Chinese folk religion

Shí Wikipedia, njikotá édémédé nke onyobulạ
Jump to navigation Jump to search

 Àtụ:Chinese

Xuanyuan Temple dị na Huangling, Shaanxi, nke a raara nye ofufe nke Eze Ukwu Na -acha odo odo .
Templelọ nke Obodo Chukwu nke Wenao, Magong, Taiwan .
Temple nke Hebo ("Onye nwe osimiri"), chi (Heshen, "River God") nke Osimiri Yellow dị nsọ, na Hequ, Xinzhou, Shanxi .
Ebe ịchụàjà nye ndị ọrụ ise a na -efe ofufe n'ime ụlọ nsọ nke ndị nwenụ ise dị na Haikou, Hainan .

Okpukpe ọdinala ndị China, nke a makwaara dị ka okpukpe ndị China ama ama, bụ okwu n'ozuzu na -ekpuchi ọtụtụ omume ọdịnala nke Han Chinese, gụnyere ndị China bi na mba ọzọ . Vivienne Wee kọwara ya dị ka "nnukwu efere efu, nke nwere ike jupụta na ọdịnaya nke okpukpe emebere eme dịka Buddha, Taoism, Confucianism, okpukpe mmekọrịta ndị China." [1] Nke a gụnyere nsọpụrụ nke <i id="mwMw">shen</i> (mmụọ) na ndị nna nna, ịchụpụ mmụọ ndị mmụọ ọjọọ, na nkwenye na usoro okike nke okike, itule na mbara ụwa na eziokwu nke mmadụ na ndị ọchịchị ha, yana mmụọ na chi nwere ike imetụta. . [2] Ofufe dịịrị chi na ndị na -adịghị anwụ anwụ, ndị nwere ike ịbụ chi nke ebe ma ọ bụ ihe okike, nke akparamagwa mmadụ, ma ọ bụ ndị malitere nhiwe agbụrụ ezinụlọ . A na -achịkọta akụkọ banyere chi ndị a n'ime nchịkọtaakụkọ ifo ndị China . Site na usoro eze nke Song (960-1279), agwakọtara omume ndị a na ozizi Buddha na nkuzi Taoist ka ha wee bụrụ usoro okpukpe a ma ama nke nọrọla n'ọtụtụ ụzọ ruo taa. [3] Ọchịchị nke ugbu a nke mainland China na Taiwan, dị ka usoro ndị eze, na -anabata òtù okpukpe a ma ama ma ọ bụrụ na ha na -akwalite nkwụsi ike ọha mana na -egbochi ma ọ bụ na -akpagbu ndị ha na -atụ egwu na ha ga eleda ya a. [2]

Ka ọdịda alaeze ukwu ahụ gachara na 1911, gọọmentị na ndị nwere agba nke ọgbara ọhụrụ katọrọ "nkwenkwe ụgha" ma megide ma ọ bụ ikpochapụ okpukpe ọdịnala iji kwalite ụkpụrụ ọgbara ọhụrụ. Ka ọ na -erule ngwụsị narị afọ nke 20, àgwà ndị a malitere ịgbanwe ma na Taiwan ma na China. Ọtụtụ ndị ọkà mmụta ugbu a na -ele okpukpe ọdịnala anya n'ụzọ dị mma. [5] N'oge ndị na -adịbeghị anya, okpukpe ọdịnala na -enwe mmaliteghachi na China na Taiwan. Ụdị ụfọdụ enwetala nghọta ma ọ bụ nnabata dị ka ichekwa ọdịnala ọdịnala, dịka Mazuism na nkuzi Sanyi na Fujian, ofufe Huangdi [3] na ụdị ofufe obodo ndị ọzọ, dịka ọmụmaatụ Longwang, Pangu ma ọ bụ Caishen . [4]

Ọdịiche[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Okpukpe ndị China nwere ụzọ dị iche iche, ụdị mpaghara, nzụlite na ọdịnala nkà ihe ọmụma. N'agbanyeghị 'ọ́dịdị̀ iche a, enwere otu isi nke enwere ike ichikota dị ka echiche mmụta okpukpe anọ, kosmolojikal, na omume: [9] Tian ( Chinese '' ), pinyin tian,lit (eluigwe),nnwere onwe nke omume pụtara; qi ( Chinese; Pinyin:qi ), ume ma ọ bụ ike nke na -eme ka ụwa dị; jingzu ( Chinese: Pinyin ), nsọpụrụ nke ndị nna ochie; na bao ying ( Chinese ), ime omume dị mma; yana echiche ọdịnala abụọ nke akara aka na ihe ọ pụtara: [10] ming yun ( Chinese ), ọdịnihu onwe onye ma ọ bụ mmụba; na yuan fen ( Chinese yuánfèn), “ adaba ”, [11] ohere ọma na ihe ọjọọ na mmekọrịta nwere ike. [11]

