Ike na-adịgide adịgide

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Ike na-adịgide adịgide gụnyere ịba ụba mmepụta nke ume ọhụrụ, ime ka ike dị nchebe dị n'ụwa nile, na nchekwa ike. Si n'elu aka ekpe gaa n'aka nri: Ike anyanwụ gbadoro anya na nchekwa ọkụ nnu gbazere na Spain, ike ikuku na South Africa, ụgbọ njem ọha na-enye ọkụ na Singapore, na isi nri dị ọcha na Etiopia.

Ike na- adigide ma ọ bụrụ na ọ "na-egbo mkpa nke ugbu a n'emebighị ikike nke ọgbọ n'ọdịnihu iji gboo mkpa nke onwe ha". [1] Ọtụtụ nkọwa nke ike na-adigide gụnyere nleba anya n'akụkụ gburugburu ebe obibi dị ka ikuku ikuku griin haus na akụkụ mmekọrịta ọha na eze na nke akụ na ụba dị ka ịda ogbenye ike . Isi mmalite ume ọhụrụ dị ka ifufe, ike mmiri ọkụ, anyanwụ, name ike geothermal na-enwekarị nkwado karịa isi mmalite mmanụ ọkụ. Otú ọ dị, ụfọdụ ọrụ ike mmeghari ohuru, dị ka ikpochapụ oke ohia iji mepụta biofuels, nwere ike ịkpata mmebi gburugburu ebe obibi. Ọrụ nke isi iyi ike na-adịghị emeghari na ume na-adigide bụ arụmụka. Ike nuklia bụ isi iyi carbon dị ala nke ọnụ ọgụgụ ọnwụ nke akụkọ ihe mere eme dị ka ikuku na anyanwụ, mana arụrịtara ụka maka ịdịgide ya n'ihi nchegbu gbasara ihe mkpofu redio, mmụba nuklia, na ihe mberede . Ịgbanwe site na kol gaa na gas sitere n'okike nwere uru gburugburu ebe obibi, gụnyere mmetụta ihu igwe dị ala, mana ọ nwere ike ibute igbu oge n'ịgbanwe na nhọrọ ndị ọzọ na-adigide. Enwere ike iwunye njide na nchekwa carbon n'ime ụlọ ọrụ ọkụ iji wepụ ikuku nke carbon dioxide ( CO ) ha, mana ọ dị oke ọnụ ma na-adịkarịghị etinye ya.

Mmanụ ọkụ fosil na-enye 85% nke oriri ike ụwa na usoro ike na-akpata 76% nke ikuku griin haus zuru ụwa ọnụ. Ihe dịka 790 nde mmadụ na mba ndị ka na -emepe emepe enweghị ọkụ eletrik na 2.6 ijeri na-adabere na mmanụ ndị na-emerụ emerụ dị ka osisi ma ọ bụ icheku esi nri. Mbelata ikuku ikuku griin na ọkwa kwekọrọ paris 2015 ga-achọ mgbanwe n'usoro nke ụzọ esi emepụta ike, kesaa, chekwaa na iri. Ọkụ nke mmanụ ọkụ na biomass bụ nnukwu ihe na-enye aka na mmetọ ikuku, nke na-ebute ihe dị ka . nde mmadụ na-anwụ kwa afọ. Ya mere, mgbanwe gaa na usoro ume nke obere carbon ga-enwe uru bara uru maka ahụike mmadụ. Ụzọ dị iji nye ohere zuru ụwa ọnụ iji nweta ọkụ eletrik na isi nri dị ọcha n'ụzọ kwekọrọ na ebumnuche ihu igwe, ebe ọ na-eweta nnukwu Uru a h na akụ na ụba na mba ndị ka na-emepe emepe.

N'ụzọ mbelata mgbanwe ihu igwe nke a tụrụ atụpụtara dabara na ịmachi okpomoku zuru ụwa ọnụ ka ọ bụrụ 2 Celsius C (3.6 °F), ụwa na-ewepụ ngwa ngwa ọkụ ọkụ na-agba ọkụ, na-emepụta ọkụ eletrik ọzọ site na isi mmalite dị ọcha dị ka ifufe na anyanwụ, na-atụgharị gaa n'iji ọkụ eletrik kama mmanụ ọkụ na mpaghara dịka ụgbọ njem na ụlọ ọkụ. Maka ụfọdụ teknụzụ na-agbasi ike ike na usoro ndị siri ike ịgbanye ọkụ, ọtụtụ ụzọ na-akọwa ọrụ na-eto eto maka mmanụ ọkụ hydrogen nke sitere na isi mmalite ike dị ala. Iji nabata oke oke nke ike mmeghari ohuru, grid eletrik chọrọ mgbanwe site na akụrụngwa dịka nchekwa ike . Iji mee ka mbelata miri emi nke ikuku, akụrụngwa na teknụzụ na-eji ike, dị ka ụlọ na usoro njem, ga-adị mkpa ka a gbanwee iji ụdị ike dị ọcha yana iji chekwaa ike . Teknụzụ ụfọdụ dị oke egwu maka ikpochapụ ikuku ikuku griin ha n'ike etobeghị.

Ikuku na ike anyanwụ mepụtara 8.5% nke ọkụ eletrik zuru ụwa ọnụ na 2019. òkè a toro ngwa ngwa mgbe ọnụ ahịa na-adaba ma na-atụ anya na ọ ga-aga n'ihu na-ada. Òtù Na-ahụ Maka Ọchịchị Na- ahụ Maka Mgbanwe ihu igwe(IPCC) na-eme atụmatụ na 2.5% nke ngwaahịa ụlọ zuru ụwa ọnụ (GDP) ga-achọ itinye ego na usoro ike kwa afọ n'etiti 2016 na 2035 iji gbochie okpomọkụ ụwa na 1.5 . . Atumatu gọọmentị ahaziri nke ọma nke na-akwalite mgbanwe usoro ike nwere ike belata ikuku ikuku griin ma melite ogo ikuku. N'ọtụtụ ọnọdụ, ha na-abawanye nchebe ike . Amụma a na-abịaru nso gụnyere ọnụahịa carbon, ụkpụrụ Pọtụfoliyo a na-emegharịgharị, nkwụsị nke enyemaka mmanụ ọkụ, na mmepe nke akụrụngwa iji kwado ọkụ eletrik na njem na-adigide. Ịnye ego nyocha, mmepe na ngosipụta nke teknụzụ ume ọhụrụ dị ọcha bụkwa ọrụ dị mkpa nke gọọmentị.

Nkọwa na ndabere[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Nkọwa[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Òtù Mba Ndị Dị n'Otu Brundtland kọwapụtara echiche nke mmepe na-adigide, nke ike bụ isi ihe dị mkpa, na akụkọ 1987 anyị na-eme n'ọdịnihu . Ọ kọwara mmepe na-adigide dị ka igbo mkpa nke ugbu a na-emebighị ikike nke ọgbọ na-abịa n'ihu iji gboo mkpa nke ha. [1] A kọwapụtala nkọwapụta nke mmepe na-adigide n'ọtụtụ nkọwa na nkọwa nke ike na-adigide [1] [4]

Ọ nweghị otu nkọwa ka echiche nke nkwado siri metụta ike enwetala nnabata zuru ụwa ọnụ. Nkọwa ọrụ nke ike na-adigide gụnyere ọtụtụ akụkụ nke nkwado dị ka gburugburu ebe obibi, akụ na ụba, na ọha mmadụ. N'akụkọ ihe mere eme, echiche nke mmepe ike na-adịgide adịgide lekwasịrị anya na ikuku na nchekwa ike . Kemgbe mmalite 1990s, echiche a agbasawanyela iji gbasaa okwu gbasara ọha na eze na akụnụba. [2]

Akụkụ gburugburu ebe obibi nke nkwado na-agụnye ikuku ikuku griin haus, mmetụta na ihe dị iche iche dị iche iche na gburugburu ebe obibi, ihe mkpofu dị ize ndụ na nsị nsị, oriri mmiri, [8] na mmebi nke ihe ndị na-adịghị emeghari. A na-akpọ isi iyi ike nwere mmetụta gburugburu ebe obibi dị ala mgbe ụfọdụ ike ndụ ndụ ma ọ bụ ike dị ọcha . Akụkụ akụ na ụba nke nkwado na-ekpuchi mmepe akụ na ụba, iji ike eme ihe nke ọma, na nchekwa ume iji hụ na obodo ọ bụla na-enweta ike zuru oke mgbe niile. [3] [10] Okwu gbasara mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya gụnyere ịnweta ike dị ọnụ ala na nke a pụrụ ịdabere na ya maka mmadụ niile, ikike ndị ọrụ, na ikike ala.

Mmetụta gburugburu ebe obibi[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Photograph of a woman carrying firewood she has gathered on her head
Otu nwanyị bi n'ime ime obodo Rajasthan, India, na-anakọta nkụ. Iji osisi na ihe ndị ọzọ na-emetọ ihe e ji esi nri na-akpata ọtụtụ nde mmadụ na-anwụ kwa afọ n'ihi mmetọ ikuku nke ime ụlọ na n'èzí .

