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Asụsụ Kordofan

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Asụsụ Kordofan
language family
obere ụdị nkeNiger–Congo Dezie

 

Asụsụ Kordofan bụ otu ìgwè asụsụ ise a na-asụ na Ugwu Nuba nke mpaghara South Kordofan nke Sudan: Asụsụ Talodi-Heiban, Asụsụ Lafofa, Asụsụ Rashad, Asụsụ Katla na Asụsụ Kadu. A na-ewere ìgwè anọ mbụ ahụ mgbe ụfọdụ dị ka alaka nke ezinụlọ Niger-Congo, ebe a na-ahụkarị Kadu ugbu a dị ka alaka ezinụlọ Nilo-Sahara.

Akụkọ ihe mere eme[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

N'afọ 1963, Joseph Greenberg gbakwunyere ha n'Ezinụlọ Niger-Congo, na-emepụta atụmatụ Niger-Kordofanian ya. Asụsụ Kordofanian egosighi na ha nwere njikọ dị anya karịa alaka ndị ọzọ nke Niger-Congo, Otú ọ dị, egosighịkwa na ha bụ otu dị mma. Taa, a na-ewepu Asụsụ Kadu, a na'etinyekarị ndị ọzọ na Niger-Congo n'onwe ya.   [citation needed]

Roger Blench na-ekwu na ezinụlọ Talodi na Heiban nwere usoro klas aha nke Atlantic-Congo nke Niger-Congo mana asụsụ Katla abụọ enweghị ihe ọ bụla na-egosi na ha nwere usoro dị otú ahụ. Otú ọ dị, asụsụ Kadu na ụfọdụ n'ime asụsụ Rashad yiri ka ha nwetara klas aha dị ka akụkụ nke Sprachbund kama iketa ha. Blench kwubiri na Talodi na Heiban bụ isi Niger-Congo ebe Katla na Rashad mejupụtara alaka dịpụrụ adịpụ n'akụkụ Mande.   [citation needed]

Heiban, Katloid, na Talodi na-agbakọta ọnụ na nyocha kọmputa (ASJP 4) site na Müller et al. (2013). [1] Otú ọ dị, ebe ọ bụ na a na-emepụta nyocha ahụ na-akpaghị aka, ìgwè ahụ nwere ike ịbụ n'ihi mgbazinye okwu ma ọ bụ ihe nketa mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa.

Map a na-apụta nke ezinụlọ asụsụ, ezinụlọ, na asụsụ ndị a na-asụ na Ugwu Nuba. Kordofanian gụnyere Kadu na alaka Niger-Congo niile.

Asụsụ Talodi-Heiban[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  [2] Heiban, nke a na-akpọkwa Koalib ma ọ bụ Koalib-Moro, na asụsụ Talodi, nke a makwaara dị ka Talodi-Masakin, bụ akụkụ nke otu Talodi-Heiban.

Asụsụ Lafofa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  Lafofa (Tegem) bụ nke e kewara na Talodi ruo oge ụfọdụ, mana o yiri ka ọ bụ alaka dị iche nke Niger-Congo.

Asụsụ Rashad[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  Ọnụ ọgụgụ asụsụ Rashad, nke a na-akpọkwa Tegali-Tagoi, dịgasị iche n'etiti nkọwa, site na abụọ (Williams & Blench 2000), atọ (Ethnologue), ruo asatọ (Blench ms). Tagoi nwere usoro aha dị ka asụsụ Atlantic-Congo, nke o doro anya na ọ gbazitere, mana Tegali anaghị.

Asụsụ Katla[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  Asụsụ Katla abụọ ahụ enweghị ihe ọ bụla na-egosi na ha nwere usoro aha aha Niger-Congo.

Asụsụ Kadu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Kemgbe ọrụ Thilo C. Schadeberg na 1981, a na-ahụkarị alaka "Tumtum" ma ọ bụ Kadu dị ka Nilo-Sahara. Otú ọ dị, ihe akaebe ahụ dị obere, na nhazi nke na-agbaso omenala ga-emeso ya dị ka ezinụlọ kwụụrụ onwe ya.

