocha na nso nso a na ama aka n'echiche a ma na enye ihe akaebe na ọ ga abụ na e kewara ya na nkeji 354.

Ọ bụrụ na mmadụ debanyere aha n'echiche nke ụbọchị 365, a na amata na usoro ahụ bu ụzọ tupu mgbanwe kalenda Julian, mana usoro Sothic na Callipic egosilarị afọ ụbọchị anyanwụ, dị ka a hụrụ na mgbanwe kalenda Ptolemy III nwara n'afọ 238 BC. Ekwenyeghị na ọkpụkpọ oku ahụ na egosipụta ụbọchị ịwụli elu ọ tụrụ aro (Epag. 6), mana enwere ike ịmegharị ọkpụkpọ kalenda mpụta megide ọkpụkpọ dị n'ime iji kwụọ ụgwọ maka nsonaazụ ụbọchị nkeji iri na ise n'afọ nke anyanwụ site n'ịtụgharị ọnụ ọgụgụ azụ azụ. ụbọchị kwa afọ anọ.

Ọ bụrụ na mmadụ edebanye aha na akaebe ụbọchị 354, nkọwa nwere ike ịbụ na mgbanaka ahụ bụ ngosipụta nke kalenda ọnwa 354. Nyere oge nke usoro a na eche na owuwu na ọnụnọ nke aha ọnwa ndị Egypt, ọ nwere ike ịbụ ihe atụ mbụ nke kalenda ọnwa ndị Ijipt nke Richard Anthony Parker tụpụtara na 1950. Nzube kalenda nke ọnwa bụ ije ozi dị ka ụbọchị-iji. -ihe ngosi ụbọchị nke oge anwụ na aga n'ihu, ọ gaara enyekwara aka n'ịkọwa ihe nrịbama nkeji oge ọnwa, yana ọkpụkpọ Metonic na Saros. Ngwa ngwa achọpụtaghị, na emekọrịta ihe na ihe ndị ọzọ nke Metonic gearing nke usoro ahụ, pụtara ịkwọpụta ntụnye n'akụkụ ọnụ ọgụgụ a. Ntugharị na ndebanye aha nke mgbanaka metụtara oghere ndị dị n'okpuru bụ iji kwado ma mgbazi okirikiri Callipic nke afọ 1 na 76, yana njikọta nke lunisolar dabara adaba.

Ọkpọ oku na akakwa akara ọnọdụ Sun na eklips, dabara na ụbọchị dị ugbu a n'afọ. Okirikiri nke nwanyị na mbara ala ise ndị Gris mara dị nso na eklips iji mee ka ọ bụrụ ntụaka dabara adaba maka onyonyo ha.

Edere ọnwa atọ ndị Ijipt na eso ya n'akwụkwọ ozi Grik n'elu mgbanaka dị n'èzí: [57]


E wughachiri ọnwa ndị ọzọ; ụfọdụ reconstructions nke usoro hapụ ụbọchị ise nke Egypt intercalary ọnwa. Ọkpọ oku zodiac nwere ihe odide Greek nke ndị otu zodiac, nke ekwenyere na ọ ga adaba na ụdị ọnwa okpomọkụ kama ịbụ sidereal :: 8

N'ihu panel nke a 2007 re mere
  • ΚΡΙΟΣ (Krios [Ram], Aries)
  • ΤΑΥΡΟΣ (Tauros [Bull], Taurus)
  • ΔΙΔΥΜΟΙ (Didymoi [Twins], Gemini)
  • ΚΑΡΚΙΝΟΣ (Karkinos [Crab], Cancer)
  • ΛΕΩΝ (Leon [Lion], Leo)
  • ΠΑΡΘΕΝΟΣ (Parthenos [Maiden], Virgo)
  • ΧΗΛΑΙ (Chelai [Scorpio's Claw or Zygos], Libra)
  • ΣΚΟΡΠΙΟΣ (Skorpios [Scorpion], Scorpio)
  • ΤΟΞΟΤΗΣ (Toxotes [Archer], Sagittarius)
  • ΑΙΓΟΚΕΡΩΣ (Aigokeros [Goat-horned], Capricorn)
  • ΥΔΡΟΧΟΟΣ (Hydrokhoos [Water carrier], Aquarius)
  • ΙΧΘΥΕΣ (Ichthyes [Fish], Pisces)

Ọzọkwa na ọkpụkpọ zodiac bụ otu mkpụrụedemede na isi ihe (lee nrụgharị na ref). Akpọrọ ha na parapegma, ihe mmalite nke almanac nke oge a nke edere n'ihu ihu n'elu na n'okpuru ọpịpị. Ha na

aka akara ebe ogologo oge dị na eklips maka kpakpando ụfọdụ. Parapegma dị n'elu ọpịpị a a-agụ ( braket square a-egosi ederede atụnyere):

Α ΑΙΓΟΚΕΡΩΣ ΑΡΧΕΤΑΙΑΝΑΤΕΛΛΕΙΝ [...] Α Capricorn begins to rise   Ι ΚΡΙΟΣ ΑΡΧΕΤΑΙ ΕΠΙΤΕΛΛΕΙΝ

[...] Α
Aries begins to rise
ΤΡΟΠΑΙ ΧΕΙΜΕΡΙΝΑΙ [...] Α Winter solstice ΙΣΗΜΕΡΙΑ ΕΑΡΙΝΗ [...] Α Vernal equinox
Β [...] ΕΙ ΕΣΠΕΡΙ ... evening Κ [...] ΕΣΠΕΡΙΑ [...] ΙΑ ... evening
Γ [...] ΙΕΣΠΕΡΙ ... evening Λ ΥΑΔΕΣ ΔΥΝΟΥΣΙΝ

ΕΣΠΕΡΙΑΙ [...] ΚΑ
The Hyades set in the evening
Δ [...] ΥΔΡΟΧΟΟΣ ΑΡΧΕΤΑΙ

ΕΠΙΤΕΛΛΕΙΝΑ
Aquarius begins to rise Μ ΤΑΥΡΟΣ ΑΡΧΕΤΑΙ

Ε{Π}ΙΤΕΛΛΕΙΝΑ
Taurus begins to rise
Ε [...] ΕΣΠΕΡΙΟΣ [...] Ι{Ο} ... evening Ν ΛΥΡΑ ΕΠΙΤΕΛΛΕΙ

ΕΣΠΕΡΙΛ [...] Δ
Lyra rises in the evening
Ζ [...] ΡΙΑΙ [...] Κ ... {evening} Ξ ΠΛΕΙΑΣ ΕΠΙΤΕΛΛΕΙ

ΕΩΙΑ [...] Ι
The Pleiades rise in the morning
Η ΙΧΘΥΕΣ ΑΡΧΟΝΤΑΙ

ΕΠΙΤΕΛΛΕΙΝ [...] Α
Pisces begins to rise Ο ΥΑΣ ΕΠΙΤΕΛΛΕΙ ΕΩΙΑ [...] Δ The Hyades rise in the morning
Θ [...] {Ι}Α Π ΔΙΔΥΜΟΙ ΑΡΧΟΝΤΑ