Usoro ike dị ugbu a na-enye aka na ọtụtụ nsogbu gburugburu ebe obibi, gụnyere mgbanwe ihu igwe, mmetọ ikuku, mfu nke ụdị ndụ dị iche iche, ntọhapụ nke nsị na gburugburu ebe obibi, na ụkọ mmiri. Dị ka nke 2019, 85% nke mkpa ike ụwa na-egbo site na mmanụ ọkụ na-ere ọkụ. [11] Mmepụta na oriri ume bụ maka 76% nke ikuku ikuku griin ha na-eme kwa afọ dịka nke 2018. [4] [5] Nkwekorita onu Paris mba ụwa nke afọ 2015 maka mgbanwe ihu igwe na-achọ igbochi okpomoku zuru ụwa ọnụ n'okpuru 2 Celsius C (3.6 Celsius F) na ọkachamma ka 1.5 Celsius C (2.7 Celsius F); irute ebumnobi a ga-achọ ka e wedata ikuku ikuku ozugbo enwere ike wee rute net-zero n'etiti narị afọ. [6]

Ọkụ nke mmanụ ọkụ na biomass bụ isi ihe na-ebute mmetọ ikuku, [7] [8] nke na-ebute atụmatụ 7. nde mmadụ na-anwụ kwa afọ. [9] Ọkụ mmanụ ọkụ na-ere ọkụ n'ụlọ ọrụ ike, ụgbọ ala, na ụlọ ọrụ mmepụta ihe bụ isi ihe na-emepụta ikuku na-ejikọta ya na ikuku oxygen na ikuku na-ebute mmiri ozuzo acid . [10] Mmetọ ikuku bụ ihe nke abụọ na-ebute ọnwụ site na ọrịa na-anaghị efe efe. [19] Ihe dị ka 99% nke ndị bi n'ụwa na-ebi na ọkwa mmetọ ikuku gafere oke nke Òtù Ahụ Ike Ụwa tụrụ aro. [11]

Iji mmanụ emetọ emetọ nri dị ka osisi, nsị anụ,kol ma ọ bụ mmanụ ọkụ na-akpata ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ mmetọ ikuku niile n'ime ụlọ, nke na-ebute ihe dị ka 1.6 ruo 3.8. nde mmadụ na-anwụ kwa afọ, [12] [19] ma na-enyekwa aka nke ukwuu na mmetọ ikuku n'èzí. [22] Mmetụta ahụike gbadoro ụkwụ n'etiti ụmụ nwanyị, ndị nwere ike bụrụ ọrụ maka isi nri, na ụmụaka. [22]

Mmetụta gburugburu ebe obibi na-agafe karịa ihe ndị sitere na ikuku nke carbon dioxide. Mmanụ na-awụfu n'oké osimiri na-emerụ ndụ mmiri ma nwee ike bute ọkụ na-ahapụ ihe ndị na-egbu egbu. [23] Ihe dị ka 10% nke mmiri zuru ụwa ọnụ na-aga maka mmepụta ume, tumadi maka oyi na osisi ike ọkụ. Na mpaghara akọrọ, nke a na -ebute ụkọ mmiri . Mmepụta bioeneji, ngwupụta kul na nhazi, na mpụta mmanụ na-achọkwa nnukwu mmiri. [24] Ịwebiga ihe ókè nke osisi na ihe ndị ọzọ a pụrụ ire ọkụ maka ọkụ nwere ike ịkpata mmebi gburugburu ebe obibi dị egwu, gụnyere ọzara . [25]

N'afọ 2021, UNECE bipụtara nyocha nke ndụ ndụ nke mmetụta gburugburu ebe obibi nke ọtụtụ teknụzụ ọgbọ eletrik, na-aza ajụjụ ndị a: iji akụ (mineral, metals); eji ala; iji ihe onwunwe (fossils); eji mmiri eme ihe; obere ihe; nhazi nke ozone fotokemikal; ozone mmebi; nsị mmadụ (na-abụghị ọrịa kansa); ionizing radieshon; nsị mmadụ (cancer); utrofikeshio (terrestrial, mmiri, mmiri ọhụrụ); ecotoxicity (mmiri ọhụrụ); acidfikeshio; mgbanwe ihu igwe.

Ebumnuche mmepe na-adigide[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Map of people with access to energy. Lack of access is most pronounced in India, Sub-Saharan Africa and South-East Asia.
Map ụwa gosiri ebe ndị mmadụ na-enweghị ọkụ eletrik bi n’afọ 2016—karịsịa n’ebe ndịda Sahara Africa nakwa n’okpuru kọntinent India.

Izute mkpa ume dị ugbu a na nke ga-eme n'ọdịnihu n'ụzọ na-adịgide adịgide bụ ihe ịma aka dị oke mkpa maka ebumnuche zuru ụwa ọnụ nke igbochi mgbanwe ihu igwe na-ejigide ọganihu akụ na ụba na ime ka ụkpụrụ ndụ bilie. [13] Ike ntụkwasị obi na nke dị ọnụ ala, karịsịa ọkụ eletrik, dị mkpa maka nlekọta ahụike, agụmakwụkwọ, na mmepe akụ na ụba. [28] Dị ka nke 2020, 790 nde mmadụ na mba ndị ka na-emepe emepe enweghị ọkụ eletrik, na gburugburu 2.6 ijeri na-adabere na mmanụ ndị na-emetọ ihe na-ere ọkụ maka isi nri. [14] [30]

Imewanye ohere ike na mba ndị mepere emepe na ime ka ike dị ọcha bụ isi ihe iji nweta ọtụtụ ebumnuche United Nations 2030 Sustainable Development Goals nke na-ekpuchi okwu sitere na omume ihu igwe ruo nha anya nwoke . Sustainable Development Goal 7 na-akpọ maka "ịnweta ike dị ọnụ ala, ntụkwasị obi, nkwado na ume ọgbara ọhụrụ maka mmadụ niile", gụnyere ịnweta ọkụ eletrik zuru ụwa ọnụ yana ikpocha ụlọ nri site na 2030. [15]

Nchekwa ike[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Countries such as the US and Canada use twice as much energy per capita as Japan or western Europe, and 100 times as much commercial energy per capita as some African countries.
Global energy usage is highly unequal. High income countries such as the United States and Canada use 100 times as much energy per capita as some of the least developed countries in Africa.[16]

Ịrụ ike ike-iji obere ume na-ebuga otu ngwa ahịa ma ọ bụ ọrụ, ma ọ bụ ibuga ọrụ ndị yiri ya na obere ngwongwo - bụ isi nkuku nke ọtụtụ atụmatụ ike na-adigide. [17] [18] International Energy Agency (IEA) ekwuola na ịba ụba ike ike nwere ike nweta 40% nke mbelata ikuku griin ha chọrọ iji mezuo ebumnuche nkwekọrịta Paris. [19]

Enwere ike ichekwa ike site n'ịbawanye arụmọrụ teknụzụ nke ngwa ngwa, ụgbọ ala, usoro mmepụta ihe, na ụlọ. [20] Ụzọ ọzọ bụ iji ihe ndị dị nta nke mmepụta ha chọrọ ike dị ukwuu, dịka ọmụmaatụ site na nhazi ụlọ dị mma na imegharị ihe. Mgbanwe omume dị ka iji mkparịta ụka vidiyo karịa ụgbọ elu azụmahịa, ma ọ bụ ime njem obodo site na ịgba ígwè, ije ije ma ọ bụ njem ọha kama iji ụgbọ ala, bụ ụzọ ọzọ isi chekwaa ike. [38] Atumatu gọọmentị iji kwalite arụmọrụ nwere ike ịgụnye koodu ụlọ, ụkpụrụ arụmọrụ, ọnụahịa carbon, na mmepe nke akụrụngwa na-arụ ọrụ ike iji kwalite mgbanwe n'ụdị njem . [38] [21]

ike nke akụ na ụba ụwa (ọnụọgụ ike a na-eri kwa nkeji nke nnukwu ngwaahịa ụlọ (GDP)) bụ ihe ngosi siri ike nke ike ike nke mmepụta akụ na ụba. [40] Na 2010, ike ike zuru ụwa ọnụ bụ 5.6 megajoules (1.6 kWh ) kwa dollar US nke GDP. [40] United Nations na-akpọ maka ike ike ka ọ belata site na 2.6% kwa afọ n'etiti 2010 na 2030. [41] N'ime afọ ndị na-adịbeghị anya emezubeghị ebumnuche a. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, n'etiti 2017 na 2018, ike ike belatara naanị 1.1%. [41] Nkwalite arụmọrụ na-ebutekarị mmetụta nlọghachi nke ndị na-azụ ahịa na-eji ego ha na-echekwa zụta ngwaahịa na ọrụ ndị na-agba ume. [22] Dịka ọmụmaatụ, nkwalite arụmọrụ teknụzụ na nso nso a na njem na ụlọ emebiela nke ukwuu site na omume ndị ahịa, dị ka ịzụrụ ụgbọ ala na ụlọ buru ibu. [23]

Isi mmalite ike na-adịgide adịgide[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Isi mmalite ike anaghị emeghari ohuru[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Graph showing the expansion of wind and solar renewable energy capacity from 2011 to 2020
Uto nke mmeghari ohuru bu 45% buru ibu na 2020 ma e jiri ya tụnyere 2019, gụnyere ịrị elu 90% na mgbakwunye ikike ikuku zuru ụwa ọnụ (acha ndụ ndụ) yana mgbasawanye 23% nke nrụnye fotovoltaic ọhụrụ nke anyanwụ (edo edo). [24]

