Angela Merkel

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Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel Juli 2010 - 3zu4.jpg
mádu
Ụdịekerenwanyị Dezie
mba o sịJémanị Dezie
Aha n'asụsụ obodoAngela Merkel Dezie
Aha ọmụmụAngela Dorothea Kasner Dezie
married nameAngela Dorothea Merkel Dezie
Aha enyereAngela, Dorothea Dezie
Aha ezinụlọ yaMerkel Dezie
Ụbọchị ọmụmụ ya17 Julaị 1954 Dezie
Ebe ọmụmụEimsbüttel Dezie
ŃnàHorst Kasner Dezie
ŃnéHerlind Kasner Dezie
NwanneMarcus Kasner, Irene Kasner Dezie
Dị/nwunyeJoachim Sauer Dezie
nwano value Dezie
IkwuAdrian Sauer Dezie
Ezinụlọfamily of Angela Merkel Dezie
Asụsụ obodoGerman Dezie
Asụsụ ọ na-asụ, na-ede ma ọ bụ were na-ebinye akaGerman Dezie
Asụsụ ọ na-edeGerman Dezie
Ọrụ ọ na-arụOnye ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị, physicist Dezie
Ụdị ọrụ yapolitics, theoretical chemistry, analytical chemistry Dezie
onye were ọrụZentralinstitut für Physikalische Chemie, Press and Information Office of the Federal Government of Germany Dezie
aha otutuMutti, Madame Non, das Mädchen Dezie
aha mkpirisiAngela Merkel, Angela Kasner Dezie
Ebe agụmakwụkwọPolytechnic Secondary School Templin, Extended Secondary School Templin, Leipzig University, Academy of Sciences of the GDR Dezie
ogo mmụtaDoctor rerum naturalium Dezie
onye ndụmọdụ doctoralLutz Zülicke Dezie
nwa akwukwo nkeReinhold Haberlandt Dezie
Ebe obibiBerlin Dezie
Ebe ọrụBerlin, Templin, Uckermark District Dezie
onye otu ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchịChristian Democratic Union Dezie
parliamentary groupCDU/CSU Bundestag fraction Dezie
AgbụrụNdi ocha Dezie
Okpukpere chi/echiche ụwaEvangelical Church in Germany, Lutheranism Dezie
Ụcha ime anyablue Dezie
Ọmụma Mmekọahụheterosexuality Dezie
Ọrụ ama amaExamination of the mechanism of decays with singular bond breaking and calculation of their coefficient of reaction rate on the basis of quantum mechanical and statistical methods Dezie
catalog code11001478 Dezie
webụsaịtịhttps://www.angela-merkel.de Dezie
kọwara na URLhttps://www.obalkyknih.cz/view_auth?auth_id=js20050725012, https://www.bundesstiftung-aufarbeitung.de/de/recherche/kataloge-datenbanken/biographische-datenbanken/angela-merkel, https://tass.ru/encyclopedia/person/%D0%9C/merkel-angela Dezie
ikike nwebiisinka dị ka onye okikeỌrụ nwebiisinka chekwara Dezie
biography at the Bundestag of Germany URLhttps://www.bundestag.de/abgeordnete/biografien/M/merkel_angela/521968 Dezie
nnọchiaha nkeonweL484, L41653 Dezie

Angela Dorothea Merkel ( German: [ˈaŋɡela doʁoˈteːa ˈmɛʁkl̩] ( </img>  ; [lower-alpha 1] née Kasner ; amuru 17 Julaị 1954) bu onye ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị na onye sayensi lara ezumike nka nke jere ozi dị ka onye chancellor nke mba Germany site na 2005 ruo 2021. Onye otu Christian Democratic Union (CDU), ọ rụrụ ọrụ dị ka onye ndu nke otú mmegide site na 2002 ruo 2005 yana onye ndu nke CDU site na 2000 ruo 2018. Merkel bụ nwanyị mbụ bu Chancellor nke Germany. [1] N'oge ya dị ka Chancellor, Merkel bu onye a na-akpọkarị onye isi nke European Union (EU) na nwanyị kachasị ike n'ụwa. [2] [3]

A mụrụ Merkel na Hamburg dị na West Germany n'oge ahụ, ha kwagara East Germany mgbe ọ ka bu nwa ọhụrụ mgbe nna ya, onye ụkọchukwu Lutheran, natara ibu onye ụkọchukwu na Perleberg . O nwetara akara ugo mmụta doctorate na quantum chemistry na 1986 wee rụọ ọrụ dị ka ọkà mmụta sayensị nyocha ruo 1989. [4] Merkel banyere ndoro-ndoro ochichi n'ihi mgbanwe nke afọ 1989, na-eje ozi nwa oge dị ka osote ọnụ na-ekwuchitere Gọọmenti East Germany nke a họpụtara n'ọchịchị onye kwuo uche nke ọ bu Lothar de Maizière na-eduzi ya. Mgbe German jikọrọ ọnụ na 1990, a họpụtara Merkel na Bundestag maka steeti nke Mecklenburg-Vorpommern . Dị ka onye na-amụ ihe n'aka Chancellor Helmut Kohl, a họpụtara Merkel ka ọ bụrụ Minista na-ahụ maka ụmụ nwanyị na ndị ntorobịa na 1991, emesịa ghọọ Minista na-ahụ maka gburugburu ebe obibi, Nchekwa ihe ekere eke na Nchekwa ihe agha na 1994. Mgbe e meriri CDU na ntuli aka gọọmenti etiti e mere n'afọ 1998, e mere Merkel ode akwukwọ ukwuu tụtụ o wee bụrụ nwanyị mbụ e mere onye isi nke otu mmegide ọchịchị afọ abụọ ka e mechara, mgbe ihe asiri onyinye nke kwaturu Wolfgang Schauble.


N'ịgbaso ntuli aka gọọmenti etiti 2005, a họpụtara Merkel ka ọ bụrụ onye ga-anọchi Gerhard Schröder dị ka Chancellor nke Germany, na-eduga nnukwu njikọ aka nke CDU, nakwa otu ndọrọndọrọ ọchịchị Bavarian bụ Christian Social Union (CSU) na Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD). Merkel bụ nwanyị mbụ a họpụtara dị ka Chancellor, na Chancellor nke mbụ kemgbe ejikọtara ọnụ ka a zụlitere na East Germany. Na ntuli aka gọọmenti etiti 2009, CDU nwetara oke kachasị nke votu ahụ, Merkel wee nwee ike ịmepụta ọchịchị mmekorita na Free Democratic Party (FDP). [5] Na ntuli aka gọọmenti etiti 2013, otu ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị Merkel, CDU meriri mmeri dị ukwuu nke bu 41.5% nke votu ma guzobe njikọ ukwu nke abụọ na SPD, mgbe FDP tụfuru ihe nnọchiteanya ya niile na Bundestag. [6] Na ntuli aka gọọmenti etiti 2017, Merkel duuru CDU ka ọ bụrụ otu kachasị ukwuu maka oge nke anọ; Merkel hibere nnukwu njikọta nke atọ ya na SPD e wee mee ya, na njikọta ọnụ nke anọ, dị ka Chancellor na 14 Maachị 2018. [7]