Yin na yang ( Chinese ) bụ nkewa na -akọwa usoro nke eluigwe na ala, [12] na -enwe nguzozi site na mmekọrịta nke ụkpụrụ nke “mgbatị” ( Chinese ) na ụkpụrụ 'ịlaghachi' ( Chinese ),gui(mmụọ) [5] na yang ("act") ka ajọ karịa yin ("nnabata") n'okpukpe nkịtị. [6] Ling ( Chinese ), “ numen==ma ọ bụ “ dị nsọ ”, bụ “uzo nke Steeti abụọ ahụ na usoro okike adịghị mma. [6]

Temple nke Obodo Chukwu nke Dongmen, na Xiangshan, Ningbo, Zhejiang .
Ihe ịrịba ama na -agụ "Nke a bụ ebe nkwenye ndị mmadụ. A gaghị anabata onyinye okpukpe ma ọ bụ ihe omume okpukpe. " Ewere ya n'ụlọ nsọ ndị China na Weifang City, Province Shandong

Asụsụ Chinese n'akụkọ ihe mere eme enwebeghị ncheechiche ma ọ bụ aha karịrị akarị maka "okpukperechi". N'asụsụ bekee, a na -eji okwu bụ "okpukpe a ma ama" ma ọ bụ "okpukpe ndị mmadụ" pụtara ndụ okpukpe obodo. N'akwụkwọ agụmakwụkwọ China na ojiji a na -ejikarị "okpukpe ndị mmadụ" ( Chinese ) na -ezo aka n'òtù okpukpe omenala ndị a haziri ahazi.

ihe ọmụmụ nke oge ochie nke òtù nzuzo ọdịnala na imepụta ụlọ ọrụ gọọmentị nke nyere okpukperechi okpukpe a iwu [16] ewepụtala atụmatụ iji mezie aha na imekọ ihe ọnụ nke ọma banyere ndị otu okpukperechi ma nyere aka na nyocha na nchịkwa echiche. [17] Okwu ndị atụpụtara gụnyere "okpukpere chi ala China" ma ọ bụ "okpukpere eke ụmụ amaala China" ( Chinese ), "okpukpe agbụrụ ndị China" ( Chinese ), [18] ma ọ bụ naanị "okpukpe ndị China" ( Chinese ) a na -ahụta ka atụnyere iji okwu a bụ " Hinduism " maka okpukpe ndị India, [19] . Na Malaysia, ka ọkà mmụta Tan Chee-Beng na-akọ, ndị China enweghị okwu a kapịrị ọnụ maka okpukpe ọdịnala ha, nke a abụghị ihe ituanya n'ihi na "a na-ekesa okpukperechi n'akụkụ dị iche iche nke omenala ndị China". Ha na ahụta okpukpe ha dị ka bai fo ma ọ bụ bai shen, nke kpaliri Allan A.J Elliott iji tụọ okwu ahụ bụ "shenism" ( Chinese ). Tan agbanyeghị, nkọwa ndị na -abụghị ụzọ ndị China si ahuokpukpe ha, nke n'ọnọdụ ọ bụla gụnyere ofufe ndị nna ochie, ọ bụghị naanị shen, ma na -atụ aro na ọ bụ ihe ezi uche dị na ya iji naanị "Okpukpe China". [20] "Shenxianism" ( Chinese , n'ụzọ nkịtị, "okpukpe chi dị iche iche na ndị na -adịghị anwụ anwụ "), [21] bụ okwu nke sitere n'ike mmụọ nke Elliott, "Shenism." [22]