Isi mmalite nke ume ọhụrụ dị mkpa maka ike na-adigide, ebe ọ bụ na ha na-ewusi nchekwa ike ike ma na-ebunye ikuku griin dị ntakịrị karịa mmanụ ọkụ . [45] Ọrụ ume ọhụrụ na-ebuli mgbe ụfọdụ nchegbu nkwado dị ukwuu, dị ka ihe egwu dị na ụdị ndụ dị iche iche mgbe a na-atụgharị mpaghara uru gburugburu ebe obibi dị elu na mmepụta bioenergy ma ọ bụ ikuku ma ọ bụ ugbo anyanwụ. [25] [26]

Mmiri mmiri bụ isi iyi ọkụ eletrik kachasị ukwuu ebe ike anyanwụ na ikuku na-eto ngwa ngwa. Igwe ọkụ fotovoltaic na ikuku dị n'ikpere mmiri bụ ụdị dị ọnụ ala nke ike nrụpụta ike ọhụrụ n'ọtụtụ mba. [27] Maka ihe karịrị ọkara nke 770 nde mmadụ ndị na-enwetaghị ọkụ eletrik ugbu a, ike mmeghari ume ọhụrụ dị ka obere grids na-enweta anyanwụ nwere ike bụrụ ụzọ dị ọnụ ala iji nye ya n'afọ 2030. [28] Ebumnuche United Nations maka 2030 gụnyere ịba ụba nke ukwuu nke ike mmeghari ume na ike na-enye ụwa. [15]

Anyanwụ[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

long rows of dark panels, sloped about 45 degrees at the height of a person, stretch into the distance in bright sunshine
Ọdụ ọkụ fotovoltaic dị na California, United States

Anyanwụ bụ isi iyi ike dị n'ụwa, akụrụngwa dị ọcha na nke ukwuu n'ọtụtụ mpaghara. [51] Na 2019, ike anyanwụ nyere ihe dị ka 3% nke ọkụ eletrik zuru ụwa ọnụ, [29] na-abụkarị site na mbara igwe dabere na sel fotovoltaic (PV). A na-etinye ogwe ndị ahụ n'elu ụlọ ma ọ bụ tinye ya na ogige ntụrụndụ nke anyanwụ na-arụ ọrụ. Ọnụ ego nke mkpụrụ ndụ fotovoltaic nke anyanwụ agbadala ngwa ngwa, na-ebute uto siri ike na ikike zuru ụwa ọnụ. [53] Ọnụ ọkụ eletrik sitere n'ugbo anyanwụ ọhụrụ na-asọmpi ma ọ bụ n'ọtụtụ ebe, dị ọnụ ala karịa ọkụ eletrik sitere na ụlọ ọrụ coal dị ugbu a. [30] Atụmatụ dị iche iche nke iji ike eme ihe n'ọdịnihu na-achọpụta PV anyanwụ dị ka otu n'ime isi mmalite nke ọgbọ ike na ngwakọta na-adịgide adịgide. [31] [56]

Ọtụtụ ihe ndị dị na mbara igwe nwere ike ịmegharị ngwa ngwa, mana nke a anaghị eme mgbe niile na enweghị iwu. [32] Panels na-enwekarị ọla dị arọ, yabụ na ha na-ebute ihe egwu gburugburu ebe obibi ma ọ bụrụ na etinye ya na ebe a na- ekpofu ahịhịa . [33] Ọ na-ewe ihe na-erughị afọ abụọ maka igwe anyanwụ na-emepụta ike dị ka ejiri mee ya. A na-achọ obere ume ma ọ bụrụ na a na-emegharị ihe kama igwupụta ya. [34]

Na ike anyanwụ gbadoro anya, ụzarị anyanwụ na-etinye uche na mpaghara enyo, na-ekpo ọkụ mmiri. A na-emepụta ọkụ eletrik site na uzuoku nke na-esi na ya pụta na engini okpomọkụ . Ike anyanwụ gbadoro anya nwere ike ịkwado ọgbọ ike a na-ebugharị, dịka a na-echekwa ụfọdụ ọkụ iji mee ka ọkụ eletrik pụta mgbe ọ dị mkpa. [60] [35] Na mgbakwunye na mmepụta ọkụ eletrik, a na-eji ike anyanwụ eme ihe ozugbo; A na-eji usoro ikpo ọkụ ọkụ nke anyanwụ na -emepụta mmiri ọkụ, ụlọ ọkụ, ihicha, na nsị. [62]

Wind power[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Photograph of wind turbines against a hazy orange sky
Ụgbọ mmiri ikuku na Xinjiang, China

Ifufe abụrụla ihe dị mkpa na-emepe emepe kemgbe ọtụtụ puku afọ, na-enye ike maka usoro mmepụta ihe, nfuli mmiri, na ụgbọ mmiri. [63] A na-eji igwe ikuku ikuku nke oge a na-emepụta ọkụ eletrik wee nye ihe dịka 6% nke ọkụ eletrik zuru ụwa ọnụ na 2019. [29] Ọkụ eletrik sitere n'ugbo ikuku dị n'ikpere mmiri na-adịkarị ọnụ ala karịa ụlọ ọrụ coal dị ugbu a yana asọmpi na gas sitere n'okike na nuklia. [30] Enwere ike itinye igwe ikuku ikuku n'akụkụ oke osimiri, ebe ikuku na-esiwanye ike ma sie ike karịa ala mana ọnụ ahịa ihe owuwu na mmezi dị elu. [36]

Ugbo ikuku nke dị n'ikpere mmiri, nke a na-ewukarị n'ime ọhịa ma ọ bụ n'ime ime obodo, na-enwe mmetụta a na-ahụ anya na odida obodo. [65] Ọ bụ ezie na nkukota na turbine ikuku na-egbu ma ụsụ ma ruo n'ókè nnụnụ dị nta, mmetụta ndị a dị ala karịa site na akụrụngwa ndị ọzọ dị ka windo na ahịrị nnyefe . [37] [67] Mkpọtụ na ọkụ na-egbuke egbuke nke turbines na-emepụta nwere ike ịkpata iwe na ịmachibido iwu ụlọ n'akụkụ ebe ndị mmadụ juru. Ike ikuku, n'adịghị ka ụlọ ọrụ nuklia na mmanụ ọkụ, anaghị eri mmiri. [68] Obere ike dị mkpa maka ịrụ turbine ikuku ma e jiri ya tụnyere ike nke ụlọ ọrụ ikuku na-emepụta n'onwe ya. [38] A naghị emegharị agụba turbine n'ụzọ zuru ezu, nyocha n'ime usoro nke imepụta agụba dị mfe iji megharịa ka na-aga n'ihu. [39]

Ike mmiri[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

a river flows smoothly from rectangular openings at the base of a high sloping concrete wall, with electricity wires above the river
Guri Dam, mmiri mmiri ọkụ na Venezuela

Ụlọ ọrụ eletrik na-agbanwe ike nke ịkwaga mmiri na ọkụ eletrik. N'afọ 2020, ike mmiri wetara 17% nke ọkụ eletrik ụwa, gbadata site na elu nke ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ 20% n'etiti etiti narị afọ nke 20. [71] [72]

Na ike mmiri mmiri, a na-emepụta mmiri mmiri n'azụ mmiri mmiri. Ụlọ ọrụ ike mmiri nke oge ochie na-enye ọkụ eletrik na-agbanwe nke ukwuu, nke a na-ebugharị. Enwere ike ijikọ ha na ikuku na ike anyanwụ iji zute ọnụ ọgụgụ dị elu nke a na-achọ na iji kwụọ ụgwọ mgbe ifufe na anyanwụ adịghị adị. [40]

Tụnyere akụrụngwa dabere na mmiri mmiri, ọkụ eletrik na-agba ọsọ nke osimiri na-enwekarị mmetụta gburugburu ebe obibi pere mpe. Agbanyeghị, ikike ya imepụta ike dabere na oke osimiri, nke nwere ike ịdịgasị iche na ihu igwe kwa ụbọchị na nke oge. Ebe nchekwa nchekwa na-enye njikwa oke mmiri nke a na-eji maka njikwa ide mmiri na mmepụta ọkụ eletrik na-agbanwe ma na-echekwa nchekwa n'oge ụkọ mmiri ozuzo maka inye mmiri ọṅụṅụ na ịgba mmiri.

teisk.[40]

Geothermal[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

3 enormous waisted vertical concrete cylinders, one emitting a wisp of steam, dwarf a building in the foreground
Ụlọ elu jụrụ oyi na ụlọ ọrụ ọkụ geothermal na Larderello, Italy

A na-emepụta ike geothermal site na ịbanye n'ime okpomọkụ dị n'okpuru ala [41] na iji ya mee ka ọkụ eletrik ma ọ bụ ikpo ọkụ na mmiri na ụlọ. Ojiji nke geothermal ike na-etinye uche na mpaghara ebe ikpo ọkụ na-ekpo ọkụ na-eme ka ọ dị mma: a chọrọ nchikota nke okpomọkụ dị elu, ọkụ ọkụ, na permeability (ikike nke nkume na-ekwe ka mmiri na-agafe). [78] A na-emepụta ike site na uzuoku a na-emepụta n'ime ọdọ mmiri dị n'okpuru ala. [42] Ike geothermal nyere ihe na-erughị 1% nke oriri ike zuru ụwa ọnụ na 2020. [43]

Ike geothermal bụ akụrụngwa enwere ike imeghari n'ihi na a na-ejuputa ike ọkụ mgbe niile site na mpaghara ọkụ gbara agbata obi yana ire ere redio nke isotopes na-emekarị . [81] Na nkezi, ikuku griin haus nke ọkụ eletrik sitere na geothermal erughị 5% nke ọkụ eletrik sitere na kol. Ike geothermal na-ebu ihe ize ndụ nke ịkpata ala ọma jijiji, chọrọ nchebe dị mma iji zere mmetọ mmiri, ma na-ewepụta ihe ndị na-egbu egbu nke enwere ike ijide. [82]