Na amụma mba ọzọ, Merkel kwusiri ike maka mmekorita mba ụwa, ma n'ọnọdụ EU na NATO, na ime ka mmekọrịta akụ na ụba transatlantic sie ike. Na 2008, Merkel jere ozi dị ka Onye isi oche nke European Council ma rụọ ọrụ dị mkpa na mkparịta ụka nke Nkwekọrịta nke Lisbon na Nkwupụta Berlin . Merkel rụrụ ọrụ dị mkpa n'ịchịkwa nsogbu ego zuru ụwa ọnụ nke 2007-2008 yana nsogbu ụgwọ nke Europe . Ọ kpalitere atụmatụ mkpali 2008 European Union na- elekwasị anya na mefu akụrụngwa yana itinye ego ọha na eze iji gbochie nnukwu nlaazu ego. N'ime amụma ụlọ, mmemme Energiewende nke Merkel lekwasịrị anya na mmepe ike n'ọdịnihu, na-achọ iwepụ ike nuklia na Germany, belata nkesa ikuku griin, na ịbawanye isi mmalite ike mmeghari ohuru . Ndozigharị na Bundeswehr nke kagburu ndenye aha, mmezi ahụike yana nzaghachi gọọmentị ya na nsogbu ndị njem mba Europe nke afọ 2010 na ọrịa COVID-19 na Germany bụ isi okwu n'oge ọchịchị ya. [8] Ọ jere ozi dị ka onye isi G7 sitere na 2011 ruo 2012 yana ọzọ site na 2014 ruo 2021. N'afọ 2014, ọ ghọrọ onye isi ọchịchị nọ n'ọkwa na EU. N'October 2018, Merkel kwupụtara na ọ ga-aritu dị ka Onye Ndú nke CDU na nnọkọ oriri na ọṅụṅụ, na ọ gaghị achọ ichi ọchịchị nke ise dị ka Chancellor na ntuli aka gọọmenti etiti 2021 . [9]

Mmalite ndụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ndị nne na nna nna Merkel mgbe ha gbara akwụkwọ, Margarethe na onye ọlụlụ, Ludwik Marian Kaźmierczak na uwe ndị agha Polish Blue ya.

A mụrụ Merkel dika Angela Dorothea Kasner na 1954, na Hamburg, West Germany, ada Horst Kasner (1926-2011; Kaźmierczak), [10] [11] onye pastọ Lutheran na onye obodo Berlin, na nwunye ya Herlind (1928). –2019; née Jentzsch), amụrụ na Danzig (nke bu Gdańsk, Poland ugbu a), onye nkuzi Bekee na Latin . O nwere ụmụnne abụọ ndị ọ tọrọ, Marcus Kasner, ọkà mmụta sayensị, na Irene Kasner, onye na-ahụ maka ọgwụgwọ ọrụ. N'oge ọ bụ nwata na ntorobịa, a maara Merkel n'etiti ndị ọgbọ ya dika "Kasi", nke sitere na aha ikpeazụ ya Kasner. [12]

Merkel sitere na German na Polish. Nna nna ya, Ludwik Kasner, bụ onye uwe ojii German nke agbụrụ Poland, bụ onye sonyere na mgba Poland nwere maka nnwere onwe na mmalite narị afọ nke iri abụọ [13] Ọ lụrụ nne nne Merkel Margarethe, onye German si Berlin, ma kwaga n'obodo ya ebe ọ na-arụ ọrụ dịka onye uwe ojii. N'afọ 1930, ha wepụrụ aha Polish Kaźmierczak ka ọ bụrụ Kasner. [14] [15] [16] [17] Ndị nne na nna nne Merkel bụ onye ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị Danzig Willi Jentzsch, na Gertrud Alma née Drange, nwa nwanyị nke onye odeakwụkwọ obodo Elbing (ugbu a Elbląg, Poland) Emil Drange. Kemgbe etiti 1990s, Merkel ekwupụtala ihe nketa Polish n'ihu ọha ọtụtụ oge wee kọwaa onwe ya dị ka onye bu ọkara Polish, mana mgbọrọgwụ Polish ya ka a bịara mara nke ọma n'ihi akụkọ ndụ ya n'afọ 2013. [18]

Okpukpe rụrụ ọrụ dị mkpa na njem ezinụlọ Kasner mere nke ha si West Germany gaa East Germany. [19] Nna nna Merkel bubu onye Katọlik mana ezinụlọ ahụ dum tụgharịrị na Lutheranism n'oge nna ya bụ nwata, [15] onye mechara mụọ nkà mmụta okpukpe Lutheran na Heidelberg na Hamburg. N’afọ 1954, mgbe Angela dị nanị ọnwa atọ, nna ya nwetara ọrụ ịbụ onye pastọ na chọọchị dị na Quitzow . (otu ụzọ n'ụzọ anọ nke Perleberg na Brandenburg), nke dị na East Germany mgbe ahụ. Ezinụlọ ahụ kwagara Templin ebe Merkel tolitere n'ime obodo nke di kilomita iri itoolu (mailu iri ise) n'akụkụ ugwu nke East Berlin . [20]

Na 1968, Merkel sonyeere Free German Youth (FDJ), òtù ndị ntorobịa ọchịchị Kọmunist nke ndị otu Marxist-Leninist Socialist Unity Party nke Germany na-akwado. [21] [22] [23] Ịbụ onye otu ahụ bụ nke afọ ofufo, ma ọ na-esiri ndị na-esoghị ike ịbanye na mahadum. Ọ sonyeghị n'ememme ọbịbịa nke afọ Jugendweihe, otu ọ dị, nke a na-ahụkarị na East Germany. Kama, a kwadoro ya . [24] N'oge a, ọ sonyere n'ọtụtụ ọmụmụ Akwụkwọ na mmanye na Marxism-Leninism na akara ule ya naanị ka a na-ewere dị ka nke "zuru oke". [25] Merkel mechara kwuo na "Ndụ na GDR na-adịkarị mfe mgbe ụfọdụ n'ụzọ ụfọdụ, n'ihi na enwere ihe ụfọdụ mmadụ na-enweghị ike imetụta." [26]

Agụmakwụkwọ na ọrụ sayensị[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

N'ụlọ akwụkwọ Merkel mụtara ịsụ Russian nke ọma, e wee nye ya ihe nrite maka ịma nka na Russian nakwa mgbakọ na mwepụ. Ọ bụ onye kacha mma na klas ya na mgbakọ na mwepụ nakwa asụsụ Russian, wee gụchaa akwụkwọ ụlọ akwụkwọ ya na nkezi Abitur kacha mma 1.0. [27]

Merkel gara n'ihu na agụmakwụkwọ ya na Mahadum Karl Marx, Leipzig, ebe ọ gụrụ physics site na 1973 ruo 1978. [20] Mgbe ọ bụ nwa akwụkwọ, o sonyeere na nrụgharị nke mkpọmkpọ ebe nke Moritzbastei, ihe ụmụ akwụkwọ malitere ịmepụta ụlọ oriri na ọṅụṅụ nke ha na ụlọ akwụkwọ. Usoro dị otú ahụ bụ nke a na-enwetụbeghị ụdị ya na GDR nke oge ahụ, mahadum guzogidekwara ya na mbụ. Site na nkwado nke ndị isi obodo nke SED ọzọ, e kwere ka ọrụ ahụ gaa n'ihu. [28]

