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Asụsụ Mandinka

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Mandinka
Mandinkoمَانْدِنْجَوْدِ

Ọdịdị
A mụrụ ya  Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau" rel="mw:WikiLink" title="Guinea-Bissau">Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, na Guinea
Ógbè Casamance
Agbụrụ Mandinka
Ndị na-asụ asụsụ ala
Nde 2.1 (2017-2022) [1] 
Arabic, Latịn, N'Ko
Ọnọdụ gọọmentị
Asụsụ ndị ka nta a ma ama na
 
Koodu asụsụ
ISO 639-3 mnk
Glottolog mand1436
Asụsụ 00-AAA-aa
Isiokwu a nwere akara ụdaolu IPA. Enweghị nkwado nsụgharị kwesịrị ekwesị, ị nwere ike ịhụ Unicode_block)#Replacement_character" rel="mw:WikiLink" title="Specials (Unicode block)">akara ajụjụ, igbe, ma ọ bụ akara ndị ọzọ kama mkpụrụedemede Unicode. Maka ntuziaka mmeghe na akara IPA, lee Help:IPA.
Onye na-ekwu okwu Mandinka, nke edere na Taiwan.

Asụsụ Mandinka (Mandi'nka kango; Ajami: مَانْدِينْكَا كَانْجَوْ), ma ọ bụ Mandingo, bụ Asụsụ Mande nke Ndị Mandinka nke Guinea, n'ebe ugwu Guinea-Bissau, mpaghara Casamance nke Senegal, na Gambia ebe ọ bụ otu n'ime asụsụ ndị isi na-asụ.

Mandinka bụ nke alaka Manding nke Mande ma ọ bụghị Bambara na Maninka / Malinké mana o nwere naanị ụdaume 5 kama 7. Ụdị dị iche iche a na-asụ na Gambia na Senegal na-ejikọta na ụda olu n'ihi ịdị nso ya na asụsụ ndị agbata obi na-abụghị ụda dị ka Wolof.

Ọmụmụ ụdaolu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

M[2] nọchitere anya ebe a site na ụdị dị iche iche a na-asụ na Casamance. E nwere obere ọdịiche dị iche iche.

Ụda[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Mandinka nwere ụda abụọ, elu na ala. Aha ndị a na-agbanwebeghị bụ ụda dị elu na nkeji okwu niile ma ọ bụ ụda dị ala na nkeji okwu ọ bụla. Ntinye aka doro anya -o na-ewe ụda dị ala na aha ụda dị elu na ụda na-ada na aha ụda. Ọ na-ejikwa ụdaume ọ bụla dị mkpirikpi bu ụzọ, na-akpata ogologo /oo/ nke nwere ụda dị ala ma ọ bụ nke na-ada. Ọ na-em ka ụdaume dị elu (ii > io, uu > uo; 'ee' nhọrọ > ma ọ bụ eo ma ọ bụ ee) ma ọ bụ na-ejikọta onwe ya ('aa' na-anọgide aa) na-ahapụ naanị ụda ya:

Orthography[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A na-eji Mkpụrụ akwụkwọ Latịn na Mkpụrụ akwụkwọ Arabic eme ihe n'ọtụtụ ebe maka Mandinka; nke mbụ bụ nke gọọmentị, mana a na-eji nke ikpeazụ eme ihe n"ọtụtụ ebe ma bụrụ nke okenye. Na mgbakwunye, a na-ejikarị usoro edemede pan-Manding, edemede N'Ko, nke e mepụtara na 1949, eme ihe na Guinea-Bissau, n'ebe ugwu ọwụwa anyanwụ Guinea, na n'obodo ndị dị n'ókè Ivory Coast na Mali. Tụkwasị [3] nke a, mkpụrụedemede Garay, nke e mepụtara maka Wolof, ejirila ya mee ihe ole na ole.

Na edemede Latin, c na-anọchite anya /t͡ʃ/, ŋ /ŋ/, na ñ /ɲ/; anaghị eji mkpụrụedemede v, x, z, na q. Vowels dị ka Spanish ma ọ bụ Italian ma na-agbakọta okpukpu abụọ iji gosipụta ogologo ma ọ bụ ịmata ọdịiche dị n'okwu ndị bụ homophones.