Nri ike[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Man lighting a lamp hung from the ceiling
Onye ọrụ ugbo ala Kenya na-amụnye oriọna biogas. Biogas sitere na biomass bụ isi iyi ume ọhụrụ nke enwere ike ịgba ọkụ maka isi nri ma ọ bụ ọkụ.
A green field of plants looking like metre high grass, surrounded by woodland with urban buildings on the far horizon
Osisi okpete na-emepụta ethanol na Brazil

Biomass bụ ihe a na-emegharị ahụ nke sitere na osisi na anụmanụ. [44] Enwere ike ịgba ya ọkụ iji mepụta ọkụ na ọkụ eletrik ma ọ bụ gbanwee ya ka ọ bụrụ mmanụ mmanụ dị ka biodiesel na ethanol, nke a pụrụ iji mee ka ụgbọ ala na-arụ ọrụ. [45] [46]

Mmetụta ihu igwe nke bioenergy dịgasị iche iche dabere na ebe nri nri biomass si abịa yana ka esi eto ha. [47] Dịka ọmụmaatụ, osisi na-ere ọkụ maka ume na-ahapụ carbon dioxide; Enwere ike imebi ihe ọkụkụ ndị ahụ ma ọ bụrụ na ejiri osisi ọhụrụ dochie osisi ndị a na-egbute n'ime ọhịa a na-ejikwa nke ọma, n'ihi na osisi ọhụrụ ahụ ga-amịkọrọ carbon dioxide site na ikuku ka ha na-etolite. [48] Otú ọ dị, nguzobe na ịkụ ihe ọkụkụ nke bioenergy nwere ike ịchụpụ ihe ndị e kere eke, mebie ala, na iri ihe mmiri na fatịlaịza sịntetik. [88] [89] A na-egbute ihe dị ka otu ụzọ n'ụzọ atọ nke osisi niile a na-eji mmanụ ọkụ. [90] Akụrụngwa bioenergy na-achọkarị ike dị ukwuu maka iwe ihe ubi, nkụ, na ibufe; ojiji ike maka usoro ndị a nwere ike ibunye ikuku ikuku. N'ọnọdụ ụfọdụ, mmetụta nke mgbanwe iji ala eme ihe, ịkụ ihe, na nhazi nwere ike ime ka ikuku carbon dị elu maka bioenergy dị elu ma e jiri ya tụnyere iji mmanụ ọkụ. [89] [91]

Iji ala ugbo eme ihe na-eto biomass nwere ike ime ka enwere obere ala maka itolite nri . Na United States, ihe dị ka 10% nke mmanụ ụgbọala ejirila ethanol dabeere ọka dochie anya mmanụ ụgbọala, nke chọrọ oke dị ukwuu nke owuwe ihe ubi. [49] [50] Na Malaysia na Indonesia, ikpochapụ oke ohia na-emepụta nkwụ mmanụ maka biodiesel emewo ka oké njọ na-elekọta mmadụ na gburugburu ebe obibi mmetụta, dị ka ọhịa ndị a dị oké egwu carbon sinks na ebe obibi maka iche iche ụdị. [51] [52] Ebe ọ bụ na photosynthesis na-eweghara nanị ntakịrị akụkụ nke ume n'ime ìhè anyanwụ, imepụta oke ike nke bioenergy chọrọ nnukwu ala ma e jiri ya tụnyere isi mmalite ndị ọzọ nwere ike imeghari. [96]

Ọgbọ biofuels nke ọgbọ nke abụọ nke a na-emepụta site na osisi na-abụghị nri ma ọ bụ ihe mkpofu na-ebelata asọmpi na mmepụta nri, mana nwere ike inwe mmetụta ọjọọ ndị ọzọ gụnyere ahia ahia na mpaghara nchekwa na mmetọ ikuku nke mpaghara. [47] Isi mmalite biomass na-adịte aka gụnyere algae, mkpofu na ihe ọkụkụ ndị a kụrụ n'ala na-adabaghị maka mmepụta nri. [47] Ọ bụrụ na isi iyi biomass bụ ihe mkpofu ugbo ma ọ bụ nke ime obodo, ọkụ ya ma ọ bụ ịtụgharị ya ka ọ bụrụ gas na-enye ụzọ isi kpofuo ihe mkpofu a. [88]

Enwere ike iji njide carbon na teknụzụ nchekwa iji weghara ikuku sitere na ụlọ ọrụ ike bioenergy. A maara usoro a dị ka bioenergy na carbon ijide na nchekwa (BECCS) ma nwee ike ịkpata mwepụ carbon dioxide ụgbụ na ikuku. Agbanyeghị, BECCS nwekwara ike bute ikuku dị mma dabere n'otú e si eto, wepụta, na ibuga ihe biomass. Nkwanye nke BECCS na akpịrịkpa akọwara n'ụfọdụ ụzọ mbelata mgbanwe ihu igwe ga-achọ ịtụgharị nnukwu ihe ọkụkụ. [97]

Ike mmiri[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ike mmiri nwere nke kacha nta n'ahịa ike. Ọ na-agụnye ike tidal, nke na-eru nso ntozu, na ike ife, bụ nke mbụ na mmepe ya. Usoro ụgbọ mmiri abụọ dị na France na na South Korea bụ 90% nke mmepụta ụwa. Ọ bụ ezie na otu ngwaọrụ ike mmiri na-enwe ntakịrị ihe ize ndụ na gburugburu ebe obibi, mmetụta nke ngwaọrụ ndị buru ibu na-amachaghị nke ọma. [98]

Isi mmalite ike anaghị emeghari ohuru[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Mgbanwe mmanụ ọkụ fosil na mbelata[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ịgbanwe site na coal gaa na gas nwere uru n'ihe gbasara nkwado. Maka otu akụkụ nke ike a na-emepụta, ikuku ikuku griin haus-gas nke gas sitere n'okike dị ihe dị ka ugboro iri ato nke ikuku ma ọ bụ ike nuklia mana ọ dị obere karịa kol. Gas sitere n'okike na-emepụta ihe dị ka ọkara ihe ọkụkụ nke coal mgbe ejiri ya na-emepụta ọkụ eletrik na ihe dịka ụzọ abụọ n'ụzọ atọ nke coal mgbe ejiri ya na-emepụta okpomọkụ. Mbelata ntapu methane na usoro ịwepụta na ibufe gas nwere ike ibelata mmetụta ihu igwe ya. [53] Gas sitere n'okike na-emepụta mmetọ ikuku dị obere karịa kol. [54]

Ịgbanwe site na coal gaa na gas sitere n'okike na-ebelatihe ọkụkụ n'ime obere oge, mana n'ime ogologo oge ọ naghị enye ụzọ maka ikuku net-efu .nmebe eke gas akụrụngwa ize ndụ carbon mkpọchi-in na stranded akụ, ebe ọhụrụ fossil akụrụngwa ma na-eme ka ọtụtụ iri afọ nke carbon anwuru, ma ọ bụ ga-edepụ tupu ya rite uru. [55] [56]

Enwere ike ibelata ikuku ikuku griin haus nke mmanụ ọkụ na ụlọ ọrụ ike biomass site na ijide carbon na nchekwa (CCS). Ọtụtụ ọmụmụ na-eji echiche na-arụ ọrụ na CCS nwere ike ijide 85-90% nke carbon dioxide ( CO ) na-esi na ụlọ ọrụ ọkụ. [57] [58] Ọbụna ma ọ bụrụ na 90% nke CO a na-ebupụta na-ejide site na ụlọ ọrụ ọkụ ọkụ, ihe ọkụkụ ya na-enweghị ike ka ga-adị ọtụtụ ugboro karịa ikuku nke nuklia, ike anyanwụ ma ọ bụ ikuku nke otu unit nke ọkụ eletrik emepụtara. [59] [60] Ebe ọ bụ na osisi coal na-eji CCS eme ihe agaghị adị nke ọma, ha ga-achọkwu coal ma si otú a na-abawanye mmetọ nke metụtara Ngwuputa na ibufe coal. [107] Usoro CCS dị oke ọnụ, yana ọnụ ahịa dabere n'ụzọ dị ukwuu na nso ebe ahụ na geology kwesịrị ekwesị maka nchekwa carbon dioxide . [61] [62] Nbunye nke teknụzụ a ka nwere oke oke, yana naanị 21 nnukwu osisi CCS na-arụ ọrụ n'ụwa niile dịka nke 2020. [63]

Ike nuklia[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Chart showing the proportion of electricity produced by fossil fuels, nuclear, and renewables from 1985 to 2020
Kemgbe 1985, oke ọkụ eletrik sitere na isi mmalite carbon dị ala amụbaala ntakịrị. Ọganihu ndị a na-ebuga ihe ndị a na-emegharị emegharị emebiela site na mbelata oke ike nuklia. [64]

Ejila ike nuklia kemgbe 1950s dị ka isi iyi carbon dị ala nke ọkụ eletrik baseload . [65] Ụlọ ọrụ ike nuklia na mba 30 na-emepụta ihe dịka 10% nke ọkụ eletrik zuru ụwa ọnụ. [66] Dị ka nke 2019, nuklia mepụtara ihe karịrị otu ụzọ n'ụzọ anọ nke ike carbon niile dị ala, na-eme ka ọ bụrụ isi iyi nke abụọ kachasị ukwuu na-esote ike mmiri. [43]

