Ada Lovelace

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Ada Lovelace
mádu
Ụdịekerenwanyị Dezie
mba o sịUnited Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Dezie
Aha n'asụsụ obodoAugusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace Dezie
Aha ọmụmụAugusta Ada Byron Dezie
Aha enyereAugusta, Ada Dezie
Aha ezinụlọ yaKing, Byron Dezie
aha ọmacountess Dezie
aha pseudonymA. A. L. Dezie
Ụbọchị ọmụmụ ya10 Disemba 1815 Dezie
Ebe ọmụmụLondon Dezie
Ụbọchị ọnwụ ya27 Novemba 1852 Dezie
Ebe ọ nwụrụMarylebone Dezie
Ụdị ọnwụeke na-akpata Dezie
ihe kpatara ọnwụọrịa cancer akpa nwa Dezie
Ebe oliliChurch of St. Mary Magdalene, Hucknall Dezie
ŃnàLord Byron Dezie
ŃnéAnne Isabella Byron Dezie
NwanneAllegra Byron, Elizabeth Medora Leigh Dezie
Dị/nwunyeWilliam King-Noel, 1st Earl of Lovelace Dezie
nwaAnne Blunt, 15th Baroness Wentworth, Ralph King-Milbanke, 2nd Earl of Lovelace, Byron King-Noel, Viscount Ockham Dezie
onye dị ịrịba amaCharles Babbage Dezie
Asụsụ obodoBekee Dezie
Asụsụ ọ na-asụ, na-ede ma ọ bụ were na-ebinye akaBekee Dezie
Asụsụ ọ na-edeBekee Dezie
Ụdị ọrụ yaỌmúmú-ónúọgụgụ, mgbakọ Dezie
onye were ọrụMahadum nke Cambridge Dezie
nwa akwukwo nkeMary Somerville, Augustus De Morgan, William Frend Dezie
prefix nsọpụrụThe Right Honourable Dezie
Agbụrụ Dezie
nhazi nke ọhaonye isi Dezie
Onye nlereranyaCharles Babbage Dezie
Ada Lovelace

Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace ( née Byron ; 10 Disemba 1815 – 27 Nọvemba 1852) bụ ọkà mmụta mgbakọ na mwepụ na onye odee Bekee, onye amara ama maka ọrụ ya na kọmpụta Charles Babbage tụrụ aro maka ebumnuche izugbe, Injin Analytical . Ọ bụ ya bụ onye mbụ ghọtara na igwe ahụ nwere ngwa karịrị ngụkọ dị ọcha, yana bipụtala algọridim mbụ ezubere ka igwe dị otú ahụ rụọ ya. N'ihi ya, a na-ewerekarị ya dị ka onye mbụ na- eme ihe omume kọmputa . [2] [1] [2]

Ada Byron bụ naanị nwa nke onye na-ede uri Lord Byron na onye na-agụ mgbakọ na mwepụ bụ Lady Byron . [3] Ụmụ ndị ọzọ nile nke Byron mụrụ n’alụghị di nye ndị inyom ndị ọzọ. Byron kewapụrụ nwunye ya otu ọnwa ka amuchara Ada wee hapụ England ruo mgbe ebighị ebi. Ọnwa anọ ka e mesịrị, o chetara nkewa ahụ n'abụ nke malitere, "Ihu gị ọ̀ dị ka nwa m mara mma nke nne gị! ADA! naanị ada nke ụlọ na obi m? . [4] Ọ nwụrụ na Gris mgbe Ada dị afọ asatọ. Nne ya nọgidere na-enwe ilu ma kwalite mmasị Ada na mgbakọ na mwepụ na mgbagha na mbọ iji gbochie ya ịzụlite nna ya chere na ara ara . N'agbanyeghị nke a, Ada nọgidere na-enwe mmasị na ya, na-akpọ ụmụ ya nwoke abụọ Byron na Gordon. Mgbe ọ nwụrụ, e liri ya n'akụkụ ya mgbe ọ rịọrọ. N'agbanyeghị na Ada na-arịakarị ọrịa n'oge ọ bụ nwata, ọ gbasiri mbọ ike na-agụ akwụkwọ. Ọ lụrụ William King na 1835. Emere Eze Earl of Lovelace na 1838, Ada wee bụrụ Countess of Lovelace.

Omume mmụta ya na nke ọha mmadụ mere ka ya na ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị dị ka Andrew Crosse, Charles Babbage, Sir David Brewster, Charles Wheatstone, Michael Faraday na onye edemede Charles Dickens, kọntaktị nke ọ na-eji mee ka agụmakwụkwọ ya dịkwuo elu. Ada kọwara ụzọ ya dị ka "sayensị uri" [8] na onwe ya dị ka "Analyst (& Metaphysician)". [9]

Mgbe ọ dị afọ iri na ụma (18), nkà mgbakọ na mwepụ ya mere ka ọ nwee mmekọrịta ogologo oge na ọbụbụenyi ya na onye mgbakọ na mwepụ Britain ibe Charles Babbage, onye a maara dị ka "nna nke kọmputa". O nwere mmasị karịsịa na ọrụ Babbage na Injin Analytical. Lovelace zutere ya na June 1833 site n'aka enyi ha, na onye nkuzi onwe ya, Mary Somerville .