N'ihe na-eru nso n'ọgwụgwụ nke ọmụmụ ya, Merkel chọrọ ịbụ osote prọfesọ n'ụlọ akwụkwọ injinia. Dị ka ọnọdụ maka inweta ọrụ ahụ, a gwara Merkel na ọ ga-ekweta ka ọ kọọ akụkọ banyere ndị ọrụ ibe ya na ndị ọrụ nke Ministry for State Security (Stasi) . Merkel jụrụ, na-eji ngọpụ na ya enweghị ike idebe ihe nzuzo nke ọma ka ọ bụrụ onye nledo dị irè. [29]

Merkel rụrụ ọrụ ma mụọ akwụkwọ na Central Institute for Physical Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences na Berlin-Adlershof site na 1978 ruo 1990. Na mbụ ya na di ya gbadara ụkwụ na Mitte . [30] Na Academy of Sciences, ọ ghọrọ onye otu nke FDJ ya. Dị ka ndị bubu ndị ọrụ ibe ya si kwuo, ọ gbasapụrụ ozi nke Marxism n'ihu ọha dịka odeakwụkwọ nke "Agitation and Propaganda". Otú ọ dị, Merkel gọnahụrụ nkwupụta a ma kwuo na ọ bụ odeakwụkwọ maka omenala, nke gụnyere ihe omume dị ka ịnweta tiketi ihe nkiri na ịhazi okwu site na nleta ndị edemede Soviet. [31] O kwuru, sị: "M nwere ike ịdabere naanị na ncheta m, ọ bụrụ na ihe dị iche, enwere m ike ibi ndụ na nke ahụ." [32]

Mgbe o nwetasịrị akara ugo mmụta doctorate ( Dr. rer. nat. ) maka tesis ya na chemistry quantum na 1986, [33] ọ rụrụ ọrụ dị ka onye nyocha wee bipụta ọtụtụ akwụkwọ. [34] Na 1986, o nwere ike ịgaghari wee jee West Germany ịga otu ọgbakọ; o sonyekwara n'ihe ọmụmụ asụsụ ọtụtụ izu na Donetsk, nke dị na Rịpọblik Soviet Socialist Republic nke Ukraine mgbe ahụ. [35]

Ọrụ ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị mmalite[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Njikọta German, 1989–1991[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Lothar de Maizière na Merkel, 1990

Ọdịda nke Mgbidi Berlin na Nọvemba 1989 jere ozi dị ka ihe kpalitere ọrụ ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị Merkel. Ọ bụ ezie na ọ soghi n'ememe ìgwè mmadụ ahụ n'abalị ahụ mgbidi ahụ dara, otu ọnwa ka e mesịrị Merkel tinyere aka na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị na-eto eto, na-esonye na otu ọhụrụ Demokratischer Aufbruch (DA, ma ọ bụ na Bekee " Democratic Beginning "). [36] Onye isi otu ahụ, Wolfgang Schnur họpụtara ya ka ọ bụrụ ọnụ na-ekwuchitere ndị nta akụkọ nke otu ahụ na February 1990. Otú ọ dị, e kpughere Schnur dika onye rụrụ ọrụ maka Stasi nanị izu ole na ole tupu ntuli aka nke mbụ (na naanị) na 1990 ma emesịa chụpụ ya na pati ahụ. DA dara n'ihi ya, naanị ndị otu anọ ka ha họpụtara na Volkskammer . Otú ọ dị, n'ihi na DA bụ onye òtù nke Alliance for Germany, bụ nke meriri nhoputa ndi ochichi na oke ala, e tinyere DA n'òtù gọọmenti. Ya mere a họpụtara Merkel onye osote onye na-ekwuchitere gọọmentị ọhụrụ na nke ikpeazụ n'okpuru Lothar de Maizière . [37]

Merkel masịrị de Maiziere otú o si mesoo ndị nta akụkọ na-ajụ ọrụ onye isi otu pati Wolfgang Schnur dị ka " onye ọrụ nchekwa" na ndị ọrụ nchekwa obodo . [29] [36] N'April 1990, DA jikọtara na East German Christian Democratic Union, nke n'aka nke ya jikọtara ya na ogbo ọdịda anyanwụ ya mgbe njikọta.

Minista nke ụmụ nwanyị na ndị ntorobịa, 1991–1994[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Na ntuli aka gọọmenti etiti nke mba Germany e mere n'afọ 1990, nke mbụ e mere na-esochi njikọta, Merkel guzoro ma merie na ntuli aka na Bundestag na mpaghara omeiwu nke Stralsund - Nordvorpommern - Rügen na north Mecklenburg-Vorpommern . [38] O nwetara nkwado dị mkpa nke onye minista CDU na-akpa ike n'oge ahụ na onye isi oche pati steeti Günther Krause . O meriri nhoputa ndi ozo site na mpaghara a (a kpọgharịrị aha ya, nke nwere oke a gbanwetụrụ, Vorpommern-Rügen - Vorpommern-Greifswald I na 2003) na ntuli aka gọọmenti asaa emere kemgbe ahụ. Ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ ozugbo ọ banyere na nzuko omeiwu, Chancellor Helmut Kohl họpụtara Merkel ka ọ bụrụ onye minista na-ahụ maka ụmụ nwanyị na ndị ntorobịa na ụlọ ọrụ gọọmentị etiti . Ozi a bụ nke kacha nta na nke kachasi ike n'ime ministri atọ ndị e si na Ministri maka ahụike, ndị agadi, ezi na ụlọ na ndị ntorobịa emebere.

Na Nọvemba 1991, Merkel, na nkwado nke CDU gọọmenti etiti, gbara ọsọ maka nduzi nke CDU agbata obi na Brandenburg. Ọ tụfuru Ulf Finke; Nke a bụ naanị ntuli aka nke Merkel na-emerighi emeri ruo taa.

Na June 1993, a họpụtara Merkel onye ndú nke CDU na Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, na-anọchi anya onye bubu onye ndụmọdụ ya Günther Krause .

Onye minista na-ahụ maka gburugburu ebe obibi, 1994–1998[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Merkel na akwụkwọ mmado mgbasa ozi CDU, 1995

Na 1994, a kwalitere ya ka ọ bụrụ onye Minista maka gburugburu ebe obibi na nchekwa nuklia, bụ nke nyere ya ọhụụ ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị ka ukwuu na ikpo okwu iji wuo ọrụ ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị nke onwe ya. Dị ka otu n'ime ndị nkwado Kohl n'ọrụ Minista nke yaya, Kohl na-akpọkarị ya mein Mädchen ("nwa m nwanyị"). [39]

Onye odeakwụkwọ ukwu nke CDU, 1998–2000[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Mgbe e meriri Gọọmenti Kohl na ntuli aka 1998, a họpụtara Merkel onye odeakwụkwọ ukwu nke CDU, bụ isi ọnọdụ dịka otu ahụ abụghịzi akụkụ nke gọọmentị etiti. Merkel lekọtara ọtụtụ CDU na isii n'ime ntuli aka steeti asaa na 1999, na-emebi ogologo oge SPD-Green na Bundesrat . N'ịgbaso asịrị ego nke otu pati mebie ọtụtụ ndị isi CDU - gụnyere Kohl n'onwe ya na onye nọchiri ya dị ka onye ndu CDU, Wolfgang Schäuble - Merkel katọrọ onye ndụmọdụ mbụ ya n'ihu ọha wee kwado mmalite ọhụrụ maka nnọkọ ahụ na-enweghị ya. [40]

Onye isi oche nke CDU, 2000-2018[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Emechara họpụta ya ka ọ nọchie Schäuble, bụrụ onye isi nwanyị mbụ nke otu pati German na 10 Eprel 2000. [41] Nhọpụta ya tụrụ ọtụtụ ndị na-ekiri ya n'anya, n'ihi na àgwà ya gosipụtara ihe dị iche na pati a họpụtara ya ka ọ bụrụ onyeisi; Merkel bụ onye Protestant centrist sitere na ndị Protestant nke ugwu Germany, ebe CDU bụ ndị nwoke na-achị, ndị na-echekwa mmekọrịta ọha na eze nwere ebe siri ike na ọdịda anyanwụ na ndịda Germany, na otu Bavaria, CSU, nwere mgbọrọgwụ Katọlik miri emi.