Ike ikuku ikuku ikuku griin ha na ndụ ndụ ike nuklia—gụnyere ngwuputa na nhazi nke uranium —yiri ihe na-esi na isi mmalite ike mmeghari ohuru. Ike nuklia na-eji obere ala kwa nkeji ike emepụtara, ma e jiri ya tụnyere ihe ndị bụ isi emeghari, [67] na anaghị emepụta mmetọ ikuku nke mpaghara. [68] Ọ bụ ezie na ígwè uranium a na-eji amụba osisi fission nuklia bụ ihe a na-apụghị imegharịgharịgharị, nke ga-ezuru ya iji nye ya ruo ọtụtụ narị puku afọ ruo ọtụtụ puku afọ. [117] Otú ọ dị, akụrụngwa uranium nke enwere ike ịnweta n'ụzọ akụ na ụba, na steeti ugbu a, nwere oke na mmepụta uranium enweghị ike ịnọgide na-aga n'ihu n'oge mgbasawanye. [69] Ụzọ mbelata mgbanwe ihu igwe kwekọrọ na ebumnuche ndị nwere oke na-ahụkarị mmụba nke ikenye sitere na nuklia. [120]

A na-arụrịta ụka banyere ma ike nuklia ọ̀ ga-adịgide adịgide, n'otu akụkụ n'ihi nchegbu banyere mkpofu ngwá agha nuklia, ịba ụba ngwá agha nuklia, na ihe mberede . A ghaghị ijikwa ihe mkpofu nuklia na-arụ ọrụ redio ruo ọtụtụ puku afọ na ụlọ ọrụ ike nuklia na-emepụta ihe fissile nke enwere ike iji maka ngwa agha. Maka akụkụ ume ọ bụla emepụtara, ike nuklia akpatala ọnwụ dị ntakịrị na mberede na mmetọ karịa mmanụ ọkụ, na ọnụ ọgụgụ ndị nwụrụ n'akụkọ ihe mere eme nke nuklia dị ka isi mmalite ndị enwere ike imeghari. [70] Mmegide ọha na eze megide ike nuklia na -emekarị ka ụlọ ọrụ nuklia sie ike itinye n'ọrụ ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị.

Mbelata oge na ọnụ ahịa nke iwu ụlọ ọrụ nuklia ọhụrụ bụ ihe mgbaru ọsọ ruo ọtụtụ iri afọ mana ọnụ ahịa na-adị elu yana ogologo oge. [71] [72] Ụdị ike nuklia ọhụrụ dị iche iche na-etolite, na-atụ anya ileba anya n'ihe ndọghachi azụ nke osisi ndị a na-emekarị. Ngwa ngwa breeder reactors bụ ike nke recycling nuklia n'efu na ya mere nwere ike budata ibelata ego nke n'efu na-achọ geological mkpofu, ma ọ bụghị ma e deployed on a nnukwu-ọnụ ọgụgụ azụmahịa ndabere. Ike nuklia dabere na thorium (kama uranium) nwere ike inye nchebe ike dị elu maka mba ndị na-enweghị nnukwu uranium. Obere reactors modular nwere ike inwe ọtụtụ uru karịa nnukwu reactors ugbu a: Ọ ga-ekwe omume iwulite ha ngwa ngwa yana modularization ha ga-enye ohere mbelata ọnụ ahịa site na mmụta site na ime .

Ọtụtụ mba na-anwa imepụta ihe nrụpụta ngwa agha nuklia, nke ga-ebute ntakịrị ihe mkpofu na enweghị ihe mgbawa. [73] Ọ bụ ezie na ike njikọ ewerela nzọụkwụ na-aga n'ihu na ụlọ nyocha, ọtụtụ afọ iri chọrọ iji weta ya na ịzụ ahịa na ọnụ ọgụgụ pụtara na ọ gaghị etinye aka na ihe mgbaru ọsọ efu 2050 maka mbelata mgbanwe ihu igwe. [74]

Ngbanwe usoro ike[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Energy-related emissions produced by sector in decreasing order: industry, land use, building, transport, other, and fugitive emissions from fossil fuel production
Iji ike eme ihe na ụlọ ọrụ kpatara 24.2% nke ikuku GHG niile na 2016. Ojiji ike n'ime ụlọ na njem butere 17.5% na 16.2% nke ihe ọkụkụ, n'otu n'otu. Pasent 9.5 ọzọ nke anapụta sitere na ojiji ike ndị ọzọ yana 5.8% bụ ihe mgbapụ sitere na mmepụta mmanụ ọkụ. [75]

Mbelata ihe ndị dị mkpa iji mee ka okpomoku zuru ụwa ọnụ dị n'okpuru 2 Celsius C ga-achọ mgbanwe n'usoro nke ụzọ e si emepụta ike, kesaa, chekwaa na iri. [11] Maka ọha mmadụ iji dochie otu ụdị ike na nke ọzọ, ọtụtụ teknụzụ na omume na usoro ike ga-agbanwerịrị. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, mgbanwe site na mmanụ gaa na ike anyanwụ dị ka isi iyi ike maka ụgbọ ala chọrọ ọgbọ nke ọkụ eletrik, mgbanwe na ọkụ eletrik iji nabata mgbanwe na mmepụta nke anyanwụ na ihe dị elu n'ozuzu ya, nnabata nke ụgbọ ala eletrik, na netwọk nke chaja ụgbọ ala eletrik . akụrụngwa na ụlọ ahịa ndozi. [131]

Ọtụtụ ụzọ mbelata mgbanwe ihu igwe na-ahụ maka akụkụ atọ bụ isi nke sistemụ ike carbon dị ala:

  • Iji isi mmalite ike na-emepụta ọkụ eletrik
  • Electrification - nke a na-abawanye iji ọkụ eletrik kama ọkụ ọkụ ọkụ ozugbo
  • Ntinye ngwa ngwa nke usoro nrụpụta ike [132]

Ụfọdụ teknụzụ na usoro na-agba ume siri ike ịgbanye ọkụ, gụnyere ụgbọ elu, mbupu na nchara. Enwere ọtụtụ nhọrọ maka ibelata ikuku sitere na ngalaba ndị a: mmanụ ọkụ biofuels na mmanụ ọkụ na-anọpụ iche nke carbon nwere ike ime ka ọtụtụ ụgbọ ala emebere iji gbaa mmanụ ọkụ, agbanyeghị, enweghị ike imepụta biofuels na oke achọrọ yana mmanụ sịntetik dị oke ọnụ ugbu a. [133] Maka ụfọdụ ngwa, ihe kacha pụta ìhè na electrification bụ ịmepụta usoro dabere na mmanụ ọkụ hydrogen na-adịgide adịgide. [76]

A na-atụ anya ka mkpochapụ zuru oke nke usoro ike ụwa ga-ewe ọtụtụ iri afọ ma enwere ike nweta ya site na teknụzụ ndị dị ugbu a. [135] IEA na-ekwu na ihe ọhụrụ ọhụrụ na mpaghara ike, dị ka teknụzụ batrị na mmanụ ọkụ na-anọghị na carbon, dị mkpa iji ruo 2050 net zero emissions. [136] Ịmepụta teknụzụ ọhụrụ chọrọ nyocha na mmepe, ngosi, na mbelata ọnụ ahịa site na ntinye . [136] Mgbanwe gaa na usoro ume carbon carbon ga-eweta uru siri ike maka ahụike mmadụ: Healthtù Ahụ Ike Worldwa na-eme atụmatụ na mbọ iji belata okpomoku zuru ụwa ọnụ na 1.5 Celsius C nwere ike ịzọpụta ọtụtụ nde ndụ kwa afọ site na mbelata gaa na mmetọ ikuku naanị. [137] [77] Site na ezigbo atụmatụ na njikwa, ụzọ dị adị iji nye ohere eletrik zuru ụwa ọnụ na isi nri dị ọcha site na 2030 n'ụzọ kwekọrọ na ebumnuche ihu igwe. [139] N'akụkọ ihe mere eme, ọtụtụ mba enwetala nnukwu akụ na ụba site na iji kol. [139] Otú ọ dị, a ka nwere windo ohere maka ọtụtụ mba na mpaghara ndị dara ogbenye " ịwụli elu " ndabere mmanụ ọkụ site na ịmepụta usoro ike ha dabere na mmeghari ohuru, nyere ego zuru oke nke mba ụwa na ịnyefe ihe ọmụma. [139]

Na-ejikọta isi iyi ike agbanwe agbanwe[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Short terraces of houses, with their entire sloping roofs covered with solar panels
Ụlọ ndị dị na ebe nchekwa anyanwụ na Schlierberg, Germany, na-emepụta ike karịa ka ha na-eri. Ha na-etinye ogwe ọkụ nke elu ụlọ ma wuo ya maka ịrụ ọrụ ike kachasị. [78]

Iji wepụta ọkụ eletrik a pụrụ ịdabere na ya site na isi mmalite ike mmeghari ohuru dị ka ikuku na anyanwụ, sistemu ọkụ eletrik chọrọ mgbanwe. [142] Ọtụtụ grid eletrik ka arụnyere maka isi mmalite ike na-adịghị akwụsị akwụsị dị ka ụlọ ọrụ ọkụ ọkụ. [79] Dị ka a na-ejikọta ọnụ ọgụgụ ka ukwuu nke ike anyanwụ na ikuku n'ime grid, a ghaghị ime mgbanwe na usoro ume iji hụ na ọkọnọ ọkụ eletrik kwekọrọ na ihe achọrọ. [80] N'afọ 2019, isi mmalite ndị a rụpụtara 8.5% nke ọkụ eletrik zuru ụwa ọnụ, òkè toro ngwa ngwa. [29]

