Jump to content

Kanji

Shí Wikipedia, njikotá édémédé nke onyobulạ
Kanji symbols

Kanji (漢字, pronounced [kaɲdʑi] i) are the logographic Chinese characters taken from the Chinese script used in the writing of Japanese.[1] They were made a major part of the Japanese writing system during the time of Old Japanese and are still used, along with the subsequently-derived syllabic scripts of hiragana and katakana.[2][3] The characters have Japanese pronunciations; most have two, with one based on the Chinese sound. A few characters were invented in Japan by constructing character components derived from other Chinese characters. After the Meiji Restoration, Japan made its own efforts to simplify the characters, now known as shinjitai, by a process similar to China's simplification efforts, with the intention to increase literacy among the common folk. Since the 1920s, the Japanese government has published character lists periodically to help direct the education of its citizenry through the myriad Chinese characters that exist. There are nearly 3,000 kanji used in Japanese names and in common communication.

Okwu kanji na Japanese pụtara n'ụzọ nkịtị "ihe odide Han".[4] A na-ede ya na Japanese site na iji otu mkpụrụedemede ahụ dị ka ọ dị na Chinese ọdịnala, ha abụọ na-ezo aka na usoro ederede a maara na Chinese dị ka hanzi (Chinese ọdịnala: 漢字; Chinese dị mfe: 汉字; pinyin: hànzì; lit. 'Ihe odide Han').[5] Ojiji dị ịrịba ama nke mkpụrụedemede Chinese na Japan malitere ịmalite na narị afọ nke ise AD ma kemgbe ahụ nwee mmetụta dị ukwuu n'ịkpụzi ọdịbendị, asụsụ, akwụkwọ, akụkọ ihe mere eme, na ndekọ ndị Japan.[6] A chọpụtakwara ihe ndị e ji ihe mee n'ime ụlọ n'ebe ndị e gwupụtara ihe n'ala nke malitere n'oge Yayoi gara aga ka ha nwee mkpụrụedemede Chinese.[7]

Ọ bụ ezie na ụfọdụ mkpụrụedemede, dị ka e ji mee ihe n'asụsụ Japanese na Chinese, nwere nkọwa na ịkpọ okwu, ndị ọzọ nwere nkọwa ma ọ bụ mkpọpụta nke pụrụ iche n'otu asụsụ ma ọ bụ nke ọzọ.  Dịka ọmụmaatụ, 誠 pụtara 'eziokwu' n'asụsụ abụọ ahụ mana a na-akpọ ya makoto ma ọ bụ sei na Japanese, yana chéng na Standard Mandarin Chinese.  Ihe odide kanji nke onwe onye echepụtara na Japan, ma ọ bụ ọtụtụ okwu kanji ewepụtara na Japanese, emetụtawokwa ma gbazinye ya na Chinese, Korean, na Vietnamese n'oge na-adịbeghị anya.  Dịka ọmụmaatụ, okwu maka ekwentị, 電話 denwa na Japanese, ka a na-akpọ diànhuà na Mandarin Chinese, điện thoại na Vietnamese na 전화 jeonhwa na Korean.[1][8]

N’oge ochie, akwụkwọ na-adị ụkọ nke na ndị mmadụ na-ede kanji n’obere osisi ndị dị gịrịgịrị ma dị akụkụ anọ, nke a na-akpọ mokkan (木簡).  A na-eji bọọdụ osisi ndị a eme ihe maka nkwukọrịta n'etiti ụlọ ọrụ gọọmentị, mkpado maka ngwa ahịa na-ebuga n'etiti mba dị iche iche, na omume ide ihe.  Kanji kacha ochie edere na Japan chọpụtara ruo ugbu a ka e ji ink dee n'elu osisi dị ka eriri osisi e debere na narị afọ nke asaa, ndekọ ahịa maka akwa na nnu.

Asụsụ Japanese enweghị ụdị ederede n'oge a na-ewebata mkpụrụ edemede Chinese, a na-edekwa ma na-agụ naanị n'asụsụ Chinese.  Ka oge na-aga, n'ime oge Heian (794-1185), usoro a maara dị ka kanbun pụtara, nke gụnyere iji ederede Chinese nwere akara ụda iji mee ka ndị na-asụ Japanese gụọ ahịrịokwu Chinese ma gbanwee ha na Japanese na ofufe, site n'ịgbanwe usoro okwu na ịgbakwunye.  nsonazụ na ngwaa, dịka iwu nke ụtọasụsụ Japanese siri dị.  Nke a bụ n'ezie ụdị ntụgharị asụsụ ahazigharịrị ahazi.