Merkel na onye isi ala Russia Vladimir Putin, 2002

N'ihe na-esote ntuli aka Merkel dị ka onye ndu CDU, CDU enweghị ike imeri na ntuli aka steeti na-esote. N'ihe dị ka ọnwa Febụwarị 2001 onye ya na Merkel na-adọ ndoro-ndoro ochichi bụ Friedrich Merz mere ka o doo anya na ya bu n'obi ịghọ onye isi mgba aka Chancellor Gerhard Schröder na ntuli aka 2002 . Amụma Merkel n'onwe ya ịghọ Chancellor bụ nke amara nke ọma, mana ọ nweghị nkwado nke ọtụtụ ndị minista-ndị isi oche na ndị isi ndị ọzọ nọ na pati nke ya. Onye isi CSU Edmund Stoiber mesiri ya ike na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị, bụ onye o mechara nye ohere nke ịma Schröder aka. [42] Ọ gara n'ihu mebie nnukwu ndu na ntuli aka echiche iji tụfuo ntuli aka nke agha Iraq juputara. Ọ bụ ezie na Chancellor Schröder mere ka o doo anya na ọ gaghị esonye na agha na Iraq, [43] Merkel na CDU-CSU kwadoro mbuso agha nke Iraq.

Onye ndu ndị mmegide, 2002–2005[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ụfọdụ ihe ịga nke ọma[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Mgbe emerichara Stoiber na 2002, na mgbakwunye ọrụ ya dị ka onye ndu CDU, Merkel ghọrọ onye ndu nke mmegide na Bundestag ; Friedrich Merz, onye jigoro ọkwa ahụ tupu ntuli aka 2002, mere ka ọ dị mfe imere Merkel ohere. Stoiber họpụtara Merkel. [44]

Merkel kwadoro nnukwu mgbanwe maka usoro akụ na ụba na mmekọrịta ọha na eze nke Germany, a na-ewerekwa ya dị ka onye na-aga ahịa karịa otu nke ya (CDU). Ọ kwadoro mgbanwe iwu ndị ọrụ German, na-ewepụ ihe mgbochi nke ịchụpụ ndị ọrụ yana ịbawanye ọnụ ọgụgụ ọrụ mmadụ nwere ike iru n'ime otu izu. Ọ rụrụ ụka na iwu ndị dị adị na-eme ka obodo ahụ ghara ịsọ mpi, n'ihi na ụlọ ọrụ enweghị ike ịchịkwa ụgwọ ọrụ n'ụzọ dị mfe mgbe azụmahịa na-eji nwayọ. [45]

Merkel rụrụ ụka na Germany kwesịrị iwepụ ike nuklia ngwa ngwa karịa etụ ọchịchị Schröder zubere. [46] [47]

Merkel kwadoro mmekorita transatlantic siri ike na ọbụbụenyi German na America. N'oge opupu ihe ubi nke 2003, na mmegide ọha na eze siri ike, Merkel bịara kwado maka mbuso agha nke Iraq n'afọ 2003, na-akọwa ya dị ka "nke a na-apụghị izere ezere" na ebubo Chancellor Gerhard Schröder nke mgbochi America . Ọ katọrọ nkwado gọọmentị maka ịbanye Turkey na European Union ma kwado " mmekọrịta ihe ùgwù " kama. N'ime nke a, o gosipụtara echiche ọha na eze nke na-emegide mbanye ndị Turkey banyere na European Union. [48]

Ntuli aka mba 2005[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Na 30 May 2005, Merkel meriri nhọpụta CDU/CSU dị ka onye na-ama aka Chancellor Gerhard Schröder nke SPD na ntuli aka mba 2005 . Ndị otu ya malitere mgbasa ozi ahụ site n'isi isi iri abụọ na otu n'isi SPD na ntuli aka echiche nke mba, n'agbanyeghị na ewu ewu onwe ya kwụsịrị n'azụ nke onye nọ n'ọchịchị. Agbanyeghị, nke a, mkpọsa CDU/CSU tara ahụhụ [49] mgbe Merkel mere ka ikike akụ na ụba bụrụ isi na ikpo okwu CDU, nnukwu mgbagwoju anya yana ego net ugboro abụọ n'oge arụmụka telivishọn. [50] Ọ nwetaghachiri ume mgbe o kwusịrị na ọ ga-ahọpụta Paul Kirchhof, onye bụbu onye ọka ikpe na Ụlọikpe Iwu German na onye isi ọkachamara gbasara amụma gbasara ego, dị ka Minista ego. [49]

Merkel na CDU tụfuru ala mgbe Kirchhof tụpụtara iwebata ụtụ isi dị larịị na Germany, na-emebikwa mkpesa sara mbara nke otu ahụ na ihe omume akụ na ụba na ime ka ọtụtụ ndị ntuli aka kwenye na ikpo okwu nke CDU bu naani ihe e mere ka ọ baara naanị ndị ọgaranya uru. [51] Nke a gbagoro site n'atụmatụ Merkel ịwelite VAT [52] iji belata mperi Germany wee mejupụta oghere dị na ụtụ isi n'ụtụ isi. Ndị SPD nwere ike ịbawanye nkwado ha nanị site n'ikwe nkwa na ha agaghị ewebata ụtụ isi dị larịị ma ọ bụ mụbaa VAT. Ọ bụ ezie na ọkwa Merkel gbakere onwe ya mgbe o wepụrụ onwe ya na atụmatụ Kirchhof, ọ nọgidere na-ewu ewu nke ukwuu karịa Schröder, mana ịbụ ụzọ nke CDU gbadara n'abalị nke ntuli aka. [53]

N'uhuruchi nke ntuli aka ahụ, a ka nwere mmasị na Merkel iji nweta mmeri nke pụtara ìhè dabere na echiche ndi ga-eme ntuli aka eche. [54] Na 18 Septemba 2005, Merkel's CDU/CSU na Schröder's SPD gara isi na isi na ntuli aka mba, na CDU/CSU meriri 35.2% (CDU 27.8%/CSU 7.5%)  nke votu nke abụọ na 34.2% nke SPD. [54] Mputara ntuli aka ahụ dị nnọọ nso, nke mere ka Schröder na Merkel kwuo na ha nwere mmeri. [54] Ma SPD-Green coalition ma ọ bụ CDU/CSU na, ndị Free Democratic Party, enweghị ọtụtụ oche Bundestag. [54] Nnukwu njikọ dị n'etiti CDU/CSU na SPD chere ihe ịma aka nke mere ka akụkụ abụọ ahụ malite ịchọ oche ọchịchị. [54] [55] Otú ọ dị, mgbe izu atọ nke mkparịta ụka gasịrị, ndị abụọ ahụ ruru nkwekọrịta na Merkel ga-abụ Chancellor nakwa na SPD ga-ejide oche asatọ n'ime oche iri na isii dị n'ụlọọrụ ahu. [55]

