Culture

Shí Wikipedia, njikotá édémédé nke onyobulạ
Culture
concept
subclass nkepattern of behavior Dezie
mụrụ yaanthropology Dezie
nwere àgwàcultural universal Dezie
ọdịdị ala nke isiokwucultural geography Dezie
Ihe onwunwe Wikidataomenala Dezie

Omenala ( / ˈkʌl tʃər / ) bụ okwu nche anwụ nke gụnyere omume ọha mmadụ na ụkpụrụ ndị a na-ahụ na ọha mmadụ , yana ihe ọmụma, nkwenkwe, nka, iwu, nri, ntimiwu,igba afa,omenala, ikike na omume nke ndị mmadụ n'otu n'otu na ndị a. otu. [1]

N'ihe gbasara mmadụ, otu echiche omenala dị ka njirimara maobu ilu ihe bara na mmadụ bụ ogo nke ha zụlitere ọkaibe na nka, sayensị, agụmakwụkwọ ma ọ bụ omume. A na-ejikwa ọkwa ọkaibe omenala eme ihe mgbe ụfọdụ iji mata ọdịiche mmepeanya na obodo ndị na-adịchaghị mgbagwoju anya. A na-ahụkwa echiche usoro nhazi ndị dị otú ahụ na klaasị n'etiti oke omenaala nke ọha mmadụ na omenala dị ala, omenala ewu ewu, ma ọ bụ omenala ọha nke klaasị dị ala, nke a na-ahụta site n'inweta isi obodo omenala di iche iche . N'asụsụ nkịtị, a na-ejikarị omenala na-ezo aka kpọmkwem na akara ngosi ndị agbụrụ na-eji amata onwe ha n'ụzọ pụtara ìhè na ibe ha dị ka mgbanwe ahụ, uwe ma ọ bụ ọla . Omenala Mass na -ezo aka n'ụdị omenala ndị ahịa ewepụtara na n'ọtụtụ ebe nke malitere na narị afọ nke 20. Ụfọdụ ụlọ akwụkwọ nke nkà ihe ọmụma, dị ka Marxism na oké egwu tiori, na-arụ ụka na omenala na-ejikarị ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị dị ka ngwá ọrụ nke elites na-emegharị proletariat na ike ụgha nsụhọ . Echiche ndị dị ofu ahụ bụ ihe a na-ahụkarị na ọzụzụ nke ọmụmụ omenala . Na sayensị ọha mmadụ sara mbara, echiche echiche nke ịhụ ihe onwunwe n'anya omenala na -ekwu na omenala ihe atụ nke mmadụ na-esite na ọnọdụ ihe onwunwe nke ndụ mmadụ, dị ka ụmụ mmadụ na-emepụta ọnọdụ maka ịdị ndụ anụ ahụ, nakwa na a na-achọta ndabere nke omenala na ọdịdị ọdịdị ndụ .

Mgbe ejiri ya mee ihe dị ka ọnụ ọgụgụ, "omenala" bụ usoro omenala, omenala na ụkpụrụ nke obodo ma ọ bụ obodo, dị ka agbụrụ ma ọ bụ mba. Omenala bụ usoro ihe ọmụma enwetara ka oge na-aga. N'echiche a, multiculturalism ji ịdị n'otu udo na nkwanye ùgwù dị n'etiti omenala dị iche iche na-ebi n'otu mbara ala kpọrọ ihe. Mgbe ụfọdụ, a na-ejikwa “omenala” kọwaa omume dị iche iche n'ime otu obere obodo, obere omenala (dịka ọmụmaatụ, " bro omenala " ), ma ọ bụ ihe mgbochi. N'ime nkà mmụta ihe omimi nke omenala, echiche na nleba anya nke nkwekọ omenala na- ekwenye na omenala enweghị ike ịdepụta ma ọ bụ nyochaa ngwa ngwa n'ihi na nleba anya ọ bụla dị n'ime usoro uru nke omenala enyere.

Okwu ọgbara ọhụrụ a bụ "omenala" gbadoro ụkwụ n'okwu onye ọkà okwu Rome oge ochie Cicero ji mee ihe na esemokwu Tusculanae ya, bụ ebe o dere maka ịkọ mkpụrụ obi ma ọ bụ "cultura anime," [2] na-eji ihe atụ nke ugbo maka mmepe nke a. mmụọ nke nkà ihe ọmụma, ghọtara teleologically dị ka kasị elu kwere omume maka mmepe mmadụ. Samuel Pufendorf weghaara ihe atụ a n'oge ọgbara ọhụrụ, nke pụtara ihe yiri ya, mana ọ naghịzi eche na nkà ihe ọmụma bụ izu oke okike mmadụ. Ojiji ya, na nke ọtụtụ ndị edemede na-esote ya, " na-ezo aka n'ụzọ nile nke ụmụ mmadụ si emeri omume ọjọọ mbụ ha, na site na nkà, ghọọ mmadụ zuru oke." [3]

... na mbụ pụtara cultivation nke mkpụrụ obi ma ọ bụ uche, na-enweta ọtụtụ n'ime ya mesịrị n'oge a pụtara na odide nke narị afọ nke 18 German na-eche echiche, bụ ndị nọ n'ọkwa dị iche iche na-emepe emepe Rousseau nkatọ nke " Modern liberalism na Enlightenment ." Ya mere, ọdịiche dị n'etiti "omenala" na " mmepeanya " na-apụtakarị n'ime ndị ode akwụkwọ a, ọ bụrụgodị na akọwapụtaghị ya.