Enwere ụzọ dị iche iche iji mee ka usoro ọkụ eletrik dịkwuo mfe. N'ọtụtụ ebe, ikuku na ọgbọ nke anyanwụ na-emekọ ihe kwa ụbọchị na ọnụ ọgụgụ nke oge: a na-enwekwu ikuku n'abalị na n'oge oyi mgbe mmepụta ike anyanwụ dị ntakịrị. [80] Ijikọ mpaghara mpaghara dị iche iche site na ahịrị nnyefe ogologo na- enye ohere ịkagbu n'ihu na mgbanwe. [145] Enwere ike gbanwee ọchịchọ ike n'oge site na njikwa ike ike na iji smart grids, na-adaba oge mgbe mmepụta ike na-agbanwe agbanwe dị elu. Site na nchekwa ike grid, ike emepụtara n'oke nwere ike hapụ ya mgbe achọrọ ya. [80] Enwere ike ịnye mgbanwe ndị ọzọ site na njikọta ngalaba, nke na-ejikọta mpaghara ọkụ eletrik na mpaghara okpomọkụ na njem site na ike-na-ekpo ọkụ - usoro na ụgbọ ala eletrik. [81]

Ịkwalite ikike maka ikuku na ọgbọ anyanwụ nwere ike inye aka hụ na a na-emepụta ọkụ eletrik zuru ezu ọbụna n'oge ihu igwe adịghị mma. N'ọnọdụ ihu igwe kachasị mma, enwere ike ibelata mmepụta ike ma ọ bụrụ na enweghị ike iji ma ọ bụ chekwaa oke ọkụ eletrik. Enwere ike kpuchiri ndakọrịta nke ikpeazụ-ịchọ site na iji isi mmalite ike dị ka ike mmiri, bioenergy, ma ọ bụ gas. [147]

Nchekwa ike[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Photo with a set of white containers
Ebe nchekwa batrị

Nchekwa ike na-enyere aka imeri ihe mgbochi na ike mmeghari ume na-adịte aka ma bụrụ akụkụ dị mkpa nke usoro ike na-adịgide adịgide. [82] Ụzọ nchekwa nke a na-ejikarị eme ihe bụ pumped-storage hydroelectricity, nke chọrọ ebe nwere nnukwu ọdịiche dị n'ịdị elu na ịnweta mmiri. [82] Batrị, ọkachasị batrị lithium-ion, na-agbasakwa ebe niile. [83] Batrị na-echekwa ọkụ eletrik maka obere oge; nyocha na-aga n'ihu na teknụzụ nwere ikike zuru oke iji na-aga n'oge. [84] Ọnụ ego batrị bara uru na US adaala gburugburu 70% kemgbe 2015, agbanyeghị ọnụ ahịa na ike dị ala nke batrị na-eme ka ha ghara ịdị irè maka nnukwu nchekwa ike dị mkpa iji dozie ọdịiche dị n'etiti oge na mmepụta ume. [85] A na-etinye nchekwa nchekwa mmiri na ike na gas (na-atụgharị ọkụ eletrik na gas na azụ) nke nwere ike iji ọtụtụ ọnwa mee ihe n'ebe ụfọdụ. [86] [87]

Electrification[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Photograph two fans, the outdoor section of a heat pump
Akụkụ dị n'èzí nke mgbapụta ọkụ . N'adịghị ka mmanụ ọkụ na gas, ha na-eji ọkụ eletrik ma na-arụ ọrụ nke ọma. Dị ka ndị dị otú ahụ, electrification nke kpo oku nwere ike ibelata umu anwuru. [88]

E jiri ya tụnyere usoro ike ndị ọzọ, enwere ike ibelata ikuku ọkụ ngwa ngwa na mpaghara ọkụ eletrik. [132] Dị ka nke 2019, 37% nke ọkụ eletrik zuru ụwa ọnụ na-esite na isi mmalite carbon dị ala (mmeghari ohuru na ike nuklia). Mmanụ ọkụ, nke bụ coal, na-emepụta ihe ndị ọzọ na-enye ọkụ eletrik. [89] Otu n'ime ụzọ kachasị mfe na ngwa ngwa iji belata ikuku gas na-ekpo ọkụ bụ ikpochapụ ụlọ ọrụ ọkụ na-agba ọkụ ma na-abawanye ọgbọ ọkụ eletrik. [132]

Ụzọ mbelata mgbanwe ihu igwe na-ahụ maka ọkụ eletrik dị ukwuu - iji ọkụ eletrik dochie anya ọkụ ọkụ ọkụ ọkụ maka ụlọ kpo oku na njem. [132] Amụma ihu igwe na-achọsi ike ga-ahụ ọnụọgụ ike okpukpu abụọ nke a na-eri dị ka ọkụ eletrik site na 2050, site na 20% na 2020. [156]

Otu n'ime ihe ịma aka dị n'inye ohere eletrik zuru ụwa ọnụ bụ ikesa ọkụ n'ime ime obodo. Sistemu ewepụ-grid na obere grid dabere na ike mmeghari ohuru, dị ka obere nrụnye PV nke anyanwụ na-emepụta ma chekwaa ọkụ eletrik zuru oke maka obodo, bụ ihe ngwọta dị mkpa. [157] Ị nweta ọkụ eletrik a pụrụ ịdabere na ya ga-eduga n'iji ọkụ ọkụ na mmanụ diesel eme ihe, bụ nke a na-emekarị ugbu a na mba ndị na-emepe emepe. [158]

Akụrụngwa maka ịmepụta na ịchekwa ọkụ eletrik na-emegharị ọhụrụ chọrọ mineral na ọla, dị ka cobalt na lithium maka batrị na ọla kọpa maka akụkụ anyanwụ. [90] Imegharị ihe nwere ike gboo ụfọdụ ihe a chọrọ ma ọ bụrụ na a haziri okirikiri ndụ ngwaahịa nke ọma, agbanyeghị na ịnweta ikuku efu ka ga-achọ mmụba dị ukwuu na ngwuputa ihe maka ụdị ọla na mineral iri na asaa. [90] Otu obere mba ma ọ bụ ụlọ ọrụ na-achịkwa ahịa mgbe ụfọdụ maka ngwa ahịa ndị a, na-ebuli nchegbu geopolitical. Dị ka ihe atụ, a na-egwupụta ihe ka ukwuu n'ime cobalt nke ụwa na Democratic Republic of the Congo, mpaghara ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị na-adịghị akwụsi ike ebe a na-ejikọtakarị ogbunigwe na ihe egwu ndị ruuru mmadụ. [90] Ịnweta mpaghara dị iche iche nwere ike hụ na nkwụsi ike nke yinye ọkọnọ . [91]

Hydrogen[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Hydrogen bụ gas nke enwere ike ịgba ọkụ iji mepụta okpomọkụ ma ọ bụ nwee ike mee ka mkpụrụ ndụ mmanụ ọkụ na-emepụta ọkụ eletrik, na-enwe ihe efu na-esi na ya eme ihe. Mgbapụta ikuku hydrogen na-adabere n'otú e si emepụta ya. Ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ ihe niile na-enye hydrogen n'ụwa ugbu a sitere na mmanụ ọkụ. [92] Ụzọ bụ isi bụ nhazigharị methane nke uzuoku, nke a na-emepụta hydrogen site na mmeghachi omume kemịkalụ n'etiti uzuoku na methane, bụ isi ihe na-emepụta gas. Ịmepụta otu tonne nke hydrogen site na usoro a na-ewepụta tọn carbon dioxide 6.6-9.3. [93] Ọ bụ ezie na ijide carbon nwere ike wepu nnukwu akụkụ nke ikuku ndị a, mkpokọta carbon akara nke hydrogen sitere na gas sitere n'okike siri ike nyocha As of 2021 , n'otu akụkụ n'ihi ihe ndị na-emepụta ihe na-emepụta na mmepụta nke gas n'onwe ya. [94]

Enwere ike iji ọkụ eletrik kewaa ụmụ irighiri mmiri, na-emepụta hydrogen na-adịgide adịgide ma ọ bụrụhaala na ejiri ọkụ eletrik na-adịgide adịgide. Agbanyeghị, usoro electrolysis a dị oke ọnụ ugbu a karịa imepụta hydrogen sitere na methane yana arụmọrụ ntụgharị ike dị ala. [76] Enwere ike imepụta hydrogen mgbe enwere njupụta nke ọkụ eletrik na-agbanwe agbanwe, wee chekwaa ma jiri ya mee ka ikpo ọkụ ma ọ bụ weghachi ọkụ eletrik. [95] Enwere ike gbanwee ya ka ọ bụrụ mmanụ sịntetik dị ka amonia na methanol . [167]

Ihe ọhụrụ na hydrogen electrolysers nwere ike ime ka mmepụta hydrogen sitere na ọkụ eletrik dịkwuo ọnụ ahịa. [168] Enwere ike ka hydrogen na-ekere òkè dị ukwuu n'imebi sistemu ike ike n'ihi na n'akụkụ ụfọdụ, iji ọkụ eletrik dochie mmanụ ọkụ ozugbo ga-esi ike. [76] Mmanụ hydrogen nwere ike iwepụta okpomọkụ siri ike achọrọ maka mmepụta ígwè, simenti, iko, na kemịkal ụlọ ọrụ mmepụta ihe. Maka imepụta ígwè, hydrogen nwere ike ịrụ ọrụ dị ka onye na-ebu ume dị ọcha yana n'otu oge dị ka ihe na-eme ka carbon dị ala na-edochi coke sitere na kol. [96] Ọdịmma nke hydrogen dị ka ihe na-ebu ike gụnyere nnukwu ego nke nchekwa na nkesa n'ihi mgbawa hydrogen, nnukwu olu ya ma e jiri ya tụnyere mmanụ ọkụ ndị ọzọ, na ọchịchọ ya ime ka ọkpọkọ na-agbaji. [94]