Chancellor of Germany, 2005–2021[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

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Eserese gọọmentị ya na Merkel-Raute, 2010

Nnukwu njikọta nke mbu nke otu CDU–SPD, 2005–2009[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Kabinet mbu nke Merkel malitere na 16:00 CET na 22 Nọvemba 2005. Na 31 October 2005, mgbe mmeri nke onye ọ na-akwado maka ọkwa odeakwụkwọ ukwu nke SPD, Franz Müntefering gosiri na ọ ga-agbahapụ dị ka onyeisi oche pati, nke o mere na November. N'ịzaghachi nke a, Edmund Stoiber (CSU), bụ onye ahọpụtara na mbụ dị ka Minista nke Economics na Teknuzu kwupụtara mwepụ ya na 1 November 2005. Ọ bụ ezie na a na-ahụta nke a na mbụ dị ka ihe na-akụda mmụọ nke mbọ Merkel n'ịmepụta njikọ aka kwesịrị ekwesị, ụzọ Stoiber si wepụ onwe ya mere ka a kwaa ya emo ma mebie ọkwá ya dị ka onye na-emegide Merkel. Ọgbakọ dị iche iche nke CDU, CSU, na SPD kwadoro kabinet a tụrụ aro na 14 Nọvemba 2005. Cabinet nke abụọ nke Angela Merkel malitere na 28 October 2009. [56]

Na 22 Nọvemba 2005, Merkel weghaara ọfịs nke Chancellor nke Germany na-esote ntuli aka siri ike nke rụpụtara na nnukwu mmekorita ya na SPD . Ndị otu abụọ ahụ kwadoro nkwekọrịta ahụ na nnọkọ oriri na ọṅụṅụ na 14 November 2005. [57] Ọtụtụ ndị nnọchiteanya họpụtara Merkel ibu onyeisi oche na ọgbakọ ọhụrụ nke Bundestag nke a gbakọtara na 22 Nọvemba 2005, mana ndị otu mmadụ iri ise na otu na-achị achị akwadoghi ya. [58]

Akụkọ a kọrọ n'oge ahụ gosiri na nnukwu njikọta ga-agbaso ngwakọta nke atumatu, ụfọdụ n'ime ha dị iche na usoro ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị Merkel dị ka onye ndú nke ndị mmegide na onye na-akwado Chancellor. Ebumnuche otu a bụ ibelata mmefu ọha na eze ebe a na-abawanye VAT (site na pasent iri na isii ruo pasent iri na itoolu), onyinye mkpuchi ọha na ọnụ ọgụgụ kacha elu nke ụtụ isi ego . [59]

Mgbe ọ na-ekwupụta nkwekọrịta ahu, Merkel kwuru na isi ebumnuche gọọmentị ya ga-abụ ibelata enweghị ọrụ, na ọ bụ okwu a ka a ga-eji ekpe gọọmentị ya ikpe. [60]

Merkel na 2007

Mmekọrịta CDU–FDP, 2009–2013[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A họpụtara pati ya ọzọ n'afọ 2009 site na ọnụ ọgụgụ oche na-abawanye ụba, ma nwee ike guzobe njikọ ọchịchị na FDP . Nsogbu ụgwọ nke Europe kpuchiri okwu a. A kagburu ndebanye aha na Germany na ndị Bundeswehr ghọrọ ndị agha afọ ofufo . Enweghị ọrụ gbadara n'okpuru akara nke nde mmadụ atọ na-enweghị ọrụ. [61]

Merkel na mbinye aka nke nkwekọrịta maka oge ntuli aka nke iri na asatọ nke Bundestag, na Disemba 2013

Na ntuli aka nke September 2013, Merkel meriri otu n'ime mmeri ndị kachasị mma na akụkọ ihe mere eme Germany, na-enweta nsonaazụ kacha mma maka CDU / CSU kemgbe nchikota na-abịa n'ime oche ise nke mbụ zuru oke na Bundestag kemgbe 1957. [62] Agbanyeghị, ndị otu ha kacha amasị, FDP, abanyeghị n'ụlọ omeiwu na nke mbụ kemgbe 1949, n'okpuru opekempe nke pasent ise nke ntuli aka chọrọ ịbanye n'ụlọ omeiwu. [6] [63]

Nnukwu njikọta nke abụọ nke otu CDU – SPD 2013–2017[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ndị CDU/CSU tụgharịrị na SPD ka ha guzobe nnukwu njikọta nke atọ na akụkọ ihe mere eme German mgbe agha gasịrị na nke abụọ n'okpuru ọchịchị Merkel. A malitere Cabinet nke atọ nke Angela Merkel na 17 Disemba 2013

N'ime oge nke abụọ ya, nkwenye Merkel dara na Germany, butere nnukwu mfu na ntuli aka steeti maka pati ya. Ntuli aka emere n'August 2011 chọpụtara na mmekorita ya nwere naanị nkwado pasent iri atọ na isii ma e jiri ya tụnyere pasent iri ise na otu nke ndị njikọta ha na ya na-asọ mpi. Otú ọ dị, o mere nke ọma na njikwa ya nke nsogbu euro na nso nso a (mmadụ pasent iri isii na itoolu gosiri na ọrụ ya dị mma karịa etụ ọ dị na mbụ), na nkwado nkwado ya ruru ihe dị elu nke rụrụ pasent iri asaa na asaa na February 2012 nakwa na July 2014.

Ogo nkwado Merkel gbadara ruo pasent iri ise na anọ na Ọktoba 2015, n'oge ọgba aghara ndị na-akwaga mba Europe, nke kachasị ala kemgbe 2011. Dị ka ntuli aka emere ka mwakpo ụjọ gasịrị na Germany nkwado a na-akwado Merkel gbadara ruo pasent iri anọ na asaa (August 2016). Ọkara ndị German achọghị ka ọ jee ozi nke anọ n'ọchịchị ma e jiri ya tụnyere pasent iri anọ na abụọ ndi kwadoro. Agbanyeghị, dịka ntuli aka emere na Ọktoba 2016, achọpụtala ọkwa nnabata ya bilitere ọzọ, pasent iri ise na anọ nke ndị German hụrụ afọ ojuju na ọrụ Merkel dị ka Chancellor. Dị ka ntuli aka ọzọ e mere na Nọvemba 2016, pasent iri ise na itoolu kwụrụ na ha kwadoro nhọpụta Chancellor ọhụrụ nke Merkel na 2017. Dị ka ntuli aka rụrụ nanị ụbọchị ole na ole a ihe mberede nke mbuso agha ebusoro gwongworo na Berlin, a jụrụ ndị ndú ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị Germany onye ha tụkwasịrị obi idozi nsogbu nke obodo ha; pasent iri ise na isii kpọrọ aha Merkel, pasent iri atọ na itoolu kwunyere Seehofer (CSU), pasent iri atọ na ise tụnyere Gabriel (SPD), pasent iri atọ na abụọ tunyere Schulz (SPD), pasent irí abụọ na ise tunyere Özdemir (Greens), pasent iri abụo tụnyere Wagenknecht (Left Party), pasent iri na ise tụnyere Lindner (FDP), nakwa naanị pasent iri maka Petry (AfD)

Na ntuli aka gọọmenti etiti 2017, Merkel duru ndị otu ya nweta mmeri nke ugboro anọ. Ma CDU/CSU na SPD nwetara obere vootu dị ala karịa ka ha mere na 2013, wee nwaa ime njikọ na FDP na Greens. Ọdịda nke mkparịta ụka ndị a butere nhịahụ. Onye isi ala German Frank-Walter Steinmeier mechara rịọ SPD nke ọma ka ọ gbanwee nguzo siri ike ha na ikwenye na nnukwu njikọta nke atọ na CDU/CSU.