ΕΠΙΤΕΛΛΕΙΝ [...] Α
Gemini begins to rise
  Ρ ΑΕΤΟΣ ΕΠΙΤΕΛΛΕΙ ΕΣΠΕΡΙΟΣ Altair rises in the evening
Σ ΑΡΚΤΟΥΡΟΣ ΔΥΝΕΙ Ε{Ω}{Ι}ΟΣ Arcturus sets in the morning

Parapegma dị n'okpuru ọkpụkpọ na agụ:

Α ΧΗΛΑΙ ΑΡΧΟΝΤΑ

ΕΠΙΤΕΛΛΕΙΝ [...] Α
Libra begins to rise   Μ ΚΑΡΚΙΝΟΣ ΑΡΧΕΤΑΙ

[...] Α
Cancer begins {to rise}
{Ι}ΣΗΜΕΡΙΑ ΦΘΙΝΟΠΩΡΙΝΗ

[...] Α
Autumnal equinox ΤΡΟΠΑΙ ΘΕΡΙΝΑΙ [...] Α Summer solstice
Β [...] ΑΝΑΤΕΛΛΟΥΣΙΝ

ΕΣΠΕΡΙΟΙΙΑ
... rise in the evening Ν ΩΡΙΩΝ ΑΝΤΕΛΛΕΙ ΕΩΙΟΣ Orion precedes the morning
Γ [...] ΑΝΑΤΕΛΛΕΙ ΕΣΠΕΡΙΑΙΔ ... rise in the evening Ξ {Κ}ΥΩΝ ΑΝΤΕΛΛΕΙ ΕΩΙΟΣ Canis Major precedes the morning
Δ [...] ΤΕΛΛΕΙΙ{Ο} ... rise Ο ΑΕΤΟΣ ΔΥΝΕΙ ΕΩΙΟΣ Altair sets in the morning
Ε ΣΚΟΡΠΙΟΣ ΑΡΧΕΤΑΙ

ΑΝΑΤΕΛΛΕΙΝΑ
Scorpio begins to rise Π ΛΕΩΝ ΑΡΧΕΤΑΙ

ΕΠΙΤΕΛΛΕΙΝ [...] Α
Leo begins to rise
Ζ [...] Ρ [...]
Η [...] Σ [...]
Θ [...] Τ [...]
Ι ΤΟΞΟΤΗΣ ΑΡΧΕΤΑΙ

ΕΠΙΤΕΛΛΕΙΝ [...] Α
Sagittarius begins to rise Υ [...]
Κ [...] Φ [...]
Λ [...] Χ [...]

Opekempe, ntụnye aka abụọ gosipụtara ọnọdụ ozu n'elu eklips. Ihe nrịbama ọnwa na egosi ọnọdụ ọnwa, na egosipụtara ihe nrịbama anyanwụ pụtara, ikekwe na agbakọ okpukpu abụọ dị ka akara ụbọchị dị ugbu a. Ọnọdụ ọnwa abụghị ihe ngosi ọnwa dị mfe nke ga egosi mmegharị n'otu n'otu gburugburu okirikiri okirikiri; kama, ọ gbasara osooso na mbelata nke ọnwa elliptical orbit, site na mbido izizi nke ihe eji eme ihe.

Ọ chọpụtakwara ụzọ nke ọnwa elliptical orbit na gburugburu eklips n'ime okirikiri afọ 8.88. Ọnọdụ Sun bụ, site na nkọwa, ụbọchị dị ugbu a. A na eche na ebe ọ bụ na etinyere nnukwu mgbalị iji hụ na ọnọdụ ọnwa ziri ezi,: 20, 24  ọ ga abụkwa na enwekwara ihe nrịbama "ezi anyanwụ" na mgbakwunye na ihe ngosi Sun, iji soro elliptical anomaly nke. Sun (okirikiri Ụwa gburugburu Sun), ma ọ dịghị ihe àmà nke ya n'etiti iberibe achọtara. N'otu aka ahụ, ọ dịghịkwa ihe akaebe nke ihe nrịbama nke mbara ala maka mbara ala ise ndị Gris maara n'etiti iberibe. Mana lee atụmatụ gia echere n'okpuru.

Injinia injinia Michael Wright gosipụtara na enwere usoro iji weta usoro ọnwa na mgbakwunye na ọnọdụ ahụ. Ihe ngosi bụ obere bọọlụ agbakwunyere na akara ọnwa, ọkara na acha ọcha na ọkara oji, nke na atụgharị iji gosi oge (ọhụrụ, nkeji mbụ, ọkara, nkeji nke atọ, zuru ezu na azụ). A na enweta data iji kwado ọrụ a nyere Sun na Ọnwa ọnọdụ dịka ntụgharị akụkụ akụkụ; N'ezie, ọ bụ akụkụ dị n'etiti abụọ ahụ, sụgharịa n'ime ntụgharị nke bọọlụ ahụ. Ọ na achọ ngwa dị iche, nhazi nhazi nke na agbakọta ma ọ bụ na ekewa ntinye akụkụ abụọ.

Ihu azụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Usòrò:Computer graphic for back of Antikythera mechanism.jpg
Kọmputa azụ panel

Na 2008, ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị kọrọ nchoputa ọhụrụ na Nature na egosi usoro ọ bụghị nanị na esochi kalenda Metonic na amụma chi jiri n'ehihie, kamakwa gbakọọ oge egwuregwu egwuregwu panhellenic, dị ka egwuregwu Olympic oge ochie. Ihe odide ndị dị na ngwá ọrụ ahụ kwekọrọ na aha ọnwa ndị e ji mee ihe na kalenda sitere na Epirus nke dị n'ebe ugwu ọdịda anyanwụ Gris nakwa n'àgwàetiti Corfu, bụ́ nke a na akpọ Corcyra n'oge ochie.

N'azụ usoro ahụ, enwere ọkpụkpọ ise: nnukwu ngosi abụọ ahụ, Metonic na Saros, na ihe ngosi atọ dị nta, nke a na akpọ Olympiad Dial, nke akpọgharịrị aha ọkpụkpọ egwuregwu dịka ọ naghị eso Olympiad afọ (afọ). okirikiri afọ anọ ọ na akpachi anya bụ Halieiad), Callipic, na exeligmos.: 11


Ọkpọ oku metonic bụ isi ọkpụkpọ dị n'azụ nke usoro ahụ. Usoro Metonic, nke akọwapụtara n'ọtụtụ akụkụ anụ ahụ, bụ ọnwa synodic 235, nke dị nso (n'ime ihe na erughị 13 otu nde) ruo afọ 19 okpomọkụ. Ya mere ọ bụ oge dị mma maka ịtụgharị n'etiti kalenda ọnwa na anyanwụ. Ọkpọ oku Metonic na ekpuchi ọnwa 235 n'ime ngbanwe ise nke ọkpụkpọ ahụ, na eso usoro okirikiri ya na onye na eso ụzọ na pointer nke na edobe oyi akwa nke gburugburu. Ntuziaka ahụ na arụtụ aka na ọnwa synodic, nke a na agụ site na ọnwa ọhụrụ ruo ọnwa ọhụrụ, na cell nwere aha ọnwa ndị Kọrịnt.

Ya mere, ịtọ oge anyanwụ ziri ezi (na ụbọchị) n'ihu panel na egosi ọnwa nke ọnwa dị ugbu a na azụ panel, na mkpebi n'ime otu izu ma ọ bụ karịa.