Teknụzụ ojiji ike[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ụgbọ njem[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Group of cyclists using a bike lane in Vancouver, Canada
Akụrụngwa ịgba ígwè, dị ka ụzọ igwe kwụ otu ebe na Vancouver, na-akwado njem na-adigide. [97]

Ụgbọ njem bụ 14% nke ikuku griin haus zuru ụwa ọnụ, [98] mana enwere ọtụtụ ụzọ iji mee ka njem na-adigide. Ụgbọ njem ọha na -ebunyekarị ikuku ikuku griin dị ole na ole karịa ụgbọ ala nkeonwe, ebe ụgbọ oloko na ụgbọ ala nwere ike ibu ọtụtụ ndị njem n'otu oge. [99] [100] Enwere ike dochie ụgbọ elu dị mkpirikpi site na ụgbọ okporo ígwè dị elu, nke na-arụ ọrụ nke ọma, karịsịa mgbe ọkụ eletrik. [174] [175] [101] [102]

Ịrụ ọrụ ike nke ụgbọ ala amụbaala ka oge na-aga, [103] mana ịtụgharị na ụgbọ ala eletrik bụ nzọụkwụ dị mkpa ga-aga n'ihu n'ịkwụsị ụgbọ njem na ibelata mmetọ ikuku. [104] Ọnụ ọgụgụ dị ukwuu nke mmetọ ikuku metụtara okporo ụzọ bụ ihe mejupụtara ihe ndị sitere na uzuzu okporo ụzọ yana nbibi taya na breeki. [105] Enweghị ike ibelata mmetọ site na isi mmalite ndị a site na ọkụ eletrik; ọ na-achọ ihe ndị dị ka ime ka ụgbọ ala dị ọkụ ma na-akwọ ha obere. [106]

Ụgbọ njem ibu dị anya na ụgbọ elu bụ akụkụ siri ike iji teknụzụ dị ugbu a mee ka ọkụ eletrik dị ugbu a, nke ka ukwuu n'ihi ibu batrị achọrọ maka njem dị anya, oge nchaji batrị, yana obere ndụ batrị. [182] [85] N'ebe ọ dị, ibu ụgbọ mmiri na ụgbọ oloko na-adịkarịgide karịa ikuku na okporo ụzọ. [107] Ụgbọ ala hydrogen nwere ike ịbụ nhọrọ maka ụgbọ ala buru ibu dịka ụgbọ ala. [108] Ọtụtụ n'ime usoro ndị dị mkpa iji wedata ikuku sitere na mbupu na ụgbọ elu ka dị n'oge mmepe ha, na amonia (nke sitere na hydrogen) bụ onye na-ekwe nkwa maka mbupu mmanụ. [185] Biofuel nke ụgbọ elu nwere ike ịbụ otu n'ime ihe kacha mma nke bioenergy ma ọ bụrụ na ejide ma chekwaa ihe ndị na-ekupụta n'oge a na-emepụta mmanụ ọkụ.

Ụlọ na isi nri[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Building with windcatcher towers
Ihe ndị na-eme ka ahụ dị jụụ, dị ka ụlọ elu ndị a na-ekpuchi ifufe na Iran, na-ebute ikuku dị jụụ n'ime ụlọ na-enweghị ike ọ bụla. [109]
Electric induction oven
Maka isi nri, stovu mbubata ọkụ eletrik bụ otu n'ime nhọrọ kacha arụ ọrụ ike yana nchekwa. [188] [110]

Ihe karịrị otu ụzọ n'ụzọ atọ nke iji ike eme ihe bụ ụlọ na ihe owuwu ha. [111] Iji kpoo ụlọ, ihe ndị ọzọ na-ere ọkụ fossil mmanụ na biomass gụnyere ọkụ eletrik site na nfuli ọkụ ma ọ bụ igwe ọkụ eletrik, ike geothermal, kpo oku etiti anyanwụ, iji ọkụ na-ekpo ọkụ na-ekpo ọkụ na oge nchekwa ike ọkụ . [112] [113] [114] Igwe ọkụ ọkụ na-enye ma okpomọkụ na ntụ oyi site na otu ngwa. [115] Ndị IEA na-ekwu na nfuli okpomọkụ nwere ike inye ihe karịrị 90% nke ohere na mmiri kpo oku zuru ụwa ọnụ. [116]

Ụzọ dị mma iji kpoo ụlọ ọkụ bụ site na ikpo ọkụ mpaghara, nke a na-emepụta okpomọkụ na ebe etiti ma kesaa ya n'ọtụtụ ụlọ site na ọkpọkọ mkpuchi . N'ọdịnala, ọtụtụ sistemu kpo oku distrikti ejirila mmanụ ọkụ, mana sistemụ kpo oku nke oge a na oyi na-atụ ka ejiri oke oke ike emeghari. [117] [118]

Enwere ike ime ka ime ụlọ dị jụụ rụọ ọrụ nke ọma site na imewe ụlọ na-agafe agafe, atụmatụ nke na-ebelata mmetụta nke agwaetiti okpomọkụ nke obodo, na usoro jụrụ oyi na mpaghara nke na-eme ka ọtụtụ ụlọ dị jụụ na mmiri oyi. [119] [120] Ikuku ikuku na- achọ ọkụ eletrik buru ibu ma ọ naghị adị ọnụ ala maka ezinụlọ ndị dara ogbenye. [120] Ụfọdụ ụlọ ntụ oyi ka na-eji refrigerants bụ gas griin haus, n'ihi na ụfọdụ mba akwadoghị Ndezigharị Kigali ka ọ na-eji naanị friji na-eme enyi na ihu igwe. [121]

Na mba ndị ka na-emepe emepe ebe ndị mmadụ na-ata ahụhụ site na ịda ogbenye ike, a na-ejikarị mmanụ ndị na-emerụ emerụ dị ka osisi ma ọ bụ nsị anụmanụ eme nri. Iji mmanụ ọkụ ndị a esi nri anaghị adịgide adịgide, n'ihi na ha na-ahapụ anwụrụ ọkụ na-emerụ ahụ nakwa n'ihi na iwere osisi nwere ike iduga nbibi nke ọhịa. Nkwenye zuru ụwa ọnụ nke ụlọ nri dị ọcha, nke dịlarị na mba ndị bara ọgaranya, [188] ga-eme ka ahụike dịkwuo mma ma nwee mmetụta na-adịghị mma na ihu igwe. [202] [203] Ebe isi nri dị ọcha na-ejikarị gas sitere n'okike, mmanụ mmanụ mmanụ ma ọ bụ ọkụ eletrik dị ka isi iyi ike; Sistemu biogas bụ ihe ọzọ na-ekwe nkwa n'ọnọdụ ụfọdụ. [188] Igwe esi nri emelitere nke na-ere ọkụ biomass nke ọma karịa stovu ọdịnala bụ ihe ngwọta nwa oge ebe mgbanwe na usoro nri dị ọcha siri ike. [204]

Ụlọ ọrụ mmepụta ihe[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ihe karịrị otu ụzọ n'ụzọ atọ nke ojiji ike bụ ụlọ ọrụ. A na-etinye ọtụtụ n'ime ike ahụ na usoro okpomọkụ: na-emepụta okpomọkụ, ihicha, na refrigeration . Oke nke ike mmeghari ohuru na ụlọ ọrụ bụ 14.5% na 2017-karịsịa okpomọkụ dị ala nke sitere na bioenergy na ọkụ eletrik na-eweta. Ihe omume kachasị ike na ụlọ ọrụ nwere oke kachasị ala nke ume ọhụrụ, ebe ọ bụ na ha na-eche njedebe na ịmepụta okpomọkụ na okpomọkụ karịa 200 . . [205]

Maka ụfọdụ usoro mmepụta ihe, ịzụ ahịa nke teknụzụ a na-ewubeghị ma ọ bụ rụọ ọrụ n'ụzọ zuru ezu ga-adị mkpa iji kpochapụ ikuku gas na-ekpo ọkụ. [206] Ịmepụta ígwè, dịka ọmụmaatụ, siri ike ịgbanye ọkụ n'ihi na ọ na-ejikarị coke eme ihe, nke sitere na coal, ma na-emepụta oke okpomọkụ dị elu yana dịka ihe na-eme nchara n'onwe ya. [207] Imepụta rọba, simenti, na fatịlaịza na-achọkwa ike dị ukwuu, na-enwe obere ohere iji decarbonise. [122] Mgbanwe gaa na akụ na ụba okirikiri ga-eme ka ụlọ ọrụ na-aga n'ihu n'ihi na ọ na-agụnye ịmegharị ihe ọzọ ma si otú a na-eji obere ume ma e jiri ya tụnyere iwepụta ihe ọhụrụ. [209]

Atumatu gọọmentị[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

"Iweta teknụzụ ume ọhụrụ n'ahịa nwere ike na-ewe ọtụtụ iri afọ, mana ọ dị mkpa iru ikuku ikuku ikuku n'ụwa niile site na 2050 pụtara na ọganihu ga-adị ngwa ngwa. Ahụmahụ egosila na ọrụ gọọmentị dị oke mkpa n'ịbelata oge achọrọ iji weta teknụzụ ọhụrụ n'ahịa na ịgbasa ya n'ọtụtụ ebe."