Na ngwụcha ichi eze Qing, ndị ọkà mmụta usoro ọmụmụ Yao Wendong na Chen Jialin jiri okwu shenjiao na ahutaghi ya ka Shinto dị ka usoro okpukpe doro anya, kama ha nwere na nkwenye nke shin mpaghara na Japan. Okwu ndị ọzọ bụ "òtù nzuzo ndị mmadụ" ( Chinese ), "okpukpe na Chinese ), "okpukperechi (ma ọ bụ ndụ)" ( Chinese ), "okpukpe obodo" ( Chinese ), na “okpukpe gbasasịrị” ( Chinese ). [24] "Nkwenkwe ndị mmadụ" ( Chinese ), [25] bụ okwu a na -adịghị ahụkarị nke ndị ọkà mmụta na Taiwan chịrị site n'aka ndị Japan n'oge ọrụ Japan (1895 - 1945). Ejiri ya n'etiti 1990s na mmalite narị afọ nke 21 n'etiti ndị ọkà mmụta ala China. [26]

"Shendao" ( Chinese ) bụ okwu ejirila na Yijing na ahụta usoro nhazi nke okike. [7] n'ime oge mgbasa nke Buddha na oge Han (206 TOA - 220 OA), ejiri ya mata ọdịiche okpukperechi ụmụ amaala oge ochie na okpukpe mbubata. Ge Hong jiri ya na Baopuzi ya dị ka myiri Taoism . E mechara nabata okwu ahụ na Japan na narị afọ nke isii dị ka Shindo, emesịa Shinto, nke nwere otu ebumnuche nke ịmata okpukpe ụmụ amaala Japan. [8] Na narị afọ nke iri na anọ ji, Eze Ukwu Hongwu (Taizu nke usoro ndị eze Ming, 1328 - 1398) jiri okwu ahụ bụ "Shendao" mee ka amata òtù nzuzo nke ụmụ amaala, nke o wusiri ike ma hazie.

"nkwenye ndị China", ọ bụghị n'echiche nke " nna", nke ahụ bụ sistemụ ngwa ụwa niile, nke ahụ bụ Tian n'echiche ndị China, bụ nsụgharị nke Jan Jakob Maria de Groot nke ana agụta ka usoro ihe atụ nke dị n'azụ okpukperechi ndị China. omenala. De Groot na -akpọ Mahadum China "echiche ihe atụ oge ochie nke na -arụ ọrụ dị ka ntọala nke echiche ndị China oge gboo. . . . Na Universism, akụkụ atọ nke eluigwe na ụwa agbakwunyere - ghọtara na nkenke, 'eluigwe, ụwa na mmadụ', ma ghọta ya n'ụzọ iwu, ' Taiji (mmalite dị ukwuu, nke kachasị elu), yin na yang'- ka etinyere ". [9]

Na 1931 Hu Shih rụrụ ụka na "Okpukpe abụọ dị ukwuu arụwo ọrụ dị oke mkpa na akụkọ ntolite China niile. Otu bụ Buddha nke batara na China ma eleghị anya tupu oge Ndị Kraịst mana nke malitere inwe mmetụta na mba niile naanị mgbe narị afọ nke atọ AD Okpukpe ọzọ dị ukwuu enweghị aha nkịtị, mana m na-atụ aro ịkpọ ya Siniticism. Ọ bụ okpukpe ọdịnala oge ochie nke ndị Han Chinese : ọ malitere na mgbe gara aga, ihe karịrị afọ Puku , ma gụnye usoro mmepe ya niile dị ka Moism, Confucianism (dị ka okpukpe steeti), na ọkwa niile dị iche iche. okpukpe Taoist. " [10]

Àgwà[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ndị ọkà mmụta China nke oge a achọpụtala ihe ha chọpụtara na ọ bụ ihe dị mkpa n'okpukpe China (ma ọ bụ ụmụ amaala). Dị ka Chen Xiaoyi si kwuo ( Chinese ) okpukperechi ụmụ amaala obodo bụ isi ihe dị mkpa maka "ihe ọmụmụ okpukperechi okpukpe" ( Chinese ), nke ahụ bụ nguzozi nke ike na obodo enyere. [34] Prọfesọ Han Bingfang ( Chinese 韓秉芳) kpọrọ aha agbagọ ( Chinese Aha agbagọ bụ "ọrụ nkwenkwe ụgha" ( Chinese ) ma ọ bụ "nkwenkwe ụgha feudal" ( Chinese ), nke etinyere n'ike n'ike n'okpukpe ụmụ amaala. Ndị ozi ala ọzọ nke Ndị Kraịst jikwa akara mgbasa ozi "nkwenkwe ụgha feudal" mebie onye asọmpi okpukpe ha. [35] Han na -akpọ maka nnabata nke okpukpe China oge ochie maka ihe ọ bụ n'ezie, "isi na mkpụrụ obi nke ọdịbendị a ma ama" ( pinyin ). [36]