Dabere n'eziokwu na aha ọnwa kalenda kwekọrọ na ihe akaebe niile nke kalenda Epirote yana na ọkpụkpọ egwuregwu na ekwu maka obere egwuregwu Naa nke Dodona (na Epirus), a na arụ ụka na kalenda na usoro ahụ nwere ike. bụrụ kalenda Epirote, na na eleghi anya ka ewepụtara kalenda nke a site na mpaghara ndị Kọrịnt na Epirus, ikekwe Ambracia. A na arụ ụka na ọnwa mbụ nke kalenda, Phoinikaios, bụ ọnwa nke oge mgbụsị akwụkwọ dara, na ụbọchị mmalite nke kalenda malitere obere oge ka ọnwa ọhụrụ nke mbara igwe nke 23 August 205 BC gasịrị.

Ọkpọ oku egwuregwu bụ ọkpụkpọ oku sekọndịrị ziri ezi; ọ bụ naanị ihe nrịbama na ngwá ọrụ na aga n'ihu elekere elekere ka oge na aga. A na ekewa ọkpụkpọ ọkpụkpọ ahụ na mpaghara anọ, nke ọ bụla n'ime ha ka edere ya na ihe ngosi afọ na aha egwuregwu Panhellenic abụọ: egwuregwu "okpueze" nke Isthmia, Olympia, Nemea, na Pythia; na egwuregwu abụọ dị obere: Naa (nke a na eme na Dodona) na Halieia nke Rhodes. Ihe odide nke ọ bụla n'ime ngalaba anọ ahụ bụ:

Olympic dial
Year of the cycle Inside the dial inscription Outside the dial inscription
1 ΙΣΘΜΙΑ (Isthmia)

ΟΛΥΜΠΙΑ (Olympia)
2 ΝΕΜΕΑ (Nemea)

NAA (Naa)
3 ΙΣΘΜΙΑ (Isthmia)

ΠΥΘΙΑ (Pythia)
4 ΝΕΜΕΑ (Nemea)

ΑΛΙΕΙΑ (Halieia)

Ọkpọ oku Saros bụ isi ọkpụkpọ okirikiri dị ala n'azụ nke usoro ahụ.: 4–5, 10  okirikiri Saros dị afọ 18 na ụbọchị ogologo (6585.333 ... ụbọchị), nke dị nso na ọnwa synodic 223 (6585.3211 ụbọchị). ). A kọwapụtara ya dị ka okirikiri nke ikwugharị ọnọdụ ndị a chọrọ iji mee ka chi jiri n’ehihie na nke ọnwa, ya mere, a pụrụ iji ya buru amụma ha—ọ bụghị nanị ọnwa, kama ụbọchị na oge nke ụbọchị. okirikiri ahụ dị ihe dịka awa 8 n'ogologo karịa ọnụọgụ ọnụọgụ ụbọchị. N'ịbụ nke a sụgharịa n'ọkpụkpụ zuru ụwa ọnụ, nke ahụ pụtara n'ehihie na apụta ọ bụghị nanị awa asatọ ka e mesịrị, ma otu ụzọ n'ụzọ atọ nke ntụgharị gawa n'ebe ọdịda anyanwụ. Glyphs dị na 51 n'ime sel ọnwa synodic 223 nke ọkpụkpọ na akọwapụta ihe omume nke ọnwa 38 na 27 anyanwụ chi jiri. Ụfọdụ nbibiri okwu ndị dị na glyphs gụrụ:

Glyphs na egosi ma chi jiri n'ehihie ọ bụ anyanwụ ma ọ bụ ọnwa, ma nye ụbọchị nke ọnwa na elekere. Enwere ike ghara ịhụ chi jiri n'ehihie n'oge ọ bụla, a na ahụkwa chi jiri n'ọnwa naanị ma ọ bụrụ na ọnwa dị n'elu mbara igwe n'oge awa a kara aka.: 6  Tụkwasị na nke ahụ, ahịrị ndị dị n'ime na ebe kadinal nke ọkpụkpọ Saros na egosi mmalite nke a. okirikiri ọnwa zuru oke. Dabere na nkesa nke oge chi jiri n'ehihie, a na-arụ ụka na ụbọchị mmalite nke ọkpụkpọ Saros bụ obere oge ka ọnwa ọhụrụ nke mbara igwe gasịrị nke 28 Eprel 205 BC.

Ọkpọ oku Exeligmos bụ ọkpụkpọ ala nke abụọ na azụ nke sistemụ. okirikiri exeligmos bụ okirikiri Saros dị afọ 54 nke dị ụbọchị 19,756 ogologo. Ebe ọ bụ na ogologo nke Saros okirikiri bụ otu ụzọ n'ụzọ atọ nke otu ụbọchị (ya bụ, 6,585 ụbọchị gbakwunyere 8 awa), a full exeligmos okirikiri laghachi agụta na ihe integral nọmba nke ụbọchị, dị ka e gosipụtara na e dere. Akara akara na ngalaba atọ ya bụ:: 10


Ya mere, ihe nrịbama ọkpụkpọ na egosi awa ole a ga agbakwunyere na oge glyph nke ọkpụkpọ Saros iji gbakọọ oge n'ehihie n'ehihie. [Ihe ndekọ achọrọ]

Ọnụ ụzọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

ΣΚΓ, na egosi okirikiri Saros nke ọnwa 223

Usoro ahụ nwere ihe mkpuchi osisi nwere ihu na azụ, ma nwere ihe odide. Ọnụ ụzọ azụ dị ka ọ bụ 'akwụkwọ ntuziaka'. N'otu n'ime iberibe ya ka edere "afọ 76, afọ 19" na anọchite anya okirikiri Callipic na Metonic. Edekwara ya bụ "223" maka okirikiri Saros. N'otu akụkụ ya ọzọ, edere ya "na mpaghara gburugburu 235" na ezo aka na ọkpụkpọ Metonic.

Ịkwado[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Usoro a dị ịrịba ama maka ọkwa nke miniaturization na mgbagwoju anya nke akụkụ ya, bụ nke a na atụnyere nke elekere mbara igwe nke narị afọ nke 14. O nwere opekata mpe 30, ọ bụ ezie na ọkachamara n'ịrụ ọrụ Michael Wright tụrụ aro na ndị Gris nke oge a nwere ike itinye usoro nwere ọtụtụ ngwa ngwa.

Enwere arụmụka maka ma usoro ahụ nwere ihe ngosi maka mbara ala ise niile mara ndị Gris oge ochie. Ọ nweghị ihe eji eme ihe ngosi mbara ala dị otú ahụ na adị ndụ ma a na agụta ngwa ngwa niile - ewezuga otu gia nwere ezé 63 (r1) ma ọ bụghị nke a na enwetaghị na iberibe D.


Iberibe D bụ obere mkpọda okirikiri nke, dị ka Xenophon Moussas si kwuo, nwere ngwa n'ime ngwa oghere dị ntakịrị. Ngwa dị n'ime na agagharị n'ime gia dị n'èzí na emepụtagharị mmegharị nke epicyclical nke, jiri ihe nrịbama na enye ọnọdụ nke mbara ala Jupiter. A na agụ ngwa ime ime ya 45, “ME” n’asụsụ Grik, e dekwara otu nọmba ahụ n’elu elu abụọ nke obere igbe cylindrical a.