A bịakwara iji mkpụrụ edemede ndị China dee ederede n'asụsụ Japanese, nke mere ka ọ bụrụ syllabarị nke oge a.  N'ihe dị ka n'afọ 650 AD, usoro edemede a na-akpọ man'yōgana (nke e ji mee ihe na uri uri oge ochie Man'yōshū) malitere nke ji ọtụtụ mkpụrụ edemede Chinese mee ụda ha, karịa maka ihe ha pụtara.  Man'yōgana e dere n'ụdị cursive sitere na hiragana (n'ụzọ nkịtị "na-efegharị kana" na-ezo aka na mmegharị nke brush n'oge ederede), ma ọ bụ onna-de, ya bụ, "aka ụmụ nwanyị",[1] usoro ederede nke  enwere ike ịnweta ụmụ nwanyị (ndị a na-agọrọ agụmakwụkwọ ka elu).  Edere nnukwu ọrụ nke akwụkwọ akụkọ Heian-era site n'aka ụmụ nwanyị na hiragana.  Katakana (n'ụzọ nkịtị "partial kana", n'ihe gbasara omume nke iji akụkụ nke agwa kanji) pụtara site n'ụzọ yiri ya: ụmụ akwụkwọ ebe obibi ndị mọnk mere ka man'yōgana dị mfe ka ọ bụrụ otu ihe mejupụtara.  Ya mere, usoro ihe odide abụọ ọzọ, hiragana na katakana, nke a na-akpọ mkpokọta dị ka kana, sitere na kanji.  N'ụzọ dị iche na kana (仮名, n'ụzọ nkịtị "aha agbaziri", na-ezo aka na agwa a "gbaziri" dị ka akara maka ụda ya), a na-akpọkwa kanji mana (真名, n'ụzọ nkịtị "ezigbo aha", na-ezo aka na agwa ịbụ.  eji dị ka akara maka ihe ọ pụtara).

N'asụsụ Japanese nke oge a, a na-eji kanji ede okwu ụfọdụ ma ọ bụ akụkụ nke okwu (na-abụkarị okwu ndị dị ka aha, adjective stems, na ngwaa stems), ebe a na-ejikarị hiragana ede ngwaa na adjective endings, phonetic complements iji mee ka ọgụgụ (okurigana), ụmụ irighiri ihe, na okwu ndị ọzọ nke a na-ewere na ọ nweghị kanji ma ọ bụ kanji nke a na'amaghị ama ma ọ bụ nke siri ike ịgụ ma ọ bụ cheta. A na-ejikarị Katakana eme ihe maka ịnọchite anya onomatopoeia, okwu ndị na-abụghị nke Japan (ma e wezụga ndị e si na ndị China oge ochie gbazite), aha osisi na anụmanụ (ma e wepụ), na iji mesie okwu ụfọdụ ike.

Mgbanwe orthographic na ndepụta nke kanji[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Kemgbe oge ochie, enwere echiche siri ike na Japan na kanji bụ ụdị ederede orthodox, mana e nwekwara ndị mmadụ na-arụ ụka megide ya.[9] Kamo no Mabuchi, onye ọkà mmụta nke oge Edo, katọrọ ọnụ ọgụgụ buru ibu nke mkpụrụedemede na kanji. O nwekwara ekele maka ọnụ ọgụgụ dị nta nke mkpụrụedemede na mkpụrụedemede kana ma kwuo maka njedebe nke kanji.

After the Meiji Restoration and as Japan entered an era of active exchange with foreign countries, the need for script reform in Japan began to be called for. Some scholars argued for the abolition of kanji and the writing of Japanese using only kana or Latin characters. However, these views were not so widespread

Otú ọ dị, a ghọtara mkpa ọ dị ibelata ọnụ ọgụgụ nke mkpụrụ okwu kanji, na na May 1923, gọọmenti Japan mara ọkwa mkpụrụedemede 1,962 maka iji ya eme ihe mgbe nile.  Na 1940, ndị agha Japan kpebiri na "Table of Restricted Kanji for Weapons Names" (兵器名称用制限漢字表, heiki meishō yō seigen kanji hyō) nke na-ejedebe ọnụ ọgụgụ nke kanji nwere ike iji aha ngwá agha 35.2.  Na 1942, National Language Council mara ọkwa "Standard Kanji Tebụl" (標準漢字表, hyōjun kanji-hyō) nwere mkpokọta 2,528 odide, na-egosi ọkọlọtọ maka kanji nke ndị ministri na ụlọ ọrụ na n'ozuzu ọha mmadụ na-eji.[1].[10]

N'afọ 1946, mgbe Agha Ụwa nke Abụọ gasịrị na n'okpuru Njikọ Njikọ nke Japan, ọchịchị Japan, nke Ọchịagha Kasị Elu nke Allied Powers na-eduzi, hiwere usoro mgbanwe nke usoro okwu, iji nyere ụmụaka aka ịmụta na ime ka iji kanji eme ihe n'akwụkwọ na oge.