Nnyocha YouGov nke e bipụtara na ngwụcha Disemba 2017 chọpụtara na naanị pasenti iri atọ na isii nke ndị niile zara ajụjụ chọrọ Merkel ka ọ nọrọ n'isi ruo 2021, ebe ọkara nke ndị ntuli aka nyochara kpọrọ oku maka mgbanwe n'elu tupu njedebe nke ndị omebe iwu.

Nnukwu njikọta nke atọ nke CDU – SPD, 2018–2021[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A malitere Cabinet nke anọ nke Merkel na 14 March 2018. Mkparịta ụka nke dugara na nnukwu nkwekọrịta nke ja na Social Democrats (SPD) mere bụ nke kachasị ogologo na akụkọ ihe mere eme nke German mgbe agha gasịrị, na-adịru ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ ọnwa isii.

Na October 2018, Merkel kwupụtara na ya ekpebiela ịghara ịzọ na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị na ntuli aka gọọmenti etiti 2021 . N'August 2019, pasent iri isii na asaa ndị German niile chọrọ ka Merkel nọrọ ruo na njedebe nke oge ya na 2021, ebe naanị pasent iri abụọ na itoolu chọrọ ka ọ gbatuo na mbụ.

Na Septemba 2021, ọ ruturu aka na pati ya mgbe ọ hapụsịrị ọchịchị, wee sị na "mgbe afọ iri na isii gachara mmadụ anaghị alaghachi na Chansllery, nke ahụ doro onye ọ bụla nọ na CDU na CSU anya", na-akọwa echiche ndị mmadụ maka ntuli aka na-abịa. Okwu ndị a bịara dịka ndị Social Democrats gafere ma mee nke ọma karia ndị nchekwa ya na ntuli aka na nso nso a.

Na 26 Septemba 2021, ntuli aka enwere enweghị ezigbo njedebe, n'agbanyeghị na SPD meriri ọtụtụ votu. Nke a mere ka mkparita ụka dị ogologo n'etiti otu dị iche iche iguzobe ọchịchị. Na 23 Nọvemba 2021, ekwuputara mmekorita ọhụrụ, ebe a nọ wee họpụta Olaf Scholz ka ọ gaa nọchie Merkel. Merkel gara n'ihu na-eje ozi dị ka onye isi oche na onye nlekọta ruo 8 Disemba 2021, mgbe Scholz malitere ọchịchị ya.

Ọrụ ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Amụma ụlọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Mbata na ọpụpụ, ndị gbara ọsọ ndụ na ọpụpụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

N'October 2010, Merkel gwara nzukọ nke ndị na-eto eto nke otu pati Christian Democratic Union (CDU) na-achọghị mgbanwe na Potsdam na mbọ iji wulite ọha mmadụ dị iche iche na Jamanị "akụ afọ n'ala," na-ekwu na: "Echiche nke anyị bụ ugbu a ibi n'akụkụ ma na-enwe obi ụtọ banyere ya" adịghị arụ ọrụ na "anyị nwere mmasị na echiche Ndị Kraịst nke ihe a kpọrọ mmadụ, nke ahụ bụ ihe na-akọwa anyị. Onye ọ bụla nke na-anabataghị nke ahụ nọ n'ebe na-adịghị mma ebe a." Ọ gara n'ihu na-ekwu na ndị si mba ọzọ kwesịrị ijikọ ma nakwere omenala na ụkpụrụ Germany. Nke a agbakwunyela arụmụka na-eto eto n'ime Germany na ọkwa mbata na ọpụpụ, mmetụta ya na Germany na ogo nke ndị Alakụba kwabatara na-abanye na obodo Germany.

Merkel kwadoro "usoro ịdị n'otu nke amanyere amanyere" maka ịkwaga ndị na-achọ mgbaba site na Italy na Gris gaa na mba ndị ọzọ so na EU dịka akụkụ nke ngwọta ogologo oge maka nsogbu ndị njem na Europe.

Nsogbu nke ndi njem Yuropu n'afọ 2015[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Spanish prime minister Pedro Sánchez and Merkel in Sanlúcar de Barrameda, 2018

Ná ngwụsị August 2015, n'oge nke nsogbu ndị na-akwaga mba Europe, ọchịchị Merkel kwụsịtụrụ ndokwanke Yuropu, nke kwuru na ndị na-achọ mgbaba ga-achọ mgbapu na mba EU bu ụzọ rute. Kama Merkel kwuputara na Germany ga-ahazikwa akwụkwọ anamachọihe mgbapu sitere na ndị gbara ọsọ ndụ Syria ma ọ bụrụ na ha si na mba EU ndị ọzọ bịa na Germany. N'afọ ahụ, ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ otu nde mmadụna-achọ mgbaba ibanye Germany.

Obere onye mmekọ, osote onye isi ala Sigmar Gabriel kwuru na Germany nwere ike inabata ndị gbara ọsọ ndụ puku narị ise kwa afọ maka ọtụtụ afọ na-abịa. Mmegide German megide nnabata gọọmentị nnabata nke ndị mbata ọhụrụ siri ike yana ịrị elu nke ngagharị iwe maka mbata na ọpụpụ. Merkel siri ọnwụ na Germany nwere ike akụ na ụba iji nagide nbata nke ndị na-akwaga mba ọzọ ma kwuwakwa ọzọ na enweghị oke iwu gbasara ọnụ ọgụgụ ndị njem nke Germany nwere ike inabata. Na Septemba 2015, igwe mmadụ nwere ịnụ ọkụ n'obi n'ofe mba ahụ nabatara ndị gbara ọsọ ndụ na ndị mba ọzọ.

Horst Seehofer, onye ndu nke Christian Social Union na Bavaria (CSU) — otu nwanna nwanyị Merkel Christian Democratic Union — nakwa onye buBavarian Minister President mgbe ahụ wakporo atumatu Merkel. Seehofer katọrọ mkpebi Merkel ịhapụ ndị na-akwaga mba ọzọ, na-ekwu na "[ha] nọ n'ọnọdụ uche na-enweghị iwu, na-enweghị usoro na enweghị usoro n'ihi mkpebi Germany." Seehofer mere atụmatụ na ihe ruru pasentị iri atọ nke ndị na-achọ mgbaba na-abata na Germany na-azọrọ na ha si Siria sitere na mba ndị ọzọ n'ezie, ma tụọ aro ibelata ego EU maka mba ndị otu jụrụ oke ndị gbara ọsọ ndụ. Ka ọ dị ugbu a, Yasmin Fahimi, odeakwụkwọ ukwu nke Social Democratic Party (SPD), onye obere onye mmekọ nke ndị na-achị achị, toro amụma Merkel na-ekwe ka ndị njem na Hungary banye Germany dị ka "ihe mgbaàmà siri ike nke ụmụ mmadụ na-egosi na ụkpụrụ Europe dịkwa irè n'oge ihe isi ike".