Ebumnobi nke ihu ihu bụ idobe ahụ nke mbara igwe n'ihe gbasara mbara igwe n'akụkụ eklips, n'ihe gbasara ọnọdụ onye na ekiri ya n'ụwa. Nke ahụ adịghị mkpa na ajụjụ ma a na agbakọ ọnọdụ ahụ site na iji heliocentric ma ọ bụ geocentric ele nke Sistemụ Anyanwụ; ma usoro mgbakọ na mwepụ kwesịrị, ma mee, mee ka otu ọnọdụ ahụ pụta (na eleghara elliptical anya), n'ime ihe ndị na ezighị ezi nke usoro ahụ. The epicyclic anyanwụ usoro nke Ptolemy (c. 100 AD–c. 170 AD)—narị afọ mgbe o doro anya na ewu ụbọchị nke usoro — na-aga n'ihu na ọtụtụ epicycles, na bụ ihe ziri ezi ịkọ ọnọdụ nke mbara ala karịa echiche nke Copernicus. (1473–1543), ruo mgbe Kepler (1571–1630) webatara ohere na orbits bụ ellipses.

Evans et al. na atụ aro na iji gosipụta ọnọdụ nke mbara ala ise oge gboo ga achọ naanị gia 17 ọzọ enwere ike idowe ya n'ihu nnukwu ngwa ịnya ụgbọ ala wee gosi site na iji okirikiri okirikiri n'otu n'otu na ihu.

Freeth na Jones chepụtara ma bipụta nkọwapụta nke ụdị site na iji ụgbọ oloko gia mebere nke yiri usoro anomaly nke ọnwa, na enye ohere maka ngosipụta nke ọnọdụ mbara ala, yana njikọ nke Anomaly Sun. Ha na ekwu na usoro ha dị ezigbo mma karịa ihe nlereanya Wright, ebe ọ na eji nkà ama ama nke ndị Gris ma ghara itinye mgbagwoju anya ma ọ bụ nrụgide dị n'ime igwe.

Ezé gia dị n'ụdị triangles nhata nwere nkezi okirikiri okirikiri nke 1.6 mm, nkezi ọkpụrụkpụ wheel nke 1.4 mm yana nkezi oghere ikuku n'etiti gia nke 1.2 mm. E nwere ike ịmepụta ezé site na gburugburu ọla nke oghere na eji ngwá ọrụ aka; nke a pụtara ìhè n'ihi na ọ bụghị ha niile na ada. N'ihi ọganihu na nkà na ụzụ X-ray na aga n'ihu, ọ ga ekwe omume ugbu a ịmata ọnụ ọgụgụ ezé na nha nke gia n'ime mpekere ndị dị. Ya mere, ọrụ bụ isi nke ngwaọrụ ahụ abụghịzi ihe omimi ma megharịa ya nke ọma. Isi amaghi ama ka bụ ajụjụ nke ọnụnọ na ọdịdị nke ihe ngosi ụwa ọ bụla.: 8

Tebụl nke gia, ezé ha, na ntụgharị a na-atụ anya na agbakọ nke ngwa dị mkpa na esote. Ọrụ gia sitere na Freeth et al. (2008) na maka ọkara ala nke tebụl sitere na Freeth et al. (2012). Ụkpụrụ agbakọtara na amalite site na otu afọ kwa mgbanwe maka gia b1, ma ndị fọdụrụ na agbakọ ozugbo site na nha nha nha. Ngwa ngwa ejiri akara akara (*) na-efu, ma ọ bụ nwee ndị bu ya ụzọ na efu, site na usoro amaara; agbakọla ngwa ngwa ndị a site na ọnụ ọgụgụ ezé gia kwesịrị ekwesị. (A na agbakọ ogologo na ụbọchị na eche na afọ bụ ụbọchị 365.2425.)

The Antikythera Mechanism: known and proposed gears and accuracy of computation
Gear name Function of the gear/pointer Desired length of a full circular revolution Mechanism formula Computed interval Gear direction
x Year gear 1 tropical year 1 (by definition) 1 year (presumed) cw
b The Moon's orbit 1 sidereal month (27.321661 days) Time(b) = Time(x) * (c1 / b2) * (d1 / c2) * (e2 / d2) * (k1 / e5) * (e6 / k2) * (b3 / e1) 27.321 days cw
r Lunar phase display 1 synodic month (29.530589 days) Time(r) = 1 / (1 / Time(b2 [mean sun] or sun3 [true sun])) – (1 / Time(b))) 29.530 days[table 1]
n* Metonic pointer Metonic cycle () / 5 spirals around the dial = 1387.94 days Time(n) = Time(x) * (l1 / b2) * (m1 /l2) * (n1 / m2) 1387.9 days ccw
o* Games dial pointer 4 years Time(o) = Time(n) * (o1 / n2) 4.00 years cw[table 2]
q* Callippic pointer 27758.8 days Time(q) = Time(n) * (p1 / n3) * (q1 /p2) 27758 days ccw[table 2]
e* Lunar orbit precession 8.85 years Time(e) = Time(x) * (l1 / b2) * (m1 / l2) * (e3 / m3) 8.8826 years ccw
g* Saros cycle Saros time / 4 turns = 1646.33 days Time(g) = Time(e) * (f1 / e4) * (g1 / f2) 1646.3 days ccw[table 2]
i* Exeligmos pointer 19755.8 days Time(i) = Time(g) * (h1 / g2) * (i1 / h2) 19756 days ccw[table 2]
The following are proposed gearing from the 2012 Freeth and Jones reconstruction:
sun3* True sun pointer 1 mean year Time(sun3) = Time(x) * (sun3 / sun1) * (sun2 / sun3) 1 mean year[table 1] cw
mer2* Mercury pointer 115.88 days (synodic period) Time(mer2) = Time(x) * (mer2 / mer1) 115.89 days[table 1] cw[table 3]
ven2* Venus pointer 583.93 days (synodic period) Time(ven2) = Time(x) * (ven1 / sun1) 584.39 days[table 1] cw[table 3]
mars4* Mars pointer 779.96 days (synodic period) Time(mars4) = Time(x) * (mars2 / mars1) * (mars4 / mars3) 779.84 days[table 1] cw[table 3]
jup4* Jupiter pointer 398.88 days (synodic period) Time(jup4) = Time(x) * (jup2 / jup1) * (jup4 / jup3) 398.88 days[table 1] cw[table 3]
sat4* Saturn pointer 378.09 days (synodic period) Time(sat4) = Time(x) * (sat2 / sat1) * (sat4 / sat3) 378.06 days[table 1] cw[table 3]
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named epicycle
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named boxside
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named retro

Enwere ọnụọgụ gia dị iche iche maka ụwa nke ọ bụla na ebute nsonazụ nso na ụkpụrụ ziri ezi maka oge synodic nke mbara ala na anyanwụ. Ndị ahọpụtara n'elu dị ka ndị ziri ezi, nwere ọnụ ọgụgụ nha nha nha, mana amabeghị ngwa ngwa ndị ejiri n'ezie.