Ihe odide Arabic ana eji mkpụrụedemede ọzọ (ma e wezụga, na-adịkarịghị, akara ụdaume ọzọ maka e), mana a na-akpọ ụfọdụ n'ime mkpụrụedemede ahụ n'ụzọ dị iche na Arabic.

Mkpụrụ okwu Latin na Arabic kwekọrọ dị ka ndị a:

Arabic Ihe omuma ihe omuma ع ب na-ede ط Ọ bụ n'ezie ج ه ح خ د Onye na-eme ihe nkiri S She ص ث ظ Ọdịdị ل M Ọ bụghị na-eme ihe nkiri ي K Ọ bụ ala
Latịn ('), aa, ee (', na Madda ŋ) b, p t t t c, j h h d r s s (sh) s s s f l m n, ñ, ŋ w na k, g la

A naghị ejikarị mkpụrụedemede ndị dị na italiki eme ihe n'okwu Mandinka. A pụkwara iji ه (h) mee ihe iji gosipụta nkwụsị ikpeazụ, nke a na-adịghị ahụ na mkpụrụedemede Latin. A na-ejikarị akara ụdaume na mkpụrụedemede Arabic egosi mkpụrụedemede ŋ nke mkpụrụedemede Latin; lee n'okpuru ebe a. A naghị ejikarị mkpụrụedemede ndị dị na italiki eme ihe n'okwu Mandinka. A pụkwara iji ه (h) mee ihe iji gosipụta nkwụsị ikpeazụ, nke a na-adịghị ahụ na mkpụrụedemede Latin. A na-ejikarị akara ụdaume na mkpụrụedemede Arabic egosi mkpụrụedemede ŋ nke mkpụrụedemede Latin; lee n'okpuru ebe a.

Mkpụrụedemede ndị a kwekọrọ dị ka ndị a (a na-etinye akara ngosi n'elu ma ọ bụ n'okpuru ụdaume na Arabic):

Arabic _ Ọ bụ na _ Ọ bụ ezie na ọ bụ Ọdịdị mbụ Ọdịdị _ _ _ _ U
Latịn a, e i, e, ee o, u (enweghị ụdaume na-esote) na Ndị ọzọ na-eme ka ha bụrụ ndị ọzọ Iŋ, eeŋ, n'afọ oŋ, uŋ aa nke abụọ oo, uu
Aha Mandinka nke akara Arabic: Syra tilidiŋ; Syra tilidiŋ duuma; ŋoo biriŋ; Sira murumuruliŋ; tambi baa duuma; Syra tilindiŋ fula; Sira tilindiŋ duuma fula; ŋoo biriŋ fula.

Na mgbakwunye, enwere ike iji obere Arabic 2 mee ihe iji gosipụta reduplication, a pụkwara iji hamza mee ihe dị ka ọ dị na Arabic iji gosipụta nkwụsị glottal n'ụzọ ziri ezi.

Utu aha[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Faama: "nna," "onye ndú," ma ọ bụ "eze"
  • Mansa (aha) : "sultan", "eze" ma ọ bụ "eze ukwu"

Hụkwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Edensibia[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

ọ dị, ọ bụ ezie na Ampari ghọtara Mombo, nke a yiri ka ọ bụ n'ihi na ha na-eleta mpaghara ahụ kwa afọ, ndị Mombo enweghịkwa ike ịghọta Ampari.

  1. Mandinka at Ethnologue (26th ed., 2023) Closed access icon
  2. Maŋ Lafi Dramé (c. 2003) Parlons Mandinka
  3. Everson (26 April 2012). Preliminary proposal for encoding the Garay script in the SMP of the UCS. UC Berkeley Script Encoding Initiative (Universal Scripts Project)/International Organization for Standardization. Retrieved on 5 July 2015.

Akwụkwọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • R. T. Addis, A Study on the Writing of Mandinka in Arabic script, 1963.
  • Dramé, Man Lafi, Parlons Mandinka, L'Harmattan 2003 (n'asụsụ French)

Njikọ mpụga[dezie | dezie ebe o si]