Johann Herder dọọrọ uche gaa na omenala obodo.
Petroglyphs na Gobustan nke oge a, Azerbaijan, malitere na 10,000 TOA ma na-egosi ọdịbendị na-eto eto.

Sociology nke omenala metụtara omenala dị ka egosipụtara na ọha mmadụ . Maka ọkà mmụta mmekọrịta ọha na eze Georg Simmel (1858-1918), omenala na-ezo aka na "ịkụ mkpụrụ nke ndị mmadụ n'otu n'otu site na ụlọ ọrụ nke ụdị dịpụrụ adịpụ bụ nke a kwadoro n'ime akụkọ ihe mere eme." [4] N'ihi ya, a pụrụ ịkọwa omenala na ngalaba mmekọrịta ọha na eze dị ka ụzọ iche echiche, ụzọ e si eme omume, na ihe onwunwe na-ejikọta ọnụ na-akpụzi ụzọ ndụ ndị mmadụ. Omenala nwere ike ịbụ ụdị abụọ ọ bụla, omenala na-abụghị ihe onwunwe ma ọ bụ omenala ihe onwunwe . [5] Omenala na-abụghị nke ihe onwunwe na-ezo aka n'echiche ndị na-abụghị nke anụ ahụ nke ndị mmadụ n'otu n'otu nwere banyere omenala ha, gụnyere ụkpụrụ, usoro nkwenye, iwu, ụkpụrụ, omume, asụsụ, òtù, na ụlọ ọrụ, ebe omenala ihe onwunwe bụ ihe àmà anụ ahụ nke omenala na ihe ndị ahụ. na architecture ha mere ma ọ bụ mee. Okwu a na-achọsi ike naanị na ọmụmụ ihe ochie na ihe gbasara mmadụ, mana ọ pụtara kpọmkwem ihe akaebe ihe onwunwe niile nwere ike ịsị na omenala, n'oge gara aga ma ọ bụ ugbu a.

Usoro mmekọrịta ọha na eze na-etolite site na njikọ dị n'etiti sociology (dị ka ndị ọkà mmụta oge mbụ dị ka Marx, [6] Durkheim, na Weber ) nwere ọzụzụ na-eto eto nke nkà mmụta ihe ọmụmụ, bụ ebe ndị nchọpụta sụrụ ụzọ ethnographic atụmatụ maka ịkọwa na nyochaa omenala dị iche iche gburugburu ụwa. . Akụkụ nke ihe nketa nke mmalite mmepe nke ubi na-adabere na usoro (ọtụtụ omenala, nchọpụta mmekọrịta ọha na eze bụ qualitative), na chepụtara (ụdị dị iche iche dị oke egwu na-abịaru nso na sociology bụ isi na obodo nyocha ugbu a), na n'ụzọ dị ịrịba ama na-elekwasị anya. nke ubi. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, mmekọrịta dị n'etiti omenala ndị a ma ama, njikwa ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị, na ọha mmadụ bụ nchegbu mbụ na nke na-adịgide adịgide n'ọhịa.

Na United Kingdom, ọmụmụ omenala na-elekwasị anya n'ịmụ banyere omenala ndị a ma ama; ya bụ, n'ihe gbasara mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya nke ọtụtụ ndị na-azụ ahịa na ihe ntụrụndụ. Richard Hoggart chepụtara okwu ahụ na 1964 mgbe ọ tọrọ ntọala Birmingham Center for Contemporary Cultural Studies ma ọ bụ CCCS. [7] Kemgbe ahụ, ọ na-enwe mmekọrịta siri ike na Stuart Hall, [8] bụ onye nọchiri Hoggart dị ka onye nduzi. [9] Ya mere, a pụrụ ile ọmụmụ omenala n'echiche a anya dị ka obere ntinye uche gbadoro anya na mgbagwoju anya nke ịzụ ahịa, bụ nke sitere na omenala sara mbara mgbe ụfọdụ a na-akpọ " mmepe anya Western Western " ma ọ bụ " ịkọ ụwa ọnụ ."