E belatara ọnụ ọgụgụ mkpụrụedemede ndị a na-ekesa, wee guzobe ndepụta nke mkpụrụedemede a ga-amụta n'oge klaasị ọ bụla nke ụlọ akwụkwọ.  Enyere ụfọdụ mkpụrụedemede, nke a na-akpọ shinjitai (新字体).  Ọtụtụ ụdị mkpụrụedemede dị iche iche na ihe ndị ọzọ na-adịghị ahụkebe maka mkpụrụedemede nkịtị ka agbajiri n'ihu ọha.

These are simply guidelines, so many characters outside these standards are still widely known and commonly used; these are known as Àtụ:Nihongo.

Kyōiku kanji[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

The kyōiku kanji (教育漢字, lit. "education kanji") bụ mkpụrụedemede kanji 1,026 nke ụmụaka Japan na-amụta na ụlọ akwụkwọ elementrị, site na ọkwa mbụ ruo na klas nke isii.  A maara mmebi ọkwa ọkwa dị ka gakunen-betsu kanji haitōhyō (学年別漢字配当表), ma ọ bụ gakushū kanji (学習漢字).  Ministri mmụta na Japan na-edobe ndepụta kanji a ma depụta mkpụrụedemede kanji na nke ụmụ akwụkwọ na-agụ kanji kwesịrị ịmụta maka ọkwa ọ bụla.

Jōyō kanji[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Jōyō kanji (常用漢字, knji a na-eji eme ihe mgbe niile) bụ mkpụrụedemede 2,136 nke mejupụtara Kyōiku kanji niile, gbakwunyere 1,110 kanji ndị ọzọ a na-akụzi na ụlọ akwụkwọ sekọndrị na ụlọ akwụkwọ dị elu.[11] Na mbipụta, a na-enyekarị ndị na-abụghị nke a furigana. E webatara jōyō kanji na 1981, na-anọchi ndepụta ochie nke mkpụrụedemede 1,850 a maara dị ka tōyō kanji (當用漢字, kanji a na-ejikarị eme ihe), nke e webatara na 1946. Na mbụ, ọ na-agụnye mkpụrụedemede 1,945 , ndepụta jōyō kanji gbasaa ruo 2,136 na 2010. Ụfọdụ n'ime ihe odide ọhụrụ ndị ahụ bụbu Jinmeiyō kanji; a na-eji ụfọdụ ede aha prefecture: 阪, 熊, 奈, 岡, 鹿, 梨, Ō, Ō na Ō.

Jinmeiyō kanji[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

N'ihe dị na Septemba 25, 2017, jinmeiyō kanji (人名用漢字, kanji maka ojiji na aha nkeonwe) nwere mkpụrụedemede 863.  A na-ejikarị Kanji na ndepụta a n'aha ndị mmadụ ma ụfọdụ bụ ụdị ọdịnaala nke jōyō kanji.  Enwere naanị 92 kanji n'ime ndepụta izizi e bipụtara na 1952, mana agbakwunyere ọhụrụ ugboro ugboro.  Mgbe ụfọdụ okwu jinmeiyō kanji na-ezo aka na kanji 2,999 niile sitere na ma ndepụta joyō na jinmeiyo jikọtara ọnụ.

Hyōgai kanji[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Hyōgai kanji (表外漢字, "unlisted characters") are any kanji not contained in the jōyō kanji and jinmeiyō kanji lists. These are generally written using traditional characters, but extended shinjitai forms exist.

Ụkpụrụ ụlọ ọrụ mmepụta ihe nke Japan maka kanji[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ụkpụrụ ụlọ ọrụ mmepụta ihe nke Japan maka kanji na kana na-akọwa koodu njirimara maka kanji na Kana ọ bụla, yana ụdị edemede ndị ọzọ dị ka mkpụrụedemede Latin, mkpụrụedemede Cyrillic, mkpụrụedemete Grik, nọmba Arabic, wdg maka iji ya na nhazi ozi. Ha enweela ọtụtụ mmezigharị. Ụkpụrụ ndị dị ugbu a bụ:

  • JIS X 0208, ụdị kachasị ọhụrụ nke ụkpụrụ ahụ.[12] O nwere 6,355 kanji.
  • JIS X 0212, ọkọlọtọ mgbakwunye nwere 5,801 kanji ọzọ.[13] A naghị eji ọkọlọtọ a eme ihe, ọkachasị n'ihi na usoro koodu Shift JIS a na-ahụkarị enweghị ike iji ya. Ụkpụrụ a bụ ihe mgbe ochie n'ụzọ dị irè.
  • JIS X 0213, mmezigharị ọzọ nke gbatịkwuru JIS X0208 setịpụrụ na 3,695 kanji ọzọ, nke 2,743 (ihe niile ma e wezụga 952) dị na JIS X 8212.[14] A na-emepụta ọkọlọtọ ahụ n'akụkụ ụfọdụ ka ọ kwekọọ na koodu Shift JIS.
  • JIS X 0221:1995, nsụgharị Japanese nke ISO 10646/Unicode ọkọlọtọ.

Gaiji[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Gaiji (外字, n'ụzọ nkịtị "edemede mpụga") bụ kanji ndị anaghị anọchi anya ya na sistemụ ngbanwe Japanese dị ugbu a.  Ndị a na-agụnye ụdị dị iche iche nke kanji nkịtị nke kwesịrị ka a nọchite anya n'akụkụ glyph a na-emekarị n'ọrụ ntụaka ma nwee ike ịgụnye akara na-abụghị kanji.

Gaiji were nominally prohibited in JIS X 0208-1997 where the available number of code-points was reduced to only 940.[15] JIS X 0213-2000 used the entire range of code-points previously allocated to gaiji, making them completely unusable. Most desktop and mobile systems have moved to Unicode negating the need for gaiji for most users. Nevertheless, they persist today in Japan's three major mobile phone information portals, where they are used for emoji (pictorial characters).

Ọnụ ọgụgụ ngụkọta nke kanji[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Enweghị ọnụ ọgụgụ doro anya nke mkpụrụedemede kanji, dịka ọ nweghị nke ọ bụla n'ime mkpụrụedemede ndị China n'ozuzu ya.  Dai Kan-Wa Jiten, nke a na-ewere dị ka nke zuru oke na Japan, nwere ihe dị ka mkpụrụedemede 50,000.  Zhonghua Zihai, nke e bipụtara na 1994 na China, nwere ihe dị ka mkpụrụedemede 85,000, ma ọtụtụ n'ime ha abụghị ndị a na-ejikarị eme ihe na mba ọ bụla, ọtụtụ n'ime ha bụkwa ụdị dị iche iche ma ochie..

A na-ahụta ndepụta 2,136 jōyō kanji (常用漢字) dị ka ihe dị mkpa maka ịgụ akwụkwọ na Japanese.  Ihe ka n'ọnụ ọgụgụ na Japan na-ejikarị ihe dị ka otu puku mkpụrụedemede na-aghọta ngwa ngwa yana puku mmadụ ole na ole ndị ọzọ na-ahụta ojiji oge ụfọdụ, ọkachasị n'akụkụ ọmụmụ pụrụ iche mana ndị ahụ nwere ike bụrụ ndị a na-adịghị ahụkebe n'ọtụtụ ebe.  Enwere ike itinye mkpokọta mkpụrụedemede 13,108 n'ụkpụrụ nrụpụta Japanese dị iche iche maka kanji.

Ihe ndị a na-agụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

.[16]Enwere ike iji kanji nke ọ bụla dee otu ma ọ bụ karịa dị iche iche okwu ma ọ bụ morphemes, na-eduga na mkpọpụta dị iche iche ma ọ bụ "agụ."  A na-ekpebi agụ ziri ezi site n'ịtụgharị uche, dị ka ma agwa ahụ ọ̀ bụ akụkụ nke okwu ngwakọta ma ọ bụ okwu nọọrọ onwe ya, kpọmkwem ihe okwu ahụ pụtara, yana ọnọdụ ya n'ime ahịrịokwu ahụ.  Dịka ọmụmaatụ, 今日 ka a na-agụkarị kyō, nke pụtara "taa", mana n'edemede akwụkwọ a na-agụ ya kama ịgụ konnichi , nke pụtara "ugbu a", nke a ghọtara site na gburugburu.  A na-eji Furigana kọwapụta agụmagụ na-edochaghị anya, dị ka obere akwụkwọ, agụmagụ, ma ọ bụ ihe ndị ọzọ na-abụghị ọkọlọtọ.  Ihe mgbagwoju anya a nwere ike ibili n'ihi ihe karịrị otu ọgụgụ na-eme ka ọ rụọ ọrụ na ụbụrụ

A na-ekewa ọgụgụ Kanji dị ka on'yomi (音読み, n'ụzọ nkịtị "ịgụ ụda", sitere na Chinese) ma ọ bụ kun'yomi (訓読み, n'ụzọ nkịtị "pụtara ịgụ akwụkwọ", nwa afọ Japanese), na ọtụtụ odide nwere opekata mpe abụọ, opekata mpe otu.  nke ọ bụla.