Na Nọvemba 2015, enwere mkparịta ụka n'ime ndị otu na-achị achị iji kwụsị ịdị n'otu ezinụlọ maka ndị na-akwaga mba ọzọ ruo afọ abụọ, na iji guzobe " Mpaghara ndị njem" na ókèala yana - maka ndị na-akwaga mba ọzọ ka ha wee nwee obere ohere ịnweta nkwado mgbapu - ka a nọrọ ebe ahụ ruo mgbe a kwadoro ihe ha dere. Okwu ndị a na-emegiderịta onwe ha n'etiti CSU bụ ndị kwadoro usoro ọhụrụ ahụ ma yie egwu ịhapụ njikọ ahụ n'enweghị ha, na SPD na-emegide ha; Merkel kwetara na usoro ndị a. Mwakpo Paris na Nọvemba 2015 kpalitere ntụleghachi nke ọnọdụ ndị ọrụ German na amụma EU gbasara ndị na-akwaga mba ọzọ. Ọ dị ka enwere nkwekọrịta n'etiti ndị isi, ewezuga Merkel, na ọ dị mkpa nyocha ọkwa dị elu na nyocha ndị na-akwaga mba ọzọ gbasara ozi ha na Germany. Agbanyeghị na-amachghi oke nnabata a n'ọnụ ọgụgụ, Merkel kwusiri ike na amụma mgbapu na Germany.

Migrants in Germany, October 2015

Na October 2016, Merkel gara Mali na Niger . Nleta ndọrọndọrọ ọchịchị a mere iji kparịta ka gọọmentị ha nwere ike isi meziwanye ọnọdụ nke mere ka ndị mmadụ si mba ndị ahụ gbapụ na ka e nwere ike isi belata ịkwaga mba ndị a n'ụzọ iwu na-akwadoghị.

Nsogbu ndị mbịarambịa kpalitere mmasị ntuli aka aka nri n'ofe Germany ebe otu Alternative for Germany (AfD) na-enweta pasent iri na abụọ nke votu na ntuli aka gọọmentị Germany nke 2017 . Ihe omume ndị a kpalitere arụmụka maka ihe kpatara mmụba populism aka nri na Germany. Edemede na-arụ ụka na ụbara mmasị aka nri sitere na nsogbu ndị na-akwaga mba Europe bụ nke butere ọtụtụ puku mmadụ, nke ka ukwuu site na mba ndị Alakụba na Germany, ma kpalie echiche n'etiti akụkụ ndị Germany na ndị gbara ọsọ ndụ bụ ihe iyi egwu agbụrụ na omenala nye Germany.

Nsogbu mgbapu ọchịchị, 2018[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Na Maachị 2018, Horst Seehofer nke CSU weghaara ọrụ nke Minista ime obodo.  Ọ kwụrụ na o nwere "atụmatụ ukwu maka usoro mgbapu ngwa ngwa, yana nchụpụ ndị ọzọ na-agbanwe agbanwe." N'okpuru atụmatụ Seehofer, Germany ga-ajụ ndị na-akwaga mba ọzọ a chụpụrụla ma ọ bụ nwee mmachibido ịbanye ma nye ndị uwe ojii ka ha gbakụta ndị niile na-akwaga mba ọzọ debanyere aha n'ebe ọzọ na EU, n'agbanyeghị ma mba ndị a kwetara iweghachi ha. Merkel tụrụ egwu na iziga ndị na-akwaga mba ọzọ n'otu n'otu na mba ndị agbata obi na-achọghị nkwekọrịta European ọtụtụ akụkụ nwere ike itinye nkwụsi ike nke European Union.


Na June 2018, Seehofer kwụsịrị iyi egwu ịgafe ya na esemokwu banyere amụma mbata na ọpụpụ ruo mgbe ọ ga-alọghachi na 1 July site na mbọ iji chọta azịza na ọkwa Europe. Na 1 July 2018, Seehofer jụrụ nkwekọrịta Merkel nwetara na mba EU dị ntakịrị ma kwupụta arụkwaghịm ya n'oge nzukọ nke ndị isi otu ya, mana ha jụrụ ịnakwere ya. N'abalị nke 2 Julaị 2018, Seehofer na Merkel kwupụtara na ha edozila esemokwu ha ma kwenye kama ịnakwere nkwenye nke njikwa oke ókè. N'ihi nkwekọrịta ahụ, Seehofer kwetara ka ọ ghara ịgba arụkwaghịm, na ka ya na mba ndị ahụ n'onwe ya kparịta nkwekọrịta nke mba abụọ. A katọrọ Seehofer maka ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ iweda gọọmentị ala ebe ọnụọgụ ndị kwabatara kwa ọnwa nke amụma ahụ elekwasiri anya ka nọ na otu fịgọ

Nsogbu COVID-19[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Na 6 Eprel 2020, Merkel kwuru, sị: "N'uche nke m ... European Union na-eche ule kachanụ ihu kemgbe ntọala ya na mba ndị otu ga-egosipụta ịdị n'otu ka ukwuu ka otu ahụ wee pụta n'ihe isi ike na nsogbu akụ na ụba nke ọrịa na-efe efe kpatara." Merkel emeriela ọkwa mba ụwa maka njikwa ọrịa a na Germany.

N'oge Germany bu onye isi nke European Council ọ bụghị naanị na Merkel gbanwere obi ya, kama o butere ụzọ na-ekwurịta usoro mwughachi maka oge ọrịa ahụ gasịrị.

Amụma mba ofesi[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Àtụ:Multiple image

Amụma Merkel nke mba ofesi lekwasịrị anya n'ịkwalite nkwado Yuropu na nkwekọrịta azụmahịa mba ụwa. A kọwawo Merkel n'ọtụtụ ebe dị ka onye isi nke European Union n'oge niile ọ nọ n'ọchịchị dị ka Chancellor.

Na 2015, na enweghị Stephen Harper, Merkel ghọrọ naanị onye ndu ga-aga nzukọ G20 ọ bụla kemgbe e mere nke mbụ na 2008, ebe ọ nọgoro na nchịkọta iri na ise dịka nke 2021 . Ọ kwadoro nzukọ G20 nke iri na abụọ na 2017 nke e mere na Hamburg.

Mba United Steeti[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Otu n'ime ihe ndị Merkel na-ebute ụzọ bụ ime ka mmekọrịta akụ na ụba transatlantic sie ike. Ọ bịanyere aka na nkwekọrịta maka Transatlantic Economic Council na 30 Eprel 2007 na White House.

Merkel nwere ezi mmekọrịta ya na ndị isi ala US George W. Bush na Barack Obama. Obama kọwara ya na 2016 dị ka "onye mmekọ mba ụwa kacha nso" n'oge ọ nọ n'ọchịchị dịka onye isi ala. Ọbịbịa Obama na Berlin n'ọnwa Nọvemba afọ 2016 ka a kọwara ọtụtụ ebe dị ka ngafe nke ọwa ọchịchị liberal zuru ụwa ọnụ nye Merkel ka ọtụtụ ndị na-ahụ Merkel dị ka ọkọlọtọ ọhụrụ nke ọchịchị onye kwuo uche ya na-emesapụ aka kemgbe ntuli aka nke Donald Trump dị ka onye isi ala US.