Site na 1970s gaa n'ihu, ọrụ ọsụ ụzọ Stuart Hall, yana nke ndị ọrụ ibe ya Paul Willis, Dick Hebdige, Tony Jefferson, na Angela McRobbie, kere otu ọgụgụ isi mba ụwa. Ka ogige ahụ malitere, ọ malitere ijikọta akụ na ụba ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị, nkwurịta okwu, nkà mmụta mmekọrịta ọha na eze, nkà mmụta mmekọrịta ọha na eze, edemede edemede, usoro mgbasa ozi, ọmụmụ ihe nkiri / vidio, omenala anthropology, nkà ihe ọmụma, ihe ngosi ihe ngosi nka, na akụkọ ihe mere eme nkà iji mụọ ihe ngosi omenala ma ọ bụ ederede omenala. N'ebe a, ndị nchọpụta na-etinyekarị uche n'otú ihe pụrụ iche si metụta echiche echiche, mba, agbụrụ, klaasị, na/ma ọ bụ okike . [10] Ọmụmụ omenala na-emetụta ihe pụtara na omume nke ndụ kwa ụbọchị. Omume ndị a gụnyere ụzọ ndị mmadụ si eme ihe ụfọdụ (dịka ikiri telivishọn ma ọ bụ iri nri) na omenala enyere. Ọ na-amụkwa ihe ọ pụtara ma na-eji ndị mmadụ akọwapụta ihe dị iche iche na omume. Kpọmkwem, omenala gụnyere ihe pụtara na omume ndị a na-ejide onwe ha n'enweghị uche. Ikiri ihe onyonyo iji lelee anya ọha na eze na ihe omume akụkọ ihe mere eme ekwesịghị iche dị ka omenala ma ọ bụrụ na ọ na-ezo aka na igwe onyonyo n'onwe ya, nke nwere ike ịbụ na a họrọla ya na omenala; Otú ọ dị, ụmụ akwụkwọ na-ekiri telivishọn mgbe ụlọ akwụkwọ na ndị enyi ha ka ha "daba adaba" na-ruru eru n'ezie ebe ọ bụ na ọ dịghị ihe gbanyere mkpọrọgwụ ihe mere mmadụ na-ekere òkè na omume a.

Ngwá ọrụ ọgụgụ isi na-atụ aro ka ndị si n'ọdịbendị ụfọdụ nwee ike ịnagide nsogbu ndị dị adị, dị ka Suanpan maka Chinese iji mee mgbakọ mgbakọ na mwepụ.

Enwere ọtụtụ na ndiozo nkwekọrịta mba ụwa na iwu obodo gbasara nchekwa omenala na ihe nketa omenala . UNESCO na ndị otu ya dị ka Blue Shield International na-ahazi nchedo mba ụwa na mmejuputa obodo. [11] [12] N'ụzọ bụ isi, Nkwekọrịta Hague maka Nchedo nke Omenala Ngwongwo n'ihe omume nke Armed Conflict na UNESCO Convention for Protection of Cultural Diversity na-ekwu maka nchebe nke omenala. Nkeji edemede 27 nke Nkwupụta Ụwa Nile Maka Ihe Ndị Ruuru Mmadụ na-ekwu banyere ihe nketa omenala ndi agumagu did ichiche iche n'ụzọ abụọ: ọ na-enye ndị mmadu ikike isonye na ndụ omenala n'otu aka na ikike nke nchebe nke onyinye ha na ndụ omenala n'akụkụ nke ọzọ. [13]

Edensibia[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. Tylor, Edward. (1871). Primitive Culture. Vol 1. New York: J.P. Putnam's Son
  2. Cicéron (1812). Tusculanes (in fr). Nismes: J. Gaude. OCLC 457735057. Retrieved on March 3, 2018. 
  3. Velkley (2002). "The Tension in the Beautiful: On Culture and Civilization in Rousseau and German Philosophy", Being after Rousseau: philosophy and culture in question (in en). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 11–30. ISBN 978-0-226-85256-0. OCLC 47930775. 
  4. Simmel (1971). in Levine: Georg Simmel on individuality and social forms: selected writings. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-75776-6. Retrieved on May 29, 2017. 
  5. Macionis (2011). Sociology (in en). Toronto: Pearson Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-700161-3. OCLC 652430995. 
  6. Berlin (2002). Karl Marx: His Life and Environment (in en). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-510326-7. OCLC 611127754. 
  7. "Studying Culture – Reflections and Assessment: An Interview with Richard Hoggart". Media, Culture & Society 13. 
  8. Adams. "Cultural hallmark", The Guardian, September 23, 2007. Retrieved on October 30, 2016.
  9. James (2004). Stuart Hall. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-26267-5. OCLC 318376213. 
  10. Sardar (1994). Introducing Cultural Studies. New York: Totem Books. ISBN 978-1-84046-587-7. OCLC 937991291. 
  11. Roger O’Keefe, Camille Péron, Tofig Musayev, Gianluca Ferrari "Protection of Cultural Property. Military Manual." UNESCO, 2016, p 73.
  12. UNESCO Director-General calls for stronger cooperation for heritage protection at the Blue Shield International General Assembly. UNESCO, September 13, 2017.
  13. UNESCO Legal Instruments: Second Protocol to the Hague Convention of 1954 for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict 1999. Archived from the original on August 25, 2021. Retrieved on September 1, 2021.