Otú ọ dị, ụfọdụ odide nwere nanị otu ọgụgụ, dị ka kiku (菊, "chrysanthemum", ihe na-agụ) ma ọ bụ iwashi (鰯, "sardine", a kun-agụ);  Kun-naanị bụ ihe a na-ahụkarị maka kanji (kokuji) nke ndị Japan mebere.

Ụfọdụ kanji nkịtị nwere ike ịgụ iri ma ọ bụ karịa;  ihe atụ kachasị mgbagwoju anya bụ 生, nke a na-agụ dị ka sei, sho, nama, ki, o-u, i-kiru, i-kasu, i-keru, u-mu, u-mareru, ha-eru, na ha-yasu.  , ngụkọta ọnụ ọgụgụ isi asatọ (abụọ mbụ dị, ebe ndị ọzọ bụ kun), ma ọ bụ 12 ma ọ bụrụ na a na-agụ ngwaa ndị metụtara ya dị ka ihe dị iche;  lee okurigana § 生 maka nkọwapụta.

On'yomi (Ngụgụ Sin na Japan)[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Generally, on'yomi are classified into four types according to their region and time of origin:

N'asụsụ Chinese, a na-ejikọta ọtụtụ mkpụrụedemede na otu ụda Chinese, n'agbanyeghị na enwere ọgụgụ akwụkwọ dị iche iche na nke mkparịta ụka.  Otú ọ dị, ụfọdụ homographs (多音字 pinyin: duōyīnzì) dị ka 行 (háng ma ọ bụ xíng) (Japanese: an, gō, gyō) nwere ihe karịrị otu ọgụgụ na Chinese na-anọchi anya dị iche iche pụtara, nke na-egosipụta na-ebuga na Japanese nakwa.  Na mgbakwunye, ọtụtụ mkpụrụokwu ndị China, ọkachasị ndị nwere ụda mbata, adabaghị n'ụda ụda ụdaume (CV) nke Japanese oge gboo.  Ya mere, ọtụtụ on'yomi nwere morae abụọ (nkụkụ), nke abụọ n'ime ha bụ ịgbatị ụdaume na nke mbụ mora (to ei, ō, ma ọ bụ ū), ụdaume i, ma ọ bụ otu n'ime mkpụrụokwu ku,  ki, tsu, chi, fu (n'akụkọ ihe mere eme, emechara merged n'ime ō na ū), ma ọ bụ moraic n, ahọpụtara maka mkpokọta ha na consonants ikpeazụ nke Middle Chinese.  O nwere ike ịbụ na consonants na-agbapụta n'ihu ụdaume ndị ọzọ na-abụghị nke m mepụtara na Japanese n'ihi nbido ndị China, ebe ọ bụ na amachaghị ha n'okwu sitere na asụsụ Japanese, mana a na-ahụkarị na Chinese.

On'yomi na-emekarị na okwu multi-kanji (熟語, jukugo), ọtụtụ n'ime ha sitere na nkuchi, yana kanji n'onwe ha, nke okwu Chinese maka echiche ndị na-adịghị adị na Japanese ma ọ bụ enweghị ike ịkọwapụta.  dị ka ịma mma na-eji okwu ala.  A na-atụnyekarị usoro ịgbazinye ego a na nbido nke bekee sitere na Latin, Greek na Norman French, ebe ọ bụ na okwu ndị China gbaziri na-abụkarị ndị pụrụ iche, ma ọ bụ na-ewere ya dị ka ihe dị mma ma ọ bụ nke nkịtị karịa ndị ibe ha (na-ebi akwụkwọ ndekọ asụsụ dị elu).  Isi ihe dị na iwu a bụ aha ezinụlọ, nke a na-ejikarị kunyomi nwa afọ (n'agbanyeghị na a na-ahụ on'yomi n'ọtụtụ aha nkeonwe, karịsịa aha nwoke).

Kun'yomi (agụ akwụkwọ obodo)[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Kun'yomi (訓読み, [kɯɰ̃jomi], lit. "pụtara ịgụ"), ọgụgụ obodo, bụ ọgụgụ dabere na mkpọpụta nke okwu Japanese nwa afọ, ma ọ bụ yamato kotoba, nke kwadoro ihe agwa China pụtara nke ọma mgbe.  ewebata ya.  Dịka ọ dị na on'yomi, enwere ike inwe ọtụtụ kun'yomi maka otu kanji ahụ, ụfọdụ kanji enweghịkwa kun'yomi ma ọlị.