Dị ka Chen Jinguo ( Chinese ), okpukpe ndị China oge ochie bụ isi ihe gbasara mmata ọdịbendị na okpukperechi nke Chinese ). [35] Ọ tụpụtala nkọwa nkọwa nke okpukpe ụmụ amaala China na "agwa atọ enweghị ikewapụta" ( Chinese ), o doro anya na ọ sitere n'ike mmụọ nsọ nye nkeechiche Tang Junyi : [37]

Communal ceremony at the Great Temple of Yandi Shennong (Àtụ:Lang-zh Yándì Shénnóng dàdiàn) in Suizhou, Hubei.
Ihe akpụrụ akpụ nke Mazu n'ụlọ nsọ dị na Chiayi, Taiwan .

I buOmume okpukpe ndị China oge ochie dị iche iche, na -adịgasị iche site na mpaghara ruo na ógbè na ọbụna site n'otu obodo ruo n'ọzọ, n'ihi na omume okpukpe na -ejikọ na obodo, njikọ na gburugburu. N'ọnọdụ ọ bụla, ụlọ ọrụ na omume omume na -ewere ụdị nke ahaziri nke ọma. Ụlọ nsọ na chi dị n'ime ha na -enweta agwa ihe atụ ma na -arụ ọrụ dị iche iche metụtara ndụ kwa ụbọchị nke obodo. [38] Okpukpe mpaghara na -echekwa akụkụ nke nkwenkwe okike dịka totemism, [11] animism, na shamanism .

Okpukpe ndị China oge ochie gbasara akụkụ niile nke mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya. Ọtụtụ ndị ọkà mmụta, na -agbaso nduzi nke onye na -ahụ maka mmekọrịta ọha na eze CK Yang, na -ahụ okpukpe ndị China oge ochie etinyere n'ime ezinụlọ na ndụ obodo, kama igosipụta ya na nhazi nzukọ dị iche dịka "ụka", dịka na West. [41]

Chi ma ọ bụ mkpakọrịta ụlọ nsọ na mkpakọrịta agbụrụ, mkpakọrịta ndị njem ala nsọ na ikpe ekpere, emume na ngosipụta nke omume ọma, bụ ụdị nhazi ọgbakọ okpukperechi China na mpaghara. [38] Ememe mmalite ma ọ bụ isonye na nzukọ ọgbakọ nke dịpụrụ iche site na njirimara onye obodo bụ iwu iji tinye aka na mmemme okpukpe. [38] N'adịghị ka okpukpe ụlọ ọrụ, okpukpere chi ndị China anaghị achọ 'ntụgharị' maka isonye. [41]

  1. Wee (1976). "'Buddhism' in Singapore", in Hassan: In Singapore: Society in Transition. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 155–188.  The restriction of Christianity to Catholicism in her definition has since been broadened by the findings of other investigators.
  2. Madsen (October 2010). "The Upsurge of Religion in China". Journal of Democracy 21: 64–65. Retrieved on 20 November 2010. 
  3. Sautman, 1997. pp. 80–81
  4. Adam Yuet Chau. "The Policy of Legitimation and the Revival of Popular Religion in Shaanbei, North-Central China". Modern China. 31.2, 2005. pp. 236–278
  5. Teiser, 1996.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Thien Do, 2003, pp. 10–11
  7. Commentary on Judgment about Yijing 20, Guan ("Viewing"): "Viewing the Way of the Gods (Shendao), one finds that the four seasons never deviate, and so the sage establishes his teachings on the basis of this Way, and all under Heaven submit to him".
  8. Brian Bocking. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Routledge, 2005. ASIN: B00ID5TQZY p. 129
  9. J. J. M. de Groot. Religion in China: Universism a Key to the Study of Taoism and Confucianism. 1912.
  10. Shi Hu, "Religion and Philosophy in Chinese History" (Shanghai: China Institute of Pacific Relations, 1931), reprinted in Hu (2013). English Writings of Hu Shih: Chinese Philosophy and Intellectual History, China Academic Library. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978-3642311819. 
  11. Wang, 2004. pp. 60–61