N'agbata afọ 1842 na 1843, Ada tụgharịrị otu akụkọ sitere n'aka onye injinia ndị agha Ịtali bụ Luigi Menabrea gbasara Injin Analytical, na-agbakwunye ya na ndetu sara mbara, nke a na-akpọ naanị "Ihe ndetu". Ihe ndetu Lovelace dị mkpa na mmalite akụkọ ihe mere eme nke kọmpụta, nke nwere ihe ọtụtụ ndị na-ewere dị ka mmemme kọmputa mbụ — ya bụ, algọridim emebere ka igwe rụọ ya. Ndị ọkọ akụkọ ihe mere eme ndị ọzọ jụrụ echiche a wee rụtụ aka na ndetu nke Babbage sitere na afọ 1836/1837 nwere mmemme izizi maka injin. [5] Ọ zụlitekwara ọhụụ nke ikike kọmputa nwere ịgabiga naanị ịgbakọ ma ọ bụ ịgbakọ ọnụ ọgụgụ, ebe ọtụtụ ndị ọzọ, gụnyere Babbage n'onwe ya, lekwasịrị anya naanị na ikike ndị ahụ. [11] Echiche ya nke "sayensị uri" mere ka ọ jụọ ajụjụ gbasara Engine Analytical (dị ka egosiri na ndetu ya) na-enyocha otú ndị mmadụ n'otu n'otu na ọha mmadụ si ejikọta nkà na ụzụ dịka ngwá ọrụ na-emekọ ihe ọnụ.

Akụkọ ndụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Oge nwata[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Lord Byron tụrụ anya na nwa ya ga-abụ "nwoke dị ebube" ma nwee mmechuihu mgbe Lady Byron mụrụ nwa nwanyị. [12] Akpọrọ nwa ahụ aha nwanne nwanyị ọkara nke Byron, Augusta Leigh, nke Byron n'onwe ya kpọrọ ya "Ada". [13] Na 16 Jenụwarị 1816, na iwu Lord Byron, Lady Byron hapụrụ maka ụlọ nne na nna ya na Kirkby Mallory, kpọrọ nwa ha nwanyị dị izu ise. [12] Ọ bụ ezie na iwu Bekee n'oge ahụ nyere nna nna ya ikike zuru oke n'ihe gbasara nkewa, Lord Byron emeghị mgbalị ọ bụla iji nweta ikike nne na nna ya, [14] ma ọ rịọrọ ka nwanne ya nwanyị mee ka ọ mara banyere ọdịmma Ada. [15]

Ada Byron, portrait at age four
Ada Byron, dị afọ anọ

Na 21 Eprel, Lord Byron bịanyere aka na akwụkwọ nkewa nkewa, ọ bụ ezie na ọ naghị enwe mmasị, wee hapụ England ka ọ dị mma ụbọchị ole na ole ka e mesịrị. [16] Ewezuga nkewa dị egwu, Lady Byron gara n'ihu n'oge ndụ ya niile na-ebo ebubo gbasara omume rụrụ arụ di ya. [17] Usoro ihe omume a mere Lovelace aha ọjọọ na obodo Victoria. Ada na nna ya enweghị mmekọrịta. Ọ nwụrụ na 1824 mgbe ọ dị afọ asatọ. Nne ya bụ naanị nne na nna dị mkpa na ndụ ya. Egosighị Lovelace foto ezinụlọ nke nna ya ruo ụbọchị ọmụmụ nke iri abụọ ya. [19]

Agụmakwụkwọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Site na 1832, mgbe ọ dị afọ iri na asaa, ikike mgbakọ na mwepụ ya malitere ịpụta, [26] na mmasị ya na mgbakọ na mwepụ na-achị ọtụtụ n'ime ndụ okenye ya. [43] Nne nne ya nwere mmasị na ikpochapụ ụdị ara ọ bụla o boro Byron ebubo bụ otu n'ime ihe kpatara eji kụziri Ada mgbakọ na mwepụ site na nwata. William Frend, William King, na Mary Somerville, bụ onye nyocha na narị afọ nke 19 a ma ama na onye edemede sayensị gụrụ ya na nzuzo. N'afọ ndị 1840, ọkà mmụta mgbakọ na mwepụ Augustus De Morgan agbatịkwuru "enyemaka dị ukwuu na ọmụmụ mgbakọ na mwepụ ya" gụnyere ọmụmụ nke isiokwu mgbako dị elu gụnyere " nọmba Bernoulli " (nke mere ememe algorithm maka Babbage's Analytical Engine). N'akwụkwọ ozi o degaara Lady Byron, De Morgan tụrụ aro na nkà Ada na mgbakọ na mwepụ nwere ike iduga ya ịghọ "onye nyocha mgbakọ na mwepụ mbụ, nke ọkwa mbụ." [45]