Dịka ọmụmaatụ, ihe odide maka ọwụwa anyanwụ, 東, nwere on'yomi tō, sitere na Middle Chinese tung. Otú ọ dị, ndị Japan enweela okwu abụọ maka "ọwụwa anyanwụ": higashi na azuma. N'ihi ya, kanji 東 nwere ọgụgụ ikpeazụ agbakwunyere dị ka kun'yomi. N'ụzọ dị iche, kanji 寸, nke na-egosi ihe ndị China na-atụle (ihe dị ka 30 mm ma ọ bụ 1.2 inch), enweghị ihe ndị Japan yiri ya; ọ nwere naanị on'yomi, anyanwụ, na-enweghị kun'yomi. Ọtụtụ kokuji, mkpụrụedemede ndị China mepụtara na Japan, nwere naanị kun'yomi, ọ bụ ezie na ụfọdụ emeela pseudo-on'yomi site na ntụnyere na mkpụrụedemede yiri ya, dị ka 動 , na e nwere ọbụna ụfọdụ, dị ka "gland", nke nwere naanị on'yomi.

Kun'yomi bụ nke a maara site na usoro (C) V nke yamato kotoba. Ọtụtụ aha ma ọ bụ adjective kun'yomi bụ mkpụrụedemede abụọ ma ọ bụ atọ n'ogologo, ebe ngwaa kun'yori na-adịkarị n'etiti otu mkpụrụedemede na atọ n'ogo, na-agụnyeghị hiragana na-esote a na-akpọ okurigana. A naghị ele Okurigana anya dị ka akụkụ nke ọgụgụ dị n'ime nke agwa ahụ, ọ bụ ezie na ha bụ akụkụ nke ọgụgụ nke okwu ahụ. Onye mbido n'asụsụ ahụ agaghị ahụkarị mkpụrụedemede nwere ogologo ọgụgụ, mana ọgụgụ nke atọ ma ọ bụ ọbụna anọ abụghị ihe a na-ahụkarị. Nke a dị iche na on'yomi, nke bụ monosyllabic, ma bụrụ ihe a na-adịghị ahụkebe n'ezinụlọ Chinese nke edemede, nke na-ejikarị otu mkpụrụedemede - ọ bụghị naanị na Chinese, kamakwa na Korean, Vietnamese, na Zhuang; mkpụrụedemede polysyllabic Chinese dị ụkọ ma were ya dị ka ndị na-abụghị ọkọlọtọ.

N'ọtụtụ ọnọdụ, e kenyere ọtụtụ kanji iji kpuchie otu okwu Japanese. Dị ka ọ na-adịkarị mgbe nke a na-eme, kanji dị iche iche na-ezo aka na nkọwa ụfọdụ. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, okwu ahụ bụ naosu, mgbe edere ya 治す, pụtara "ịgwọ ọrịa ma ọ bụ ọrịa". Mgbe edere 直す ọ pụtara "idozi ma ọ bụ dozie ihe". Mgbe ụfọdụ, ọdịiche ahụ doro anya, ọ bụ ezie na ọ bụghị mgbe niile. Ọdịiche nke echiche n'etiti ọrụ ntụaka abụghị ihe a na-ahụkarị; otu akwụkwọ ọkọwa okwu nwere ike ịsị na kanji hà nhata, ebe akwụkwọ ọkọwaokwu ọzọ nwere ike ịpụta ọdịiche nke ojiji. N'ihi ya, ndị na-asụ asụsụ ahụ nwere ike inwe nsogbu ịmara kanji ha ga-eji mee ihe ma jiri mmasị onwe ha ma ọ bụ site na ide okwu ahụ na hiragana. A na-ejikarị usoro nke ikpeazụ a eme ihe na ihe ndị dị mgbagwoju anya dị ka Shalaと moto, nke nwere ọ dịkarịa ala kanji ise dị iche iche: 元, 基, 本, 下, na 素, nke atọ mbụ n'ime ha nwere naanị obere ọdịiche. Ihe atụ ọzọ a ma ama bụ sakazuki " iko iko", nke a pụrụ ide dị ka ọ dịkarịa ala ise dị iche iche kanji: 杯, 意, na 坏; n'ime ndị a, abụọ mbụ bụ ihe a na-ahụkarị - n'ụzọ iwu bụ 杯 bụ obere iko na 意 nnukwu iko.