Ihe owuwu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Quint (2020) na-atụ aro na enwere ike iwughachi Proto-Kordofanian site na asụsụ Heibanian, Talodian, Rashadian, Katloid, na Lafofa. Ihe owuwu ya na Proto-Kordofanian bụ: [3]

Nkọwa Proto-Kordofanian Talodian Heibanian Lafofa Katloid (Tima) Rashadian
bark 1 (n.) *-mVk- *t-ə-??? Koalib Mịmùl [alaghemùl] Mmalite nke Mmbal
bark 2 (n.) *k (V) VrE ~ *c (V) ВрE c-iíri kúúr *g-ware
ịkụ / ịkụ *-bV- *-gob- / *kə-bɔ *-bid̪- ...biŋ Orig bí (r) / Pú (ró)
afọ *-VrVk ~ *-Vk *j-+-arag / *ca-rək *g-+-aare t̪-úur-i na-akpọ ya
na-ata / na-eri *-CVk *-gVjog / *kə-ɟɔ *-ee- ...jiɛ * Akụkụ
ọbara P* (C) iCPV *ŋ-+-ittsug / *ŋ-ɪccʊk Katla ija ~ iya N'ihi ya, ọ bụ n'oge a ka a ga-eji ya mee ihe
ara *CVmiC *j-+-intsig / *c-ə-mmik Tima kɨndì *d-miɲ
uwe *kErEC *k-ɛrɛt̪ *g-+-ered̪ Tagoi kɛr (ɛ́) w
akọrọ *-OndV *-afọ d̪o *-UnDo *-uddi
ntị *kVnV *g-+-eenu / *k-__hau____hau____hau__ *g- / n-+-aani kɔ́.nɔ́ Tagoi finin, Tegali (a) nuu
enyí *-VŋV (C) *d-+-oŋor yuːŋi * (fV) ŋVn
anya *?+-git *j-+-igg / *c-it Katla gɨgöt *y-ngid
ụkwụ / ụkwụ *-AkA (C) *ts-+-agag Koalib káakà [káagà] l-ia-ga *d-ɛgɛn
ewu *Em (b) iT *w-+-emig / *u-mit Eemi Ọganihu *mbɨt
akwụkwọ ndụ akwụkwọ ndụ / mmiri *-iklV ~ *ijlV *-eigla b-ʊɒji-lli Tagoi -ijilú, Tegali -ríge.
ntutu isi *kaam ~ *gaam *d-+-ʊgaŋ / *NC-ŋən̪ Tima Kam *g-aam
isi *gaCDP ~ *CPaCDP *j-+-ats, *c-ac Gas Katla *g-aj
aka ekpe (n'akụkụ) *-CV- ~ *-CVur- *-gule / *-gulɛ *-ihe mgbagwoju anya kúlɪ *-awwir
apịtị *-ElO Koalib kèlòo Tima k-ʌ́lu Mmalite ŋí̧lɔ́́
nso *-Et̪t̪OC *-iddu / *-t̪t̪o-t Kolibttɔ́k [kɛ́t̪t̪ɔ́k] Tima met̪ɛ́n Tagoi gattɔŋ / nwunye ya
otu *attV ~ *addV *-aDDe Tima atjin Mmalite nke wàttá
Mmiri ozuzo *kaw ~ *kal *k-abɪk *g-+-aw K-I-Y * (y) na
uhie *-OrdE *-oode[4] / *-d̪ɛ *-Ure Tima -rdí *-araw
atụrụ V*kACVAC *t̪ʊ-ŋgat̪ Koalib káaŋàl βaːŋi (k) áŋàl Mmalite nke Kagy
anwụrụ ọkụ (n.) *-uCLVBbV *g-+-ulu c-oor-í Ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-akpọ kʊ̀ Tagoi k (ə) rək, Tegali tulɛ́
anyanwụ N*-VCNV *j-+-iŋgi, *c-ə-ŋgi Ø-+*-aŋin Ihe ndị China na-eme *-aane
ire *-d̪Vŋl (V) ~ *-dʁVlVŋ (V) *d̪-+- (V) lV__hau____hau____hau__ d̪-+*-ŋela l-íŋ-i Ya onwe gị *d-aŋil (-ag)
ịgbọ agbọ *-UdA ~ *-UwA -VddV / *uk-dɛ *-wey- lwâ-d̪aŋ... Lowa -Hwʌ̀ *VdVk

Isoglosses nke okwu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Starostin (2018) depụtara isoglosses ndị a na-ahụkarị n'asụsụ Kordofanian. [5] na-egosipụta njikọ ndị nwere ike ịbụ na bold.

Okwu ntụnyere[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Nkọwa okwu ndị bụ isi nke alaka Heiban, Talodi, Rashad, na Lafofa:

Rịba ama: Na mkpụrụ ndụ tebụl nwere slashes, a na-enye otu ụdị tupu slash, ebe ụdị otutu na-eso slash.

