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Ditema tsa Dinoko

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colspan="2" class="infobox-above" style="padding:0.25em; background:white;" |Ditema tsa Dinoko
isiBheqe soHlamvu
Ditema tsa Dinoko e dere na syllabary
Ụdị edemede
Asụsụ Ndịda Bantu, Swazi
Ihe odide ndị metụtara ya
Usoro ndị nne na nna
Litema, amaBheqe ideographs (Izimpawu zesiNtu)
  • Ditema tsa Dinoko
Isiokwu a nwere transcriptions phonetic na International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA).   Maka ntuziaka mmeghe na akara IPA, lee Help:IPA. Maka ọdịiche dị n'etiti [ ] , / /  na ː, lee IPA § Brackets and transcription delimiters.

Ditema tsa Dinoko (Sesotho" id="mwCg" rel="mw:WikiLink" title="Sesotho">Sesotho maka "Ditema syllabary"), nke a makwaara dị ka ditema tsa Sesotho, bụ usoro ederede e wuru (karịsịa, syllabaria featural) maka asụsụ siNtu ma ọ bụ Southern Bantu (dị ka Sesotho, Setswana, IsiZulu, IsiXhosa, SiSwati, SiPhuthi, Xitsonga, EMakhuwa, ChiNgoni, SiLozi, na Tshivenḓa). [1][2] makwaara ya site na aha IsiZulu isiBheqe soHlamvu, na aha ndị ọzọ dị iche iche n'asụsụ dị iche iche. E mepụtara ya n'afọ 2010 site na omenala ideographic nke mpaghara Southern Africa. Ọdịdị an ya sitere n'ike mmụọ nsọ nke ndị a, gụnyere ụdị nka ọdịnala. [3][4] bụ otu ndị ọkà mmụta asụsụ na ndị na-eme mmemme ngwanrọ na South Africa mepụtara ya n'etiti afọ 2014 na 2016 na ebumnuche nke ịmepụta usoro ederede siri ike iji zere nwayọ na ịgụ ihe nke ogologo okwu na otu anya nke asụsụ Southern Bantu edere na mkpụrụedemede Roman kpatara. [1] [2] [5] ọ na-erule 2023 [melite] ọ dịghị atụmatụ e mere iji tinye koodu edemede na Unicode, ọkọlọtọ koodu ederede e mere iji kwado usoro edemede niile dị n'ụwa.

[6] / Isibheqe syllabary nwere ikike ịnọchite anya ụdaume zuru oke nke asụsụ sintu ndị a (n'ime Nguni, Sotho-Tswana, Venḓa, Tsonga na Tonga-Inhambane) n'okpuru otu orthography. Nke a na-agụnye asụsụ ndị na-abụghị ọkọlọtọ na Mkpụrụ akwụkwọ Latịn dịka Asụsụ East Sotho (Sepulana, Sekutswe na Hipai), ma ọ bụ Asụsụ Tekela, nke, ma e wezụga SiSwati, abụghị asụsụ gọọmentị. Nkwado orthographic maka asụsụ ndị a gosipụtara dịka ọmụmaatụ na grapheme Ingungwana, nke na-egosi ụdaume - akụkụ nke asụsụ Tekela.

Ditema tsa Dinoko na edemede a haziri ahazi, gụọ site n'aka ekpe gaa n'aka nri. A na-achịkọta mkpụrụedemede atọ nke okwu mbụ, na mkpụrụedemede nke atọ n'ala

Nkọwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ihe odide ahụ na-arụ ọrụ dị ka syllabary, ebe ọ bụ na akara ọ bụla na-anọchite anya syllable, yana graphemes maka ụdaume na ụdaume jikọtara n'ime blọk syllable (amabheqe), n'ụzọ yiri nke Hangeul. Mgbe mkpụrụedemede [7] na-anọchite anya ya abụghị mkpụrụedemede imi, a na-emepụta akara ndị a site na triangular ma ọ bụ chevron-shaped grapheme na-anọchi anya nucleus nke mkpụrụedemede ahụ, yana ongwaqa ma ọ bụ mkpụrụedemede consonant na-anọchitere mmalite nke mkpụrụedemade ma ọ bụ ụzọ ya. A na-anọchite anya oghere oghere dị ka okirikiri nke jupụtara ibheqe ma ọ bụ oghere ogidi.

Nhazi nke mkpụrụedemede nke okwu atọ n'asụsụ dị iche iche: <Xilo> [ʃiːlɔ] "ihe" na Xitsonga, <Vhathu> [βaːthu] "ndị mmadụ" na Tshivenḓa, <Ho tlêtse> [hʊtːɬ"ɛːtäns"ɪ] "Ọ jupụtara" na Sesotho.