Ka arọputachara Donald Trump Merkel kwuru na "Germany na America jikọtara ụkpụrụ nke ọchịchị onye kwuo uche ya, nnwere onwe na nkwanye ùgwù maka iwu na ùgwù mmadụ, na-adabereghị na mmalite, agba akpụkpọ ahụ, okpukperechi, okike, usoro mmekọahụ ma ọ bụ echiche ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị. Ana m enye onye isi ala United States na-esote, Donald Trump, nkwado chiri anya na ụkpụrụ ndị a." Onye nyocha amụm

N'ịgbaso G7 Summit na Ịtali na NATO Summit na Brussels, Merkel kwuru na 28 May 2017 na US abụghịzi onye mmekọ nke Yuropu na Germany a pụrụ ịdabere dika ọ dị n'oge gara aga. N'otu nnọkọ ntuli aka na Munich, o kwuru na "Anyị kwesịrị ịma na anyị ga-alụ ọgụ maka ọdịnihu anyị n'onwe anyị, maka ọdịnihu anyị dị ka ndị Europe", nke a kọwara dị ka mgbanwe a na-enwetụbeghị ụdị ya na mmekọrịta Germany na Amerika.

China[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

N'ịkwado mkpa China dị na akụ na ụba Germany, site na 2014 Merkel duru ndị nnọchiteanya azụmahịa asaa gaa na China kemgbe ọ malitere ọrụ na 2005. N'otu afọ ahụ, na March, Onye isi ala China Xi Jinping gara Germany.

Na 25 Septemba 2007, Merkel zutere Dalai Lama nke iri na anọ maka "okwu nzuzo na nke nkịtị" na Chancellery na Berlin n'etiti mkpesa sitere na China. China mechara kagbuo mkparịta ụka dị iche iche ya na ndị ọrụ German, gụnyere mkparịta ụka ya na Minista nke ikpe Brigitte Zypries .

Cabinet ya[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ebensidee[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

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Gụrụ gaa n'ihu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Clark, Claudia. Dear Barack: The Extraordinary Partnership of Barack Obama and Angela Merkel (2021)
  • Crossley-Frolick, Katy A. "Domestic Constraints, German Foreign Policy and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding." German Politics and Society 31.3 (2013): 43–75.
  • Czuczka, Tony and Alan Crawford. Angela Merkel: A Chancellorship Forged in Crisis (2013) excerpt
  • Ferree, Myra Marx. "Angela Merkel: What Does It Mean to Run as a Woman?" German Politics & Society 2006. 24#78: 93–107. online
  • Faas, Thorsten. "The German federal election of 2013: Merkel’s triumph, the disappearance of the liberal party, and yet another grand coalition." West European Politics 38.1 (2015): 238–247.
  • Kornelius, Stefan. Angela Merkel: The Chancellor and Her World: The Authorized Biography (Alma Books, 2014).
  • Marton, Kati. The Chancellor: The Remarkable Odyssey of Angela Merkel (Simon & Schuster, 2021)
  • Masch, Lena, and Oscar W. Gabriel. "How Emotional Displays of Political Leaders Shape Citizen Attitudes: The Case of German Chancellor Angela Merkel." German Politics 29.2 (2020): 158–179.
  • Mills, Cliff. Angela Merkel (2008), for middle schools online
  • Mushaben, Joyce Marie. "The Best of Times, the Worst of Times: Angela Merkel, the Grand Coalition, and 'Majority Rule' in Germany." German Politics and Society 34.1 (2016): 1-25.
  • Mushaben, Joyce Marie. Becoming Madam Chancellor: Angela Merkel and the Berlin Republic (2017) excerpt
  • Mushaben, Joyce Marie. "A Spectre Haunting Europe: Angela Merkel and the Challenges of Far-Right Populism." German Politics and Society 38.1 (2020): 7-29.
  • Mushaben, Joyce Marie. "The reluctant feminist: Angela Merkel and the modernization of gender politics in Germany." Femina Politica–Zeitschrift für feministische Politikwissenschaft 27.2 (2018): 83–95. online
  • Qvortrup, Matthew. Angela Merkel: Europe's most influential leader (2016) excerpt
  • Saalfeld, Thomas. "Coalition Governance under Chancellor Merkel's Grand Coalition: A Comparison of the Cabinets Merkel I and Merkel II." German Politics and Society 28.3 (2010): 82–102.
  • Schramm, Julia. Fifty Shades of Merkel. (Hoffmann & Campe, 2016), Àtụ:ISBN
  • Schnee, Christian. "Sticking to her guns or going with the flow: assessing rigidity and flexibility in Angela Merkel’s political decision making." German Politics and Society 37.1 (2019): 24–46.
  • Schoen, Harald. "Merely a referendum on Chancellor Merkel? Parties, issues and candidates in the 2009 German federal election." German Politics 20.1 (2011): 92–106.
  • Schoen, Harald, and Robert Greszki. "A Third Term for a Popular Chancellor: An Analysis of Voting Behaviour in the 2013 German Federal Election." German Politics 23.4 (2014): 251–267.
  • Skard, Torild (2014) "Angela Merkel" in Women of Power – Half a Century of Female presidents and Prime Ministers Worldwide, Bristol: Policy Press, Àtụ:ISBN
  • Van Halsema, Catherine. 2019. “Merkel the Mutti? A Linguistic Analysis of Domestic Language in European News Media Coverage of Angela Merkel.” Women & Language. 42(1): 7-22.
  • Voigt, Linda. "Get the party started: The social policy of the grand coalition 2013–2017." German Politics 28.3 (2019): 426–443.
  • Zehfuss, Maja. "'We Can Do This': Merkel, Migration and the Fantasy of Control." International Political Sociology 15.2 (2021): 172–189.

N'asụsụ German[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Plickert, Philip (Editor) (2017) "Merkel: Eine kritische Bilanz", FinanzBuch Verlag, Àtụ:ISBN.
  • Margaret Heckel: So regiert die Kanzlerin. Eine Reportage. Piper, München 2009, Àtụ:ISBN.
  • Volker Resing: Angela Merkel. Die Protestantin. Ein Porträt. St. Benno-Verlag, Leipzig 2009, Àtụ:ISBN.
  • Gertrud Höhler: Die Patin. Wie Angela Merkel Deutschland umbaut. Orell Füssli, Zürich 2012, Àtụ:ISBN.
  • Stefan Kornelius: Angela Merkel. Die Kanzlerin und ihre Welt. Hoffmann und Campe, Hamburg 2013, Àtụ:ISBN.
  • Nikolaus Blome: Angela Merkel – Die Zauderkünstlerin. Pantheon, München 2013, Àtụ:ISBN.
  • Stephan Hebel: Mutter Blamage – Warum die Nation Angela Merkel und ihre Politik nicht braucht. Westend, Frankfurt am Main 2013, Àtụ:ISBN.
  • Günther Lachmann, Ralf Georg Reuth: Das erste Leben der Angela M. Piper, München 2013, Àtụ:ISBN.
  • Judy Dempsey: Das Phänomen Merkel – Deutschlands Macht und Möglichkeiten. Edition Körber-Stiftung, Hamburg 2013, Àtụ:ISBN.
  • Dirk Kurbjuweit: Alternativlos – Merkel, die Deutschen und das Ende der Politik. Hanser, München, 2014, Àtụ:ISBN.

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