Asụsụ anya ntị imi ezé ire ọnụ ọbara ọkpụkpụ osisi mmiri Iri nri aha
Proto-Heiban[6] *ay / g-,j- *-aani *-ad̪alo / g-,j-; g-,n- *-ŋad̪ / li-,j- *-ŋela; *-iŋla? / D-,d- *-uuɲu *-mmeri / ŋ- *-uya / li-,ŋu- (WC); *-uɲ / ʔ-,j- (E) *-aʹe / gu-,j- (WC) *-aw / ŋ- *-id̪d̪- *-iriɲ / j-
Proto-Talodi[7] *c-it / k- *k- sasa / 0- *k-ə-ɲɟɛ / 0-,n- *c-ə-ɲit / k- * * * *nnukwu / ḷə- *t-̪ Liver̪ / ḷ- *ŋ-ɪccʊk *c-ə-mma-ɲan̪ / m- *p-ɪda / k- *ŋ-ɪḷ,-ɪḷɪ *ḷə-ɡɔ *k-ə-ḷəŋan / 0- (ma ọ bụ *...n̪)
Proto-Katloid[8] *g-ɪged̪ *-Nke a na-eme *gɪ-lɛd̪ *-Troad-Troad *i-ju (u) *-ʌ-lV-
Tagoi[9] Yigət / ŋə́gət fənín / fənédit Ydir / ŋə́dər tíɲən / ŋə́ɲən táŋə́lak / yáŋə́lágɒt kajər / hájɛrət Ndị na-eme ihe nkiri kuh / huh kafɔ́ / hafɔ́ ŋay Ohu ya N'ihi na ụmụ ọhụrụ
Turjok[[9]] na-aghọ ndị mmeghe fəniín / fəníínət indər / ŋəndər M. tiɲin / ŋiɲin taŋəlk / yaŋəlak ~ yaŋəlɒgɔt kiɲjɛr / siɲjɛr (g) ɔt Ndị na-eme ihe nkiri kus / ya kafɔ / safɔ́ Isi iyi pɛŋɛn / sɛŋɛn
Tagom[9] Gaddaa / Gaddaa nu ~ Jọ / Nọ ~ Nọ ndr̀ / ndr̀re ɲîn / ɲîne aŋa / aŋún ̩ɲjár / (a) ɲjáre óyá / óyo̍n uru / urûn lásɛ ega Ohu ya ɛŋɛn / ɛŋɛnɛ́ɛn
Tegem[10] ṭ-ì, China- ká-ràŋ (ì) / a- ṭ-ɛ̀ɲ (ì) / k- l-iаŋ (ì) k-ɛɲi / ɛɲi ɲɪ̀ ṭ-uɔ́m (ì) / m- kuwö (ì) / bɔɔ (ì) ɲììì kɪ́rɪ́k ku-ruwáŋ / a-
El Amira[10] lilaŋ / ɲimaŋ wimu t-aɲ / k- Ịnọgide kiɲ Isi iyi tuwam kwa Isi iyi palith

Ọnụ ọgụgụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ntụnyere nke ọnụọgụ n'asụsụ ọ bụla: [11]