Atụmatụ gia mara[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ihe nlere anya nke nleba anya nke gearing nke Antikythera Mechanism, gụnyere nkọwa nke 2012 bipụtara nke gearing dị ugbu a, agbakwunyere agbakwunyere iji rụọ ọrụ ama ama zuru oke, yana ntinye aka iji rụzuo ọrụ ndị ọzọ, ya bụ ezigbo ntụ ntụ na ntụzịaka maka mbara ala ise a ma ama mgbe ahụ. dị ka Freeth na Jones tụrụ aro, 2012. Dabere na eserese yiri nke ahụ na Freeth 2006 Supplement and Wright 2005, Epicycles Part 2. Atụpụtara (dị ka a na amaghị site na artefact) gearing crosshatched.

O yikarịrị ka enwere ọkpụkpọ mbara ala, ebe a na.ekwu maka mmegharị ahụ gbagwojuru anya na oge nke mbara ala niile na ntuziaka nke usoro ahụ. A maghị kpọmkwem ọnọdụ na usoro maka gia nke mbara ala. Enweghị usoro coaxial ma ọ bụ naanị maka ọnwa. Iberibe D nke bụ usoro epicycloidal, a na ahụta dị ka ihe eji eme mbara ala maka Jupiter (Moussas, 2011, 2012, 2014) ma ọ bụ ihe eji eme ihe maka ngagharị nke Sun (otu mahadum nke Thessaloniki).

A na arụ ọrụ Sun Gear site na crank ejiri aka rụọ ọrụ (jikọrọ na gear a1, na akwọ ụgbọ mmiri nke nwere nnukwu okwu anọ pụtara Sun gear, b1) na n'aka nke ya na ebugharị ihe ndị ọzọ gia. The Sun Gear bụ b1/b2 na b2 nwere 64 ezé. Ọ na eme ozugbo akara ụbọchị/ pụtara anyanwụ (enwere ike ịbụ nke abụọ, “ezi anyanwụ” pointer nke gosipụtara anomaly nke Sun; a tụlere ya n'okpuru na nrụgharị Freeth). N'ime mkparịta ụka a, ntụnyere aka bụ oge ngbanwe nke ihe nrịbama na ihe nrịbama dị iche iche; ha niile na eche na ntụgharị ntinye nke b1 gear nke ogo 360, dabara na otu afọ okpomọkụ, ma na agbakọ ya naanị na ndabere nke gia nke gia akpọrọ aha.

Ụgbọ oloko nke ọnwa na amalite site na gia b1 wee gaa n'ihu site na c1, c2, d1, d2, e2, e5, k1, k2, e6, e1, na b3 gaa na akara ọnwa na ihu ihu. Gears k1 na k2 na etolite usoro ihe eji eme ihe nke epicyclic; ha bụ otu ụzọ gia nke na adịghị ntupu, kama, ha na-arụ ọrụ ihu na ihu, na etinye obere ntụtụ na k1 n'ime oghere na k2. Ngwa abụọ ahụ nwere ebe ntụgharị dị iche iche, yabụ ntụtụ ga agarịrị azụ na azụ na oghere. Nke ahụ na abawanye ma na-ebelata radius nke a na ebugharị k2, na-agbanwekwa ka ọ na agbanwe ọsọ ọsọ ya (na-eche na ọsọ nke k1 dị ọbụna) ngwa ngwa n'akụkụ ụfọdụ nke ntụgharị karịa ndị ọzọ. N'ime mgbanwe dum, nkezi ngwa ngwa bụ otu, mana mgbanwe ngwa ngwa na adị nwayọọ na egosipụta mmetụta nke elliptical orbit nke ọnwa, n'ihi iwu nke abụọ na nke atọ nke Kepler. Oge ntụgharị ntụgharị nke ọnwa pointer (nkezi ihe karịrị otu afọ) bụ ụbọchị 27.321, ma e jiri ya tụnyere ogologo oge nke ọnwa sidereal nke ọnwa 27.321661. Oghere pin / oghere nke k1 / k2 gears na agbanwe mgbanwe n'ime otu afọ, na ịrị elu nke ngwa abụọ ahụ na gia e3 na enye ọganihu tupu oge eruo na ihe ngosi elliptical na oge nke 8.8826 afọ, ma e jiri ya tụnyere uru dị ugbu a. nke precession oge nke ọnwa nke 8.85 afọ.

Usoro a na egosipụtakwa usoro nke ọnwa. Ihe nrịbama ọnwa na ejide ogwe n'ogologo ya, nke a na etinye obere ngwa aha ya bụ r, nke na ejikọta ya na Sun pointer na B0 (njikọ dị n'etiti B0 na ndị ọzọ B adịghị ahụ anya na usoro mbụ, ya mere ma b0 bụ. ụbọchị dị ugbu a/ pụtara Sun pointer ma ọ bụ echiche nke ezi Sun adịghị amata). Ngwa ahụ na agbagharị gburugburu ọkpụkpọ na Ọnwa, ma a na echekwa ya na Sun mmetụta ya bụ ịrụ ọrụ dị iche iche, ya mere ngwa ahụ na atụgharị n'oge ọnwa synodic, na atụle ya, akụkụ nke ọdịiche dị n'etiti Sun. na ihe nrịbama ọnwa. Ngwa ahụ na ebugharị obere bọọlụ na apụta site na oghere dị na ihu ọnwa pointer, na ese ogologo ogologo ọkara ọcha na ọkara ojii, na egosipụta usoro ya na eserese. Ọ na atụgharị n'ụdị ntụgharị oge nke ụbọchị 29.53; Uru nke oge a maka ọnwa synodic bụ 29.530589 ụbọchị.

Ụgbọ okporo ígwè Metonic na eji ụgbọ okporo ígwè b1, b2, l1, l2, m1, m2, na n1, nke ejikọrọ na pointer. Ogologo oge ntụgharị nke ihe nrịbama bụ ogologo nke ụbọchị 6939.5 (n'elu okirikiri ntụgharị ise dum), ebe uru ọgbara ọhụrụ maka okirikiri Metonic bụ ụbọchị 6939.69.

Ụgbọ oloko Olympiad bụ b1, b2, l1, l2, m1, m2, n1, n2, na o1, nke na ebuli pointer. O nwere oge ngbanwe agbakọtara ọnụ nke afọ anọ, dịka a tụrụ anya ya. Ọ bụ naanị ihe nrịba ama na usoro na aga n'ihu elekere; ndị ọzọ niile na atụgharị n'akụkụ elekere.

Ụgbọ oloko Calllippic bụ b1, b2, l1, l2, m1, m2, n1, n3, p1, p2, na q1, na ebuli ihe nrịbama ahụ. O nwere oge ngbanwe agbakọtara nke ụbọchị 27758, ebe uru ọgbara ọhụrụ bụ ụbọchị 27758.8.


Ụgbọ okporo ígwè Saros na eji b1, b2, l1, l2, m1, m3, e3, e4, f1, f2, na g1 na anya, nke na ebuli ihe nrịbama ahụ. Oge ntụgharị nke ihe nrịbama Saros a haziri ahazi bụ ụbọchị 1646.3 (na ntụgharị anọ n'akụkụ egwu ihe nrịba ama); Ọnụ ego nke oge a bụ 1646.33 ụbọchị.