A na-ekekwa agụmba olumba mpaghara nke kanji n'okpuru kun'yomi, ọkachasị ọgụgụ maka mkpụrụokwu n'asụsụ Ryukyuan.  Ọzọkwa, n'ọnọdụ ndị a na-adịghị ahụkebe gairaigo (okwu agbaziri agbaziri) nwere otu agwa jikọtara ya na nke a, nke a na-ekewa agụmagụ a n'ụzọ zuru oke dị ka kun'yomi, n'ihi na a na-eji agwa ahụ mee ihe ọ pụtara, ọ bụghị ụda.

Ateji[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ateji bụ mkpụrụedemede a na-eji naanị maka ụda ha. N'okwu a, a ka na-adabere na ọgụgụ dị mma, ma ọ bụ jiri ya mee ihe naanị maka ihe ọ pụtara (n'ozuzu ya ụdị ateji, jukujikun). Ya mere, ọ bụ naanị ihe zuru ezu - ọ bụghị onye ọ bụla - nwere ọgụgụ. E nwekwara ọnọdụ pụrụ iche ebe ọgụgụ ahụ dị iche kpamkpam, na-adabere na akụkọ ihe mere eme ma ọ bụ ọdịnala.

Gairaigo[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ngwakọta nke ọgụgụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ihe ndị pụrụ iche a na-agụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Otu onye gairaigo[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Nanori[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Mgbe ị ga-eji ihe ị ga-agụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Iwu kwadoro[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ogugu ihe ndị a na-amaghị ama[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Aha ebe[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Enyemaka n'ịkpọpụta[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

N'ihi mgbagwoju anya ndị metụtara, kanji na-enwe mgbe ụfọdụ ịkpọpụta ha maka ihe gbara ya gburugburu na mkpụrụedemede ruby a maara dị ka furigana, (obere kana edere n'elu ma ọ bụ n'aka nri nke agwa ahụ) ma ọ bụ kumimoji (obere kana e dere n'ahịrị mgbe agwa ahụ gasịrị). Nke a bụ eziokwu karịsịa n'ihe odide maka ụmụaka ma ọ bụ ndị mmụta mba ọzọ. A na-ejikwa ya eme ihe na akwụkwọ akụkọ na manga maka ọgụgụ ndị a na-adịghị ahụkebe ma ọ bụ ndị a na'adịghị ahụkebi, ma ọ bụ maka ọnọdụ ndị dị ka oge mbụ a na-enye aha onye edemede, na maka ihe odide ndị a na - etinyeghị na usoro a ma ama nke kanji dị mkpa. Ọrụ akụkọ ifo na-eji furigana eme ihe mgbe ụfọdụ iji mepụta "okwu" ọhụrụ site n'inye kanji nkịtị na-abụghị ọkọlọtọ, ma ọ bụ itinye okwu mba ọzọ a sụgharịrị na katakana dị ka ịgụ maka kanji ma ọ bụ kanji nke otu ihe ma ọ bụ ihe yiri ya.

okwu mkpoputa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

N'aka nke ọzọ, ịkọwapụta kanji e nyere, ma ọ bụ ịsụgharị okwu kanji - ma a maara ịkpọpụta ya ma ọ bụ na ọ bụghị - nwere ike ịbụ ihe mgbagwoju anya, n'ihi eziokwu ahụ bụ na enweghi ụzọ a na-ejikarị eme ihe iji zoo aka na kanji ọ bụla (otu anaghị ezo aka na "kanji # 237"), nakwa na ọgụgụ e nyere anaghị ezo aka n'otu kanji - n'ezie enwere ọtụtụ okwu homophonous, ọ bụghị naanị mkpụrụedemede ọ bụla, ọkachasị maka kango (na on'yomi). Ihe kachasị mfe bụ ide okwu ahụ - ma ọ bụ na akwụkwọ ma ọ bụ ịchọpụta ya na ikuku - ma ọ bụrụ na ọ dị elu (nke e nyere ya ịkpọpụta) na akwụkwọ ọkọwa okwu, ọkachasị akwụkwọ ọkọwaokwu eletrọniki; mgbe nke a agaghị ekwe omume, dịka mgbe ị na-ekwu okwu na ekwentị ma ọ bụ ihe ederede adịghị (na ịchọpụta na ikuku dị mgbagwoju anya), enwere ike iji usoro dị iche iche. Ihe ndị a gụnyere inye kun'yomi maka ihe odide - ndị a na-adịkarị iche - site na iji okwu a ma ama nwere otu ihe odide ahụ (ma ọ ga-aka mma otu ịkpọpụta na ihe ọ pụtara), na ịkọwa ihe odide ahụ site na ihe ndị mejupụtara ya. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, mmadụ nwere ike ịkọwa otu esi asụpụta okwu kōshinryō (香辛料, ) site na okwu kao-ri (香り, ihe na'esi ísì ọma), kara-i (sweet, spicy), na in-ryō (ihe ọṅụṅụ, ) - abụọ mbụ na-eji kun'yomi, nke atọ bụ a ma ama - na-ekwu "kaori, karai, ryō dị ka inryō".