Nchịkọta Asụsụ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Katla Katla Akụkọ a na-akpọ cík ʌ́t̪ʌ́t. A na-ahụkarị ya ɟɔ́ɡ͡bə́lɪ́n ɟɔ́lị ɟɔ́lɪ́k t̪ʌŋɡɪ̀l ɟʌ́lbʌ́n rak͡pác
Katla Tima ʌt̪een / at̪ɪn ihe ihwʌy ihʌlʌm Idulian ɪntədakwalɔŋ ɪnt̪atɪŋ Diablo ɪnt̪ɪŋɛrɛy int̪ʌhʌdʌkun ihedʌkún
Rashad Tagoi (Orig) -wàttá / ùttá jiekkók Mọlitha wàrʊ̀m Ọ ga-abụrịrị na ọ ga-abụ ɲérérér ʊ̀mʊ̀rɡʊ́ Tuppá kʊ́mnàsá (n) kʊ́mán
Rashad Tegali m̪t̪a rəkkʊ / rʊkkʊ d̪akt̪a / d̪at̪t̪a aːrəm Ọchịchọ ɲe ʊmmərkʊ __ibo__ Ọdịdị N'oge a na-adịghị anya N'oge a na-adịghị anya
Heiban Warnang (Werni/Wernang) Asụsụ ŋèrccáccény ŋèrráttén ŋelàmlàŋ ŋera ŋo'or ŋera ŋoʹor ŋemabolo ŋoʹoʹor (5+1?) ŋera ŋoʹor ŋemabolo ŋèrccáccény (5+2?) ŋelamlaa Мәсих (4 x 2 ?) ŋera ŋoʹor wanoe (1- ?) kiccukurrɐ
Heiban Moro ɡónto N'ihi ya, ọ bụ n'oge ahụ ka a na-eme N'ihi ya, ọ bụ n'oge ahụ ka a na-eme ka a mara ya marlọn ðénə́ŋ ðénə́ŋ nəɡónto (5+ 1) ðénə́́́́ŋ ቛንቋ (5+ 2) ðénə́́́́ŋ Xinghezi (5+ 3) ðénə́ŋ nəmárlon (5+ 4) Nri nri
Heiban Ịdọrọ Mkpụrụ osisi __ibo__ Ọdịdị __ibo__ Akụkụ nke afọ Maɬʊ̀ ðɛ́nɛ́ Shiazùzùzụ́ (3+3) __ibo__ Maɬɪɪ́n (4+3) Ọbːɔ́ ðɛ́nɛ́ n̪maɬʊ̀ (5+4) ʊ́rːɪ̀
Heiban Laro kwɛ̀tɛ̀ rɔ́m N'ihi ya, ọ bụ Onye Kraịst tʊ̀dìní ɲə̀rlə̀l kwɔ̀ɾátəɾìl (4+3) ɗúbə̀ __ibo__ Onye Kraịst nke ukwuu (5+ 4) di
Heiban Otoro Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ kútèn __ibo____ibo____ibo__ Ọdịdị Ọ na-aga n'ihu t̪ɔ́ðːnɛ Isiokwu __ibo__ Ihe osise (4+3) Dubə t̪ɔ́ðːnɛ́ kɔ́ɔŋ (5+ 4) Oge:
Heiban Koalib (1) kweta:ɛ kwi na-acha Nkọwapụta Ọ bụ n'ihi na ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-eme ihe nkiri tuðní шalanụ Kunəð huduβə Yenuβaβuŋa Kunəðɗi n'ebe ahụ
Heiban Koalib (2) -ɛ́t̪tɛ̀ -Ike a na-akpọ Akwụkwọ edemede N'ihi ya, ọ bụ ruo mgbe ɲerlel Ọdịdị ɗòvɔ́kkwóppà kwúnɐttùrrí rúi
Talodi Dagik j-ɜlːʊ j-ɛːa j-nchekwa:nchekwa na-adị si-s-ɜlːʊ (litː otu aka) na-j-ɜːlʊ (5 + 1) na j-ɛːa (5 + 2) na j-ɜt̪ːɜkʹ (5 + 3) na bīandɔ (5 + 4) N'ihi ya, ọ bụ
Talodi Onye na-agba ọsọ bulluk na-agụ wʌt̪t̪ʌk na-adị лиrɡuŋ zulluk (n'ụzọ nkịtị: 'otu aka') лиrɡuŋ zulluk na bulluk (5 + 1) N'ihi ya, ọ bụ n'ihi ya ka a na-akpọ "Lyrnuŋ Zulluk" (5 + 2) лиrɡuŋ zulluk na wʌt̪t̪ʌk (5 + 3) N'ihi ya, ọ bụ n'ihi na ọ bụ n"ụlọ mkpọrọ ka a na-akpọ zulluk (5 + 4) ɡurruŋ
Talodi Lumun cʊ́kʊ̂ Ọ bụ otú ahụ ka a na-akpọ __ibo__ m̀bụrụ Ọ bụ n'oge gara aga ka ọ bụrụ na ọ bụ n'afọ mʊ́ɣʊ́k __ibo____ibo__ Ọdịdị M̀̀̀̀ bụ otú ahụ? mámɔ́ɾmɔ́ɾ (2 x 4)? mʊ́ɣʊ́llájɔ̀n (5 + 4) [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji]

Hụkwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Asụsụ nke Ugwu Nuba

Edensibia[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

gụnyere asụsụ si Liberia ruo Dahomey (Republic of Benin), na East Kwa asụsụ nke Nigeria. Bennett & Sterk (1977) tụrụ aro na asụsụ Yoruboid na Igboid bụ nke Benue-Congo kama nke Kwa. Stewart (1989) wepụrụ Kru, Ijaw, na Volta-Niger (East Kwa), mana o debere asụsụ Ghana-Togo Mountain