Ụgbọ okporo ígwè Exeligmos bụ b1, b2, l1, l2, m1, m3, e3, e4, f1, f2, g1, g2, h1, h2, na i1, nke na-ebuli ihe ntụnye ahụ. Oge ntụgharị ihe atụ nke exeligmos pointer bụ ụbọchị 19,756; uru nke oge a bụ 19755.96 ụbọchị.


Ọ dị ka gia m3, n1-3, p1-2, na q1 anwụghị n'ime mkpọmkpọ ebe ahụ. A na ewepụ ọrụ nke ihe nrịbama ahụ site na foduru nke dial na ihu azụ, na ezi uche, ngwa ngwa kwesịrị ekwesị iji mezuo ọrụ ndị a tụrụ aro ma nabata ya n'ozuzu ya.

Mgbalị nwughari[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Atụmatụ akụrụngwa atụpụtara[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

N'ihi nnukwu ohere dị n'etiti gia Sun na n'ihu nke ikpe ahụ na nha na njiri arụ ọrụ na gia Sun, ọ ga abụ na usoro ahụ nwere ntinye ọzọ nke furu efu na ma ọ bụ sochiri ụgbọ mmiri ahụ. , ma ọ bụ wepụrụ tupu ebuba ya n'ụgbọ mmiri. Enweghị ihe akaebe a na ọdịdị nke akụkụ dị n'ihu nke usoro ahụ emeela ka a na agbalị iṅomi ihe ndị Gris oge ochie gaara eme na n'ihi enweghị ihe àmà, a na etinye ọtụtụ ngwọta n'ime ọtụtụ afọ. Mana ka enweela ọganihu n'ịtụle ihe owuwu dị n'ime na ịkọwapụta ihe odide ndị ahụ, ewepụla ụdị ndị mbụ ma mepụta ụdị ka mma.   Derek J. de Solla Price wuru ihe nlereanya dị mfe na 1970s.

N'afọ 2002, Michael Wright chepụtara ma wuo ihe nlereanya mbụ a na arụ ọrụ nke nwere usoro a ma ama na nṅomi ya nke usoro mbara ala nwere ike. Ọ tụrụ aro na yana anomaly nke ọnwa, a ga emezigharị maka ọdịda anyanwụ dị omimi, nke bụ isi (nke a maara dị ka "anomaly mbụ"). Ọ gụnyere ihe ntụnye aka maka "ezi anyanwụ" a, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, na Saturn, na mgbakwunye na "anyanwụ pụtara" (oge dị ugbu a) na akara ọnwa.

Evans, Carman, na Thorndike bipụtara ngwọta na 2010 nwere nnukwu ọdịiche sitere na Wright. Atụmatụ ha lekwasịrị anya n'ihe ha hụrụ dị ka oghere na adịghị mma nke ihe odide ndị dị n'ihu ọkpụkpọ ihu, nke dị ha ka ọ na egosi nhazi ihe ngosi anyanwụ na adịghị n'etiti; nke a ga eme ka usoro ahụ dị mfe site n'iwepụ mkpa ọ dị ịme emume anyanwụ. Ha tụrụ aro na ọ bụghị akara ngosi mbara ala ziri ezi (nke mere na ọ gaghị ekwe omume site na ihe odide defiset) a ga enwe ọkpụkpọ dị mfe maka mbara ala nke ọ bụla, na egosi ozi dị ka ihe omume ndị dị mkpa na okirikiri mbara ala, ọdịdị mbụ na nke ikpeazụ na mbara igwe abalị, na ntụzịaka pụtara ìhè. mgbanwe. Usoro a ga eduga na usoro ngwa ngwa dị mfe, yana ike na mgbagwoju anya dị ntakịrị, ma e jiri ya tụnyere ihe nlereanya Wright.

Amụma ha jiri ụgbọ oloko dị mfe meshed gia wee gụpụta ihe eji eme eze 63 nke na akọwaghị ya na mbụ n'iberibe D. Ha tụpụtara nhazi efere ihu abụọ, nke nwere akara n'otu n'otu, na nke ọzọ nwere oghere n'elu ihu, iji kọwaa nkatọ na ha ejighị ihe ndozi pụtara na gia b1. Ha tụrụ aro na kama ịbụ ogidi na ogidi maka ngwo na axle, ha na ejide naanị ihu igwe na akara ngosi oge iji gosi na windo. N'ime akwụkwọ e bipụtara na 2012, Carman, Thorndike, na Evans tụkwara usoro nhazi nke epicyclic nwere ndị na eso pin na oghere.

Freeth na Jones bipụtara atụmatụ na 2012. Ha tụrụ aro kọmpat na ngwọta ga ekwe omume maka ajụjụ nke ngosi mbara ala. Ha na atụkwa aro igosi anomaly nke anyanwụ (ya bụ, ọnọdụ anyanwụ pụtara ìhè na akara zodiac) na akara dị iche site na akara ụbọchị, nke na egosi ọnọdụ Sun pụtara, yana ụbọchị dị na ọkpụkpọ ọnwa. Ọ bụrụ na emekọrịtara ọkpụkpọ oku abụọ ahụ nke ọma, ngosipụta ihu panel ha bụ n'ezie otu ihe ahụ na nke Wright. N'adịghị ka ihe nlereanya Wright, Otú ọ dị, e wubeghị ihe nlereanya a n'anụ ahụ, ọ bụkwa naanị ụdị kọmputa 3-D.

Mmekọrịta ime ụlọ nke Antikythera Mechanism, dabere na atụmatụ Freeth na Jones

Usoro iji mepụta anomaly nke anyanwụ yiri nke a na eji na atụmatụ Wright: gia atọ, otu nke etinyere n'etiti b1 gia ma tinye ya na spindle Sun, nke abụọ edoziri na otu n'ime ọnụ okwu (na atụmatụ ha bụ otu. na ala aka ekpe) na eme ihe dị ka ihe na abaghị uru, na nke ikpeazụ na esote nke ahụ; gia ikpeazụ dabara na ntụtụ na akwụ ụgwọ na, n'elu ntụtụ ahụ kwuru, ogwe aka nwere oghere nke n'aka nke ya, na ejikọta ya na mkpịsị anyanwụ, na akpalite anomaly ka ọ pụtara wiil Sun na atụgharị.

Usoro mbara ala ka elu—Mars, Jupiter, na Saturn—ha nile na agbaso otu ụkpụrụ izugbe nke usoro nke ọnwa anomaly. Yiri sistemu ndị dị ala, onye ọ bụla nwere ngwa nke pivot etiti ya dị na ndọtị nke b1, yana nke nwere ihe mgbakwasị ụkwụ. Ọ na enye pin na etiti pivot maka gia epicyclic nke nwere oghere maka ntụtụ ahụ, yana nke ejiri ngwa etinyere na tube coaxial wee banye na pointer. Nke ọ bụla n'ime usoro atọ ahụ nwere ike dabara n'ime akụkụ anọ nke ndọtị b1, ma ha niile nọ n'otu ụgbọ elu dị ka efere ọkpụkpọ ihu. Onye ọ bụla na eji ngwa ala, ngwa ịkwọ ụgbọ ala, ngwa a na ebugharị, yana gia / coaxial tube / pointer, yabụ, gia iri na abụọ na-agbakwunye na niile.