International Energy Agency (2021)
Photograph of a row of cars plugged into squat metal boxes under a roof
Ọtụtụ mba na European Union ewepụtala ụbọchị maka ụgbọ ala ọhụrụ niile ga-abụ ụgbọ ala anaghị ekpochapụ efu . [211]

Amụma gọọmentị a haziri nke ọma nke na-akwalite mgbanwe usoro ume nwere ike belata ikuku ikuku griin haus ma melite ogo ikuku n'otu oge, na n'ọtụtụ ọnọdụ nwekwara ike ịbawanye nchekwa ike. [212]

Ejirila ụkpụrụ gburugburu ebe obibi kemgbe afọ 1970 iji kwalite ojiji ike na-adịgide adịgide. [213] Ụfọdụ gọọmentị ewepụtala ụbọchị maka ịkwụsị ụlọ ọrụ ọkụ na-agba ọkụ na ịkwụsị nyocha ọhụrụ mmanụ ala . Gọọmenti nwere ike ịchọ ka ụgbọ ala ọhụrụ na-emepụta ikuku efu, ma ọ bụ ọkụ eletrik na-ekpo ọkụ ụlọ ọhụrụ kama gas. [211] Ụkpụrụ Pọtụfoliyo a na-emegharị ọhụrụ n'ọtụtụ mba chọrọ akụrụngwa iji mụbaa pasentị ọkụ eletrik ha na-ewepụta site na isi mmalite. [123] [124]

Gọọmenti nwere ike mee ka mgbanwe usoro ike dị ngwa ngwa site na-eduga mmepe nke akụrụngwa dịka eriri nnyefe eletrik dị anya, grids smart, na pipeline hydrogen. [216] N'ime njem, akụrụngwa kwesịrị ekwesị na ihe mkpali nwere ike ime ka njem dịkwuo mma ma ghara ịdabere na ụgbọ ala. [212] Atụmatụ ime obodo nke na-egbochi mgbasa nwere ike ibelata ojiji ike na njem na ụlọ dị n'ime obodo ma na-eme ka ndụ dịkwuo mma. [212] Nchọpụta ego gọọmentị na-akwado, ịzụ ahịa, na atumatu mkpali dị mkpa n'akụkọ ihe mere eme maka mmepe na ntozu teknụzụ ike dị ọcha, dịka batrị anyanwụ na lithium. [217] N'ọnọdụ nke IEA maka usoro ike ikuku efu site na 2050, a na-achịkọta ego ọha na eze ngwa ngwa iji weta ọtụtụ teknụzụ ọhụrụ na oge ngosi na ịkwado mbugharị. [218]

Ọnụ ego carbon (dị ka ụtụ isi na ikuku CO ) na-enye ụlọ ọrụ na ndị na-azụ ahịa ihe mkpali iji belata ikuku ikuku ma na-ahapụ ha ka ha họrọ otu esi eme ya. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, ha nwere ike ịgbanwe gaa na isi mmalite ike na-eku ume, melite arụmọrụ ike, ma ọ bụ belata ojiji ha na-eji ngwaahịa na ọrụ ike ike. [219] Ọnụ ego carbon ezutela mgbagha ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị siri ike na mpaghara ụfọdụ, ebe amụma akọwapụtara ike na-adịkarị mma na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị. [125] [126] Ọtụtụ ọmụmụ na-egosi na iji belata okpomoku zuru ụwa ọnụ na 1.5 Celsius C, ọnụ ahịa carbon ga-adị mkpa ka atumatu siri ike gbanyere ume gbakwunye ya. [222] Dị ka nke 2019, ọnụ ahịa carbon n'ọtụtụ mpaghara dị oke ala iji nweta ebumnuche nke nkwekọrịta Paris. Ụtụ isi carbon na-enye isi iyi ego a ga-enweta nke enwere ike iji wedata ụtụ isi ndị ọzọ [127] ma ọ bụ nyere ezinụlọ ndị nwere obere ego aka ị nweta ụgwọ ọrụ ike dị elu. [128] Gọọmenti ụfọdụ, dị ka EU na UK, na-enyocha iji mmezi oke carbon . [129] Ndị a na-etinye tarifu na mbubata sitere na mba ndị nwere amụma ihu igwe na-adịchaghị mma, iji hụ na ụlọ ọrụ ndị nwere ọnụ ahịa carbon dị n'ime ka na-asọmpi. [130] [131]

Ọnụ ọgụgụ na ọsọ ọsọ nke mgbanwe amụma ebidola ka nke 2020 dị obere karịa ka achọrọ iji mezuo ebumnuche ihu igwe nke nkwekọrịta Paris. [229] [230] Na mgbakwunye na atumatu ime ụlọ, a ga-achọ nkwado dị ukwuu nke mba ụwa iji mee ka ihe ọhụrụ dị ngwa na iji nyere mba ndị ka daa ogbenye aka ịmepụta ụzọ na-adịgide adịgide iji nweta ume zuru oke. [231]

Mba nwere ike ịkwado mmeghari ohuru iji mepụta ọrụ. [232] Òtù Na-ahụ Maka Ndị Ọrụ Mba Nile na-eme atụmatụ na mgbalị iji belata okpomoku zuru ụwa ọnụ na 2 Celsius C ga-ebute oke ọrụ n'ọtụtụ akụkụ nke akụ na ụba. [132] Ọ na-ekwu na 24 A ga-emepụta nde ọrụ ọhụrụ site n'afọ 2030 na mpaghara ndị dị ka ọgbọ ọkụ eletrik na-emegharị, na-eme ka ike na-arụ ọrụ ike n'ime ụlọ, na mgbanwe gaa na ụgbọ ala eletrik. Nde ọrụ nde isii ga-efunahụ ya, na ngalaba dịka ngwuputa ihe na mmanụ ọkụ. [132] Gọọmenti nwere ike ime mgbanwe na ike na-adịgide adịgide karịa ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị na nke ọha mmadụ site n'ịhụ na mgbanwe ziri ezi maka ndị ọrụ na mpaghara ndị na-adabere na ụlọ ọrụ mmanụ ọkụ, iji hụ na ha nwere ohere akụ na ụba ọzọ. [139]

Ego[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Graph of global investment for renewable energy, electrified heat and transport, and other non-fossil-fuel energy sources
Electrified heat and transport are key areas of investment for the renewable energy transition.

Ịkwalite ego zuru oke maka ihe ọhụrụ na ntinye ego bụ ihe dị mkpa maka mgbanwe ike. [133] Ndị IPCC na-eme atụmatụ na ịgbachi okpomoku zuru ụwa ọnụ ka ọ bụrụ 1.5 Celsius C, US $2.4 trillion ga-achọ itinye ego na sistemu ike kwa afọ n'etiti 2016 na 2035. Imirikiti ọmụmụ ihe na-egosi na ọnụ ahịa ndị a, nhata 2.5% nke GDP ụwa, ga-adị ntakịrị ma e jiri ya tụnyere uru akụ na ụba na ahụike. [235] [236] ego itinye ego kwa afọ na teknụzụ ume carbon dị ala na nrụpụta ike ga-adị mkpa ka ọ bụrụ okpukpu isii karịa na 2050 ma e jiri ya tụnyere 2015. [237]

Otu United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change na-eme atụmatụ na ego ihu igwe ruru $681 Ijeri na 2016. [238] Ọtụtụ n'ime ihe ndị a bụ ntinye ego nke onwe na ntinye ume ọhụrụ, itinye ego n'ọrụ ọha na eze na njem na-adigide, na ntinye ego nke ụlọ ọrụ na-arụ ọrụ ike. [239] Nkwekọrịta Paris gụnyere nkwa nke mgbakwunye $100 ijeri kwa afọ site na mba ndị mepere emepe gaa na mba ndị dara ogbenye, ime mgbanwe mgbanwe ihu igwe na mgbanwe. Agbanyeghị, emezubeghị ebumnuche a yana iwu ngụkọ na-edoghị anya egbochila nha ọganiru. [134] [135]

Ego mmanụ ọkụ na enyemaka bụ nnukwu ihe mgbochi na mgbanwe ike. [136] [133] Enyemaka mmanụ ọkụ zuru ụwa ọnụ kpọmkwem bụ $319 ijeri na 2017. Nke a na-ebili na $5.2 trillion mgbe a na-ere ọnụ ahịa na-apụtaghị ìhè, dịka mmetụta sitere na mmetọ ikuku. [137] Ịkwụsị ihe ndị a nwere ike ibute mbelata 28% nke ikuku carbon zuru ụwa ọnụ yana mbelata 46% nke ọnwụ mmetọ ikuku. [244] Ego maka ike dị ọcha ka ọrịa COVID-19 emetụtaghị ya, yana ngwugwu mkpali akụ na ụba metụtara ọrịa na-enye ohere maka mgbake akwụkwọ ndụ akwụkwọ ndụ . [138] [246]

  • Akụ na ụba carbon dị ala
  • Usoro iheomume nke nyocha ike na-adigide 2020-dị ugbu a
  • </img>
  • </img>
  • </img>

Ntụaka[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ihe ndetu[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Isi mmalite ike anaghị emeghari ohuru[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

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