  1. Müller, André, Viveka Velupillai, Søren Wichmann, Cecil H. Brown, Eric W. Holman, Sebastian Sauppe, Pamela Brown, Harald Hammarström, Oleg Belyaev, Johann-Mattis List, Dik Bakker, Dmitri Egorov, Matthias Urban, Robert Mailhammer, Matthew S. Dryer, Evgenia Korovina, David Beck, Helen Geyer, Pattie Epps, Anthony Grant, and Pilar Valenzuela.
  2. Gerrit Dimmendaal, 2008.
  3. Quint, Nicolas (2020).
  4. Schadeberg, Thilo C. 1981.
  5. Starostin, George.
  6. Schadeberg, Thilo C. 1981.
  7. Norton, Russell, and Thomas Kuku Alaki.
  8. Dimmendaal, Gerrit J. 2019 (in press).
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Schadeberg, Thilo.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Blench, Roger.
  11. Chan (2019). The Niger-Congo Language Phylum. Numeral Systems of the World's Languages.

Akwụkwọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Herman Bell 1995. Ugwu Nuba: Ònye kwuru Gịnị na 1976? (njikọ ihe ndekọ). Ịbụ ọmụmụ nke nsonaazụ e bipụtara site na nnukwu ọrụ nke Institute of African and Asian Studies: The Language Survey of the Nuba Mountains.
  • Roger Blench A naghị ebipụta ya. Kordofanian ọ bụ otu ìgwè ma ọ bụrụ na ọ bụghị, ebee ka asụsụ ya dabara na Niger-Congo?
  • Roger Blench A naghị ebipụta ya. Kordofanian na Niger-Congo: ihe akaebe ọhụrụ na nke e degharịrị edegharị.
  • Roger Blench, 2011, Kpọọrọ Kordofaani nkewa?Kordofaani kwesịrị kewaa?, Nzukọ Nuba Hills, Leiden
  • P. A. na D. N. MacDiarmid. 1931. "Asụsụ nke Ugwu Nuba." Sudan Notes and Records 14: 149-162.
  • Carl Meinhof 1915-1919. "Sprachstudien im egyptischen Sudan". Zeitschrift für Kolonialsprachen 9-9. "1. Tagoy. 6: 164-161. "2. Tumale". 6:182-205. "11. Tegele" 7:110-131. "12. Rashad. 7:132.
  • Thilo C. Schadeberg 1981a. Nnyocha nke Kordofanian. SUGIA Beiheft 1-2. Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag.
  • Thilo C. Schadeberg 1981b. "Das Kordofanische". Die Sprachen Afrikas. Ìgwè 1: Niger-Kordofanisch, de. site na Bernd Heine, T. C. Schadeberg, Ekkehard Wolff, peeji nke 117-28 SUGIA Beiheft 1-2.  Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag.
  • Thilo C. Schadeberg 1981c. "Nchịkọta nke otu asụsụ Kadugli". [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] site na T. C. Schadeberg na M. Lionel Bender, peeji nke 291-305.  Dordrecht: Foris Publications.
  • Brenda Z. Seligmann 1910-11. "Ihe odide banyere asụsụ nke Nubas nke Southern Kordofan." Zeitschrift für Kolonialsprachen 1:167-188.
  • Roland C. Stevenson 1956-57. "Nnyocha nke ụdaolu na nhazi ụtọ asụsụ nke asụsụ Ugwu Nuba, na-ezo aka na Otoro, Katcha, na Nyimang." Afrika na Übersee 40:73-84, 93-115; 41:27-65, 117-152, 171-196.
  • Tucker, A. N. na M. A. Bryan. 1956. Asụsụ ndị na-abụghị Bantu nke North-East Africa. (Handbook of African Languages, Nkebi nke Atọ) Oxford University Press: London.
  • A. N. Tucker na M. A. Bryan. 1966. Nnyocha Asụsụ / Asụsụ Ndị Na-abụghị Bantu nke North-East Africa. (Handbook of African Languages.) Oxford University Press: London.
  • Tutschek, Lorenz 1848. "Über die Tumale-Sprache." Gelehrte Anzeigen, herausgegeben von Mitgliedern der k. bayer. Akademie der Wissenschaften. N. 91-93; Spalten 729-52. (=Bulletin der königl. Akademie der Wissenschaften.
  • Tutschek, Lorenz. 1848-50. "N'asụsụ Tumali". Ihe omume nke Philological Society maka 1846-47 na 1847-48. Ụgbọelu 3:239-54. Ihe omume nke Philological Society maka 1848-49 na 1849-50. Izu ohi 4:138-9.

Njikọ mpụga[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Mgbasa ozi metụtaraAsụsụ Kordofanna Wikimedia Commons