Na mkpokọta, enwere spindles coaxial asatọ nke nha nha dị iche iche iji bufee ntụgharị na usoro ahụ na nrịbama asatọ. Yabụ na ihe niile, enwere ngwa mbụ 30, gia asaa agbakwunyere iji rụọ ọrụ kalenda zuru oke, gia 17 na ogwe oghere atọ iji kwado akara ọhụrụ isii ahụ, maka mkpokọta 54 gears, ogwe atọ, na ntụnye asatọ na Freeth na Jones. imewe.


Na ihe ngosi a na ahụ anya Freeth na enye, ihe nrịbama dị n'ihu zodiac ọkpụkpọ nwere obere okwute na achọpụta okirikiri. Ọ na-ezo aka na nhota sitere na papyrus oge ochie:

  Otú ọ dị, nchọpụta na nchọpụta ọhụrụ na adịbeghị anya egosila na ụdị ndị a dị n'elu adịghị mma. N'afọ 2016, a chọtara nọmba 462 na 442 na nyocha onyonyo nke ihe odide ndị metụtara Venus na Saturn, n'otu n'otu. Ndị a metụtara okirikiri synodic nke mbara ala ndị a, ma gosi na usoro ahụ ziri ezi karịa ka e chere na mbụ. Na 2018, dabere na nyocha CT, Antikythera Mechanism Research Project tụpụtara mgbanwe na gearing ma mepụta akụkụ igwe dabere na nke a.

Na Machị 2021, Ndị otu nyocha Antikythera na Mahadum Mahadum London, nke Freeth duziri, bipụtara nrụgharị ọhụrụ nke usoro Antikythera niile. Ha nwere ike ịchọta ngwa ngwa ndị nwere ike ịkekọrịta n'etiti ụgbọ oloko ụgbọ okporo ígwè maka mbara ala dị iche iche, site n'iji ezi uche mee ihe maka usoro synodic nke nwere obere isi ihe, na ihe 7 na 17 na-eji ihe karịrị otu mbara ala. Ha kwubiri na ọ dịghị nke ọ bụla n'ime ụdị ndị gara aga "dakọtara na data niile amaara ugbu a", mana ihe nlereanya ha dabara na ya. Freeth (onye nwụrụ na 2021) eduzila vidiyo na akọwa nchoputa nke oge okirikiri synodic na nkwubi okwu banyere otu usoro ahụ si arụ ọrụ.

Izi ezi[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Nnyocha Freeth na Jones mere gosiri na usoro ha simulated ezighi ezi. Ihe nrịbama Mars ruru 38° na ezighi ezi n'ụfọdụ oge (adịghị ezighi ezi ndị a na eme n'ọnụ ọnụ ụzọ ngagharị nke Mars 'retrograde, na njehie na

alaghachi na ebe ndị ọzọ na orbit). Nke a abụghị n'ihi ezighi ezi na nha nha nha na usoro, mana ezughị oke na ozizi Greek nke mmegharị mbara ala. Enweghị ike imeziwanye izi ezi ruo c. 160 AD mgbe Ptolemy bipụtara Almagest ya (karịsịa site n'ịgbakwunye echiche nke equant na tiori ya), mgbe ahụ ọtụtụ oge ka e mesịrị site na iwebata iwu Kepler nke mmegharị ụwa na 1609 na 1619.   Na mgbakwunye na izi ezi nke usoro iwu, enwere okwu maka izi ezi nke igwe. Freeth na Jones na ekwu na "ịtọhapụ" a na apụghị izere ezere na usoro ahụ n'ihi ngwa eji aka wuo, na ezé triangular ha na esemokwu dị n'etiti gia, na n'elu elu, eleghị anya gaara ekpochapụworị usoro mgbazi nke anyanwụ na ọnwa ndị e wuru n'ime ya. :   Ọ bụ ezie na ngwaọrụ ahụ nwere ike ịgbasi mbọ ike na ezighi ezi, n'ihi ezé triangular bụ nke ejiri aka mee ya, ngụkọ ejiri na nkà na ụzụ emejuputa atumatu iji mepụta ụzọ elliptical nke mbara ala na retrograde nke ọnwa na Mars, site n'iji ụgbọ oloko nke clockwork. na mgbakwunye nke usoro epicyclic pin na slot, nke buru ụzọ mara nke elekere mbụ a maara n'oge ochie na Europe Medieval, ihe karịrị 1000 afọ. [nkọwa dị mkpa] Archimedes' mmepe nke uru pi dị nso na echiche ya nke etiti ike ndọda, yana usoro o mere n'ịzụlite mgbako, na atụ aro na ndị Gris nwere ihe ọmụma mgbakọ na mwepụ zuru oke karịa nke algebra nke Babilọn, iji gosipụta ọdịdị elliptical. nke mmegharị ụwa.  

Ngwa ndị yiri ya na akwụkwọ ochie[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ụwa ndị Rom[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Cicero's De re publica (54-51 BC), mkparịta ụka nkà ihe ọmụma nke narị afọ mbụ BC, kwuru banyere igwe abụọ nke ụfọdụ ndị ode akwụkwọ nke oge a na ewere dị ka ụdị planetarium ma ọ bụ orrery, na ebu amụma mmegharị nke anyanwụ, ọnwa, na mbara ala ise a maara na ya. oge ahụ. Archimedes wuru ha abụọ ma weta ha na Rome site n'aka onye ọchịagha Rome Marcus Claudius Marcellus mgbe Archimedes nwụsịrị na nnọchibido nke Syracuse na 212 BC. Marcellus nwere nkwanye ùgwù dị ukwuu maka Archimedes na otu n'ime igwe ndị a bụ naanị ihe o debere na nnọchibido (nke abụọ ka etinyere na Temple of Virtue). Edebere ngwaọrụ ahụ ka ọ bụrụ ihe nketa ezinụlọ, Cicero nwekwara Philus (otu n'ime ndị sonyere na mkparịta ụka nke Cicero chere na ọ mere na Villalọ nke Scipio Aemilianus n'afọ 129 BC) na ekwu na Gaius Sulpicius Gallus (onye nnọchi anya ya na nwa nwanne Marcellus). na 166 BC, ma Pliny the Elder kwuputara na ọ bụ onye Rom mbụ dere akwụkwọ na akọwa n'ehihie na chi jiri n'ọnwa) nyere ma "nkọwa mmụta" na ngosipụta ọrụ nke ngwaọrụ ahụ.   Pappus nke Aleksandria (290 – c. 350 AD) kwuru na Archimedes edewo ihe odide furu efu ugbu a n'iwu ngwaọrụ ndị a akpọrọ On Sphere Making. Ihe odide ndị dị ndụ n'oge ochie na akọwa ọtụtụ n'ime ihe ndị o kere, ụfọdụ nwere ọbụna ihe osise ndị dị mfe. Otu n'ime ngwaọrụ dị otú ahụ bụ odometer ya, kpọmkwem ihe nlereanya nke ndị Rom mesịrị jiri tinye akara ha maịl (nke Vitruvius, Heron nke Aleksandria na n'oge Emperor Commodus kọwara). Eserese ndị dị n'edemede a pụtara na ọ na-arụ ọrụ, mana mbọ a nwalere iji wuo ha dị ka e sere ada ada. Mgbe ngwo ahụ e sere ese, nke nwere ezé square, jiri ngwo ụdị dị n'ime usoro Antikythera dochie ya, nke nwere akụkụ, ngwaọrụ ahụ na arụ ọrụ nke ọma.