Mkpụrụedemede[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Graphemes nke ụdaume (onkamisa) bụ ntọala nke ibheqe ọ bụla ma ọ bụ blọk mkpụrụedemede, dị ka isi nke mkpụrụedemede ọ bụla, na ongwaqa ma ọ bụ mkpụrụedemede consonant dị n'ime na gburugburu ha.

Ntuziaka nke ibheqe ọ bụla na-egosi ogo nke ụdaume maka nke ọ bụla n'ime ụdaume asaa:

  • Intombi, triangle na-eche ihu n'elu: /i/
  • Isoka, triangle na-eche ihu n'ala: /a/
  • Umkhonto, chevron na-eche ihu n'elu: /u/
  • Triangle na-eche ihu n'aka ekpe: /ɛ/
  • Triangle nke chere ihu n'aka nri: /ɔ/
  • Chevron na-eche ihu n'aka ekpe: /e/
  • Chevron na-eche ihu n'aka nri: /o/

E nwere "mkpụrụedemede" nke asatọ nke chevron na-eche ihu n'ala na-anọchite anya ya, nke bụ ụdaume efu, a na-ejikarị ya eme ihe maka okwu mba ọzọ iji nọchite anya ụdaume kwụụrụ onwe ya, mgbe mgbe dị ka mkpụrụedemede, nke na-adịghị apụta na asụsụ siNtu nwere ụdaume CV.

Onkamisa, vowel graphemes.

Isi nke triangle ma ọ bụ chevron kwekọrọ na ịdị elu nke ụdaume ma ọ bụ ihu, na ụdaume dị ala /i/ na /u/ na-ezo aka n'elu na ụdaume ala /a/ na-egosi ala. N'otu aka ahụ, ụdaume ihu /ɛ/ na /e/ na-egosi n'aka ekpe na ụdaume azụ /ɔ/ na /o/ na-ezo aka n'aka nri.

A na-egosi ụdaume na grapheme Ingungwana, nke bụ ntụpọ siri ike n'èzí triangle kewara site na apex, dịka na okwu phãsi n'okpuru:

Bekee ala / n'okpuru
Zunda ala
phaːntsʼi
Tekela phãsi
phãːsi

Mkpụrụ okwu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A na-eji otu ma ọ bụ karịa graphemes (ongwaqa). Ọ dịkarịa ala otu n'ime ndị a na-egosi ebe na ụzọ e si ekwu okwu. Ọ bụrụ na a na-etinye ihe karịrị otu ụdị consonant grapheme, nke a na-anọchite anya co-articulation, dịka africate (nke e ji nkwụsị na graphemes fricative), ma ọ bụ ụyọkọ mmalite. Akara ndị ọzọ na-egosi ọnọdụ articulatory, ma ọ bụ nke ahụ bụ ụda olu, ụda olu, implosive, ejective, modal voice, ma ọ dị ka ngwakọta ya.

Ọnọdụ nke mkpụrụedemede consonant kwekọrọ n'ụzọ dị ukwuu na ebe nkwekọrịta:

  • A na-etinye ọnụ na imi n'èzí triangle na apex.
  • Alveolars dị n'etiti triangle site n'akụkụ ruo n'akụkụ.
  • Velars na parịa dị n'ala.
  • Akụkụ dị n'èzí triangle n'otu akụkụ.
  • Ezé bụ ahịrị abụọ gafee triangle site n'akụkụ gaa n'akụkụ, n'akụkụ ibe ha.

Ọdịdị nke mkpụrụedemede na-adaba n'ụzọ nkwekọrịta:

  • Akara ndị gbagọrọ agbagọ na-egosi fricatives.
  • Ndị yiri ha n'ahịrị kwụ ọtọ n'otu ọnọdụ ahụ na-egosi plosives.
  • A na-anọchite anya approximants na trills na ahịrị abụọ ma ọ bụ n'otu akụkụ ma ọ bụ na nkuku ziri ezi n'etiti ibe ya, na tap ma ọ bụ flap bụ nhazi nke ikpeazụ, otu ahịrị na-ekewa nke ọzọ n'etiti ya n'agafeghị ya.
  • A na-anọchite anya ụdaume na-afụ ụfụfụ na fricatives post-veolar dị ka loops.
  • A na-anọchite anya imi dị ka okirikiri n'elu triangle. Akara dị n'ime okirikiri na-eme ka a mata ọdịiche dị n'etiti imi na ibe ya.
  • Clicks bụ ọdịdị hourglass na-enweghị ala.
  • A na-asụpụta Africates site na itinye ma nkwụsị na graphemes fricative kwekọrọ na triangle. Ìgwè ndị malitere na-eji otu usoro ahụ.
  • A na-anọchite anya akụkụ syllabic na trills na duplication nke graphemes nkịtị n'akụkụ na trill.