Akwụkwọ ọkọwa okwu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ọganihu obodo na ọdịiche dị na ndị China[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ebe ọ bụ na kanji bụ n'ụzọ bụ isi Chinese hanzi eji ede Japanese, ọtụtụ n'ime mkpụrụedemede eji eme ihe na Japanese nke oge a ka na-ejigide ihe ha pụtara na China, ọdịdị yiri ụfọdụ n'ime ihe odide ọdịnala ndị China nke oge a, yana ogo yiri nke Classical Chinese pronunciation nke e webatara na Japan site na narị afọ nke ise ruo nke itoolu.[17] Ka o sina dị, mgbe ọtụtụ narị afọ nke mmepe gasịrị, enwere ọnụ ọgụgụ dị ịrịba ama nke kanji eji eme ihe na Japanese nke oge a nke nwere ihe dị iche na hanzi eji eme ihe n'asụsụ Chinese nke oge a. Ọdịiche dị otú ahụ bụ n'ihi:

N'otu aka ahụ, usoro nke ịdị mfe agwa na China China kemgbe afọ 1950 ebutela n'eziokwu na ndị na-asụ Japan na-amụbeghị asụsụ Chinese nwere ike ha agaghị amata ụfọdụ mkpụrụedemede dị mfe.

  1. Matsunaga (1996). "The Linguistic Nature of Kanji Reexamined: Do Kanji Represent Only Meanings?". The Journal of the Association of Teachers of Japanese 30 (2): 1–22. DOI:10.2307/489563. ISSN 0885-9884. Retrieved on December 2, 2022. 
  2. Taylor (1995). Writing and literacy in Chinese, Korean, and Japanese. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. ISBN 90-272-1794-7. 
  3. McAuley (2001). Language change in East Asia. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon, 180–204. 
  4. Suski (2011). The Phonetics of Japanese Language: With Reference to Japanese Script. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9780203841808. 
  5. Malatesha Joshi (2006). Handbook of orthography and literacy. New Jersey: Routledge, 481–2. ISBN 0-8058-4652-2. 
  6. Miyake (2003), 8.
  7. Yamazaki (5 October 2001). Tawayama find hints kanji introduced in Yayoi Period. The Japan Times. Archived from the original on February 15, 2022. Retrieved on 15 February 2022.
  8. Chen (2014). A Study of Japanese Loanwords in Chinese. University of Oslo. Archived from the original on September 12, 2021. Retrieved on September 12, 2021.
  9. Berger (1975). "Review of Ishiwara Kanji and Japan's Confrontation with the West". Journal of Japanese Studies 2 (1): 156–169. DOI:10.2307/132045. ISSN 0095-6848. Retrieved on December 8, 2022. 
  10. 人名用漢字の新字旧字 第82回 「鉄」と「鐵」. Sanseidō. Archived from the original on November 19, 2021. Retrieved on 2015-08-14.
  11. Tamaoka, K., Makioka, S., Sanders, S. & Verdonschot, R. G. (2017). "www.kanjidatabase.com: a new interactive online database for psychological and linguistic research on Japanese kanji and their compound words". Psychological Research 81, 696–708.
  12. JIS X 0208:1997.
  13. JIS X 0212:1990.
  14. JIS X 0213:2000.
  15. Lunde (1999). CJKV Information Processing (in en). "O'Reilly Media, Inc.". ISBN 978-1-56592-224-2. Retrieved on March 11, 2022. 
  16. Verdonschot (2013). "The multiple pronunciations of Japanese kanji: A masked priming investigation". The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 66 (10): 2023–38. DOI:10.1080/17470218.2013.773050. PMID 23510000. 
  17. SHIMIZU (2010). "Review of Remembering the Kanji 2: A Systematic Guide to Reading the Japanese Characters. 3rd ed.; Remembering the Kanji 3: Writing and Reading Japanese Characters for Upper-Level Proficiency. 2nd ed., JAMES W. HEISIG". The Modern Language Journal 94 (3): 519–521. DOI:10.1111/j.1540-4781.2010.01077.x. ISSN 0026-7902. Retrieved on December 8, 2022.