Ọ bụrụ na akaụntụ Cicero ziri ezi, mgbe ahụ teknụzụ a dị n'oge dị ka narị afọ nke atọ BC. Ndị na ede oge Rom na emesịa kpọkwara ngwaọrụ Archimedes aha dị ka Lactantius (Divinarum Institutionum Libri VII), Claudian (In sphaeram Archimedes), na Proclus (Nkọwa na akwụkwọ mbụ nke Euclid's Elements of Geometry) na narị afọ nke anọ na nke ise.

Cicero kwukwara na e wuru ngwaọrụ ọzọ dị otú ahụ "n'oge na adịbeghị anya" site n'aka enyi ya Posidonius, "... onye ọ bụla n'ime mgbanwe nke na eweta otu mmegharị ahụ na Sun na Ọnwa na kpakpando ise na awagharị awagharị [planets] dị ka e wetara nke ọ bụla. ehihie na abalị n'eluigwe ..."

O yighị ka nke ọ bụla n'ime igwe ndị a bụ usoro Antikythera nke a chọtara na ụgbọ mmiri ahụ kpuru ebe ọ bụ na ngwaọrụ abụọ nke Archimedes chepụtara na Cicero kpọtụrụ aha dị na Rom ma ọ dịkarịa ala afọ 30 karịa ụbọchị e mere atụmatụ nke ụgbọ mmiri ahụ kpuru, na ngwaọrụ nke atọ dị na Rom. ọ fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ n'aka Posidonius n'ụbọchị ahụ. Ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị rụgharịrị usoro Antikythera kwetakwara na ọ bụ ọkaibe nke ukwuu ịbụ ngwaọrụ pụrụ iche.

Eastern Mediterranean na ndị ọzọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ụlọ nche elekere nke Su Song

Ihe akaebe na egosi na usoro Antikythera abụghị ihe pụrụ iche na agbakwụnye nkwado n'echiche ahụ na e nwere ọdịnala Gris oge ochie nke nkà na ụzụ dị mgbagwoju anya nke e mesịrị, ma ọ dịkarịa ala na akụkụ ụfọdụ, bufere ụwa nke Byzantine na Islam, ebe ngwaọrụ ndị na arụ ọrụ dị mgbagwoju anya, n'agbanyeghị. dị mfe karịa usoro Antikythera, nke e wuru n'oge emepechabeghị anya. Achọtala iberibe akwụkwọ kalenda a haziri ahazi nke etinyere na anyanwụ, site na narị afọ nke ise ma ọ bụ nke isii nke Alaeze Ukwu Byzantium; nwere ike iji kalenda nyere aka n'ịkọ oge. N'ime ụwa islam, Banū Mūsā's Kitab al-Hiyal, ma ọ bụ Akwụkwọ nke Ingenious Devices, bụ onye Caliph nke Baghdad nyere ọrụ na mmalite narị afọ nke itoolu AD. Ihe odide a kọwara ihe karịrị otu narị ngwaọrụ arụrụ arụ, ụfọdụ n'ime ha nwere ike laa azụ n'ihe odide Grik oge ochie ndị echekwara n'ebe obibi ndị mọnk. Ọkachamara sayensị al-Biruni kọwara kalenda ejikere nke yiri ngwaọrụ Byzantine n'ihe dị ka afọ 1000, na astrolabe nke dị ndụ na narị afọ nke 13 nwekwara ngwa ọrụ elekere. O kwere omume na teknụzụ ọgbara ọhụrụ a nwere ike ibunye na Europe ma nye aka na mmepe nke igwe elekere ebe ahụ.

Na narị afọ nke 11, ndị China polymath Su Song rụrụ ụlọ elu elekere nke na akọwa (n'etiti nha ndị ọzọ) ọnọdụ nke ụfọdụ kpakpando na mbara ala, nke egosiri n'okirikiri igwe na agbagharị agbagharị.

Omenala na ihe ngosi nka ama ama[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Lego Antikythera usoro

Emeela ọtụtụ ihe ngosi n'ụwa niile, na eduga na ihe ngosi bụ isi "ụgbọ mmiri Antikythera" na National Archaeological Museum na Athens. N'ihe dị ka afọ 2012, e gosipụtara usoro Antikythera dị ka akụkụ nke ihe ngosi nwa oge gbasara ụgbọ mmiri Antikythera, tinyere nrụgharị nke Ioannis Theofanidis, Derek de Solla Price, Michael Wright, Mahadum Thessaloniki na Dionysios Kriaris mere. A na-egosipụta nrụgharị ndị ọzọ na American Kọmputa Museum na Bozeman, Montana, na Children's Museum of Manhattan na New York, na Astronomisch-Physikalisches Kabinett na Kassel, Germany, na Archimedes Museum na Olympia, Greece, na na Musée des Arts. et Métiers na Paris.

Usoro akwụkwọ akụkọ National Geographic nke gba ọtọ Sayensị nwere ihe omume ewepụtara na usoro Antikythera akpọrọ "Star Clock BC" nke ewepụtara na 20 Jenụwarị 2011. Ihe nkiri, kọmpụta mbụ nke ụwa, bụ onye nyocha usoro Antikythera na onye na eme ihe nkiri Tony mepụtara na 2012. Freeth. N'afọ 2012, BBC Four wepụtara Kọmputa dị puku afọ abụọ; ewepụtara ya na 3 Eprel 2013 na United States na NOVA, usoro sayensị PBS, n'okpuru aha Kọmputa ochie. Ọ na edekọ nchọpụta na nyocha 2005 nke usoro nke Antikythera Mechanism Research Project.

Onye na eme ntụrụndụ Andy Carol wuru Lego na arụ ọrụ nke usoro Antikythera na 2010 ma gosipụta ya na obere ihe nkiri nke Small Mammal mepụtara na 2011.

Na 17 Mee 2017, Google jiri Google Doodle mee emume ncheta afọ 115 nke nchọpụta ahụ.


Ọwa YouTube Clickspring na edepụta ihe okike nke usoro Antikythera site na iji ngwa, usoro na ihe ndị gaara adị na Gris oge ochie, yana nyocha gbasara teknụzụ enwere ike nke oge.

Ihe nkiri Indiana Jones na Dial of Destiny (2023) na egosipụta nkata gburugburu ụdị usoro akụkọ ifo (nke a na akpọkwa Archimedes' Dial, Titular Dial of Destiny). N'ime ihe nkiri ahụ, Archimedes wuru ngwaọrụ ahụ dị ka usoro nkewa oge, ma onye bụbu ọkà mmụta sayensị Nazi chọrọ ka ọ bụrụ ụzọ isi laghachi azụ n'oge ma nyere Germany aka imeri Agha Ụwa nke Abụọ.

  • Ancient technology
  • Archimedes Palimpsest
  • Astrarium
  • Automaton
  • Baghdad Battery
  • Ctesibius
  • Reverse engineering

Ntụaka[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ọgụgụ ọzọ no[dezie | dezie ebe o si]