Syllabic nasals ma ọ bụ Amaqanda bụ ihe pụrụ iche n'ihi na ha na-ebi n'ebe ibheqe dum dị ka okirikiri. A na-ekewa ha n'etiti onwe ha na ahịrị dị n'ime ha nke na-arụ ọrụ dịka ụkpụrụ ahụ dị n'elu.

Ihe osise ndị a nwere ike ijikọta ibe ha n'usoro dịka phonotactics nke asụsụ sintu si dị, ha nwekwara ike ijikọ ya na ihe osise nhazi.

Ụzọ nkwonkwo[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

E nwere akara atọ nke usoro articulatory:

  • Maka ụdaume ndị a na-ekwughị, ntụpọ siri ike n'ime triangle na-egosi ụdaume glottalised (e wepụrụ) ma ọ bụ ụdaume modal click.
  • Maka ụdaume a na-ekwupụta, ntụpọ siri ike n'ime triangle na-egosi ụdaume implosive ma ọ bụ, n'ihe banyere asụsụ ebe enweghị ụdaume, ụdaume modal.
  • Enweghị ntụpọ ahụ na-egosi olu na-eku ume n'ihe gbasara ụdaume a na-ekwupụta, na ọchịchọ n'ihe banyere ụdaume na-enweghị olu.
  • Uphimbo, ma ọ bụ akara ụda olu, na-aga site n'elu triangle ruo n'ala (ma ọ bụ ruo mgbe ọ ga-agbanye na njedebe nke chevron), na-egosi ụdaume.
  • Ọ bụrụ na ahịrị na-ekwupụta okwu na-apụta dị ka naanị ungwaqa na ibheqe, ọ na-egosi ụda olu /ɦ/.
  • N'asụsụ ndị na-eme ka ọdịiche dị n'etiti ụda olu na ụda olu / oghere, akara ụda olu na-egosi ụda olu mgbe ọ na-apụta na mkpụrụedemede ndị a.
  • A na-eji okirikiri mepere emepe na-egosi ụdaume prenasalised n'elu triangle a na-akpọ Ingungu. Ndị a na-eme na mkpụrụedemede ndị ọzọ, ma dị iche na bilabial nasal /m/ nke na-eme n'onwe ya. Ọ dịghị akara ndị ọzọ a ga-agbakwunye na Ingungu mgbe ọ na-eme na ongwaqa ndị ọzọ ka ha na-enye ebe nkwekọrịta ma ọ dịghị mkpa ka a mara ya na grapheme imi.
  • ịpị, 'Ingungu' na-egosi ụdaume ịpị n'imi, na ịpị ụda (dịka <nkq>) na-achọ mgbakwunye nke ntụpọ siri ike (glottalisation), n'ọnọdụ ahụ ingungu na'egosi ịpịsị ụda.</nkq>

Edensibia[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

akara ndị a site na triangular ma ọ bụ chevron-shaped grapheme na-anọchi anya nucleus nke mkpụrụedemede ahụ, yana ongwaqa ma ọ bụ mkpụrụedemede consonant na-anọchitereakara ndị a site na triangular ma ọ bụ chevron-shaped grapheme na-anọchi anya nucleus nke mkpụrụedemede ahụ, yana ongwaqa ma ọ bụ mkpụrụedemede consonant na-anọchitere

  1. Isibheqe Sohlamvu: An Indigenous Writing System for Southern Bantu Languages. linguistics.org.za (22 June 2015). Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved on 16 September 2015.
  2. isiBheqe. isibheqe.org (23 August 2015). Archived from the original on 8 February 2016. Retrieved on 16 September 2015.
  3. Land (2015). "Reading and the orthography of isiZulu". South African Journal of African Languages (35:2): 163–175. DOI:10.1080/02572117.2015.1113000. 
  4. van Niekerk (2016-02-08). Indigenous alphabet on the cards for SA. City Press (South Africa). Archived from the original on 2021-07-14.
  5. "Update on Usage and Implementation Status of African Scripts." Unicode, Inc. 8 September 2023. Retrieved 5 February 2023. p. 6.
  6. isibheqe.org (2015). Isibheqe Sohlamvu/Ditema tsa Dinoko. isibheqe.org. Archived from the original on 2016-02-08. Retrieved on 2016-09-11.
  7. Ingcazo. isibheqe.org. Archived from the original on 2018-10-16. Retrieved on 2016-09-11.

Njikọ mpụga[dezie | dezie ebe o si]