Lovelace na-ajụkarị echiche ndị bụ isi site na ijikọ uri na sayensị. Ka ọ na-amụ ihe mgbako dị iche, o degaara De Morgan akwụkwọ:

Ọrụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

N'ime ndụ ya niile, Lovelace nwere mmasị siri ike na mmepe sayensị na ọdịda nke ụbọchị, gụnyere phrenology [52] na mesmerism . [53] Mgbe ya na Babbage rụchara ọrụ, Lovelace gara n'ihu na-arụ ọrụ ndị ọzọ. N'afọ 1844, ọ gwara otu enyi ya bụ Woronzow Greig banyere ọchịchọ ya ịmepụta ihe atụ mgbakọ na mwepụ maka otú ụbụrụ si eme ka echiche na irighiri akwara nwee mmetụta ("calculus of the nervous system"). [54] Ọ dịghị mgbe ọ nwetara nke a, Otú ọ dị. N'akụkụ ụfọdụ, mmasị ya na ụbụrụ sitere na ogologo oge na-arụ ọrụ tupu oge eruo, ketara n'aka nne ya, banyere ara "nwere ike" ya. Dịka akụkụ nke nyocha ya na ọrụ a, ọ gara leta onye injinia eletrik Andrew Crosse na 1844 ka ọ mụta ka esi eme nnwale eletrik. [55] N'otu afọ ahụ, o dere nyocha nke akwụkwọ Baron Karl von Reichenbach, Researches on Magnetism, ma nke a ebipụtaghị ma ọ pụtaghị na ọ gara n'ihu na-agafe akwụkwọ mbụ. [56] N'afọ 1851, afọ tupu ọrịa kansa amalite, o degaara nne ya akwụkwọ na-ekwu banyere "ụfọdụ mmepụta" ọ na-arụ ọrụ gbasara njikọ mgbakọ na mwepụ na egwu. [57]

Lovelace zutere Charles Babbage na June 1833 site n'aka enyi ha Mary Somerville. Mgbe ọnwa ahụ gasịrị, Babbage kpọrọ Lovelace ka ọ hụ ihe ngosi maka injin dị iche ya . [58] Igwe igwe masịrị ya ma jiri mmekọrịta ya na Somerville leta Babbage oge ọ bụla o nwere ike. Amamihe na nleba anya nke Lovelace masịrị Babbage. Ọ kpọrọ ya "Enchantress nke Number." [6] Na 1843, o degaara ya akwụkwọ, sị:

N'ime ọnwa itoolu na 1842–43, Lovelace tụgharịrị akụkọ gbasara mgbakọ na mwepụ Italiantali Luigi Menabrea na igwe Babbage kachasị ọhụrụ a chọrọ, Injin Analytical . [7] Site n'akụkọ ahụ, o tinyere akwụkwọ ndetu. [61] Ịkọwa ọrụ nke Analytical Engine bụ ọrụ siri ike, n'ihi na ọtụtụ ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị ndị ọzọ aghọtaghị echiche ahụ na ntọala Britain egosighi mmasị na ya. [62] Ihe ndetu Lovelace nwedịrị ịkọwa ka Injin Analytical si dị iche na Njin Difference mbụ. [63] A nabatara ọrụ ya nke ọma n'oge ahụ; ọkà mmụta sayensị Michael Faraday kọwara onwe ya dị ka onye na-akwado ihe odide ya. [64]

ndetu nkọwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

 

Ntụaka[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. Phillips (November–December 2011). "Crowdsourcing Gender Equity: Ada Lovelace Day, and its companion website, aims to raise the profile of women in science and technology". American Scientist 99 (6). DOI:10.1511/2011.93.463. 
  2. "Ada Lovelace honoured by Google doodle", The Guardian, 10 December 2012. Retrieved on 10 December 2012.
  3. Ada Lovelace Biography. biography.com.
  4. Last leaving England. I. Personal, Lyric, and Elegiac. Lord Byron. 1881. Poetry of Byron. bartleby.com. Retrieved on 31 January 2018.
  5. Ventana al Conocimiento (9 December 2015). Ada Lovelace: Original and Visionary, but No Programmer.
  6. Wolfram (10 December 2015). Untangling the Tale of Ada Lovelace. “Then, on Sept. 9, Babbage wrote to Ada, expressing his admiration for her and (famously) describing her as 'Enchantress of Number' and 'my dear and much admired Interpreter'. (Yes, despite what's often quoted, he wrote 'Number' not 'Numbers'.)”
  7. Huskey (1980). "Lady Lovelace and Charles Babbage". Annals of the History of Computing 2: 299–329. DOI:10.1109/MAHC.1980.10042.