Mbelata ihe ize ndụ ọdachi

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Obodo nta agbanweela atụmatụ ụlọ iji chebe ndị mmadụ pụọ na mmiri na-arị elu na obere ụgbọ mmiri na-eji ebu ndị mmadụ na nri iji kwado ihe oriri. Ụdị mbelata ihe ize ndụ ọdachi a bụ ihe dị mkpa mgbanwe ihu igwe

Mbelata ihe ize ndụ (DRR) mgbe ụfọdụ a na-akpọ njikwa ihe ize ndụ nke ngwaọrụ (DRM) bụ usoro a haziri hazi iji ngwaọrụ, egbochi ma ọta ihe ize ozi nke ngwaọrụ. nsogbu ya bụ ibelata ndị na ibe ya maka ngwaọrụ yana mgbochi ebe obibi na ihe ize ndụ ndị ọzọ na-akpata ha. Nkọwa a na-ekwukarị maka mbelata ihe ize ndụ bụ nke ụlọ ọrụ UN dị ka United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR) na United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) na-eji: "DRR na-ezube ibu ma ọlị ihe izen. mgba dị ugbu a na ijikwa ihe ize ndụ ndụ, nke niile na-enye aka n'ịkwalite ike ma ya mere na ike na-adịgide adịgide".

Medicaịka ike mmekọahụ etiti awụ 1970 yana ike nke ihe ize ndụ egwuregwu. Mbelata ihe ize ndụ bụ ọrụ nke ụlọ ọrụ na-egosi. Ọ ga-abụ nke mkpa nke ụlọ ọrụ ndị dị otú ahụ si arụ ọrụ ha, ọ bụghị mgbakwunye ma ọ bụ otu ihe. [ntụgharị dị mkpa] Mbelata ize ndụ dị oke egwu: ekiri ya sara mbara ma dị okpuru okpuru-eka njikwa. Enwere ike ijikwa ihe ize ndụ n'ụdị ngalaba na ọrụ ọrụ.

Na mba ụwa, ihe dị mkpa bụ Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction. mgbaàmà ya bụ inyere aka iguzobe mba na nke mpaghara maka DRR; ka ọ na-erule afọ 2022, mba 125 nwera mba. egwu Mba Nile maka Mbelata Ihe Iche Ọdachi, n'ụbọchị iri na atọ nke nwanyị Ọktoba, edemedela aka mee ka a hụ DRR n'anya ma kwalite omenala. Ụfọdụ n'ime isi okwu na ihe ịma aka mkpa obodo na mpaghara dị na njikwa ihe ize ndụ, iche nke ihe ize ndụ nke ngwaọrụ na otu nke a si amịpụtara, na nkeji.  

Nkọwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ọfịs United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR) na-mbelata mbelata ihe ize ndụ (DRR) dị ka omume "ezube ịbelata ihe izen nke dị ugbu a na ijikwa ihe ize ndụ , nke niile na-enye aka n' ike na ya mere na ike na-adịgide". 

Mmepe nke echiche ahụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ọganihu nke mbelata ihe ize ndụ ọdachi maka mba ụfọdụ

Site na njikwa ọdachi[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Mmanụ ala bụkwa ihe ize ndụ nke na-akpata ọnwụ na mmerụ ahụ dị ukwuu. Ụmụ nwanyị na-ewepụ ogbunigwe na Lebanọn gawara iwepụ ogbunokwu.

Echiche na omume mmemme omume awụ 1970 sere ile ese anya na ike ihe mere eji eme. O le ndị iro anya n'ibu nwere ike ihe ize ndụ tupu tupu emee. Nke a emeela ka a kwusikwuo ike na ilọta na mmekọrịta na mgbakwunye na nzaghachi na usoro mgbake nke ngwaọrụ. nha, ndị na-eme ememme na òtù ọha na eze anabatala ya n'ọtụtụ ebe.

DRR bụ echiche na-emetụta ihe niile nke na o siri ike nchọpụta ma ọ bụ n'ụzọ zuru ezu, ọ bụ ebe na echiche sara mbara doro anya. A na-afọ ya n'ozuzu ya ka ọmụmụ sara mbara na agụ ndị iwu, a na-enwe omume iji gbata ike na ihe ize ndụ n'obodo niile. A na-ahụpụta na ngosi iwu ya na onyinye iji ohere ihe ize ndụ egwuregwu: 16

A na-ihe okwu 'nchịkwa ihe ize ndụ' (DRM) eme ihe n'otu ihe ahụ ma na-eche otu ihe ahụ. Nke ahụ bụ usoro a haziri hazi iji ụgbọ mmiri, echere ma ọta ihe ize ndụ nke ụdị ọdịnaya, ihe ize ndụ ihe na ọrụ mmadụ. A na-etinye DRM n'ahụ nke ọma na ọrụ nke DRR: mme ihe nke DRR. N'ikwu ya n'ụzọ ọzọ, mbelata ihe ize ndụ dị iche bụ iwu nke njikwa ihe ize ndụ.

Ịnagide[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Na mbelata ihe ize ndụ ndụ, echiche nke ntachi obi na-agụ otu isiokwu nke ozi na nzaghachi. Resilience na-ezo aka n'ikike nke obodo ma ọ bụ ọha mmadụ iji usoro na ọrụ ya dị mkpa n'ihu mmetụta na ihe eserese anya. Resilience nwere njikọ chiri anya na echiche nke sị ike, ọ bụ ebe na resilience na--acho ihe dị elu, , Mma nke iwulite usoro mmadụ na ibe ya, ebe vulnerability bụ ngwá ọrụ maka ihe ihe nke usoro ndị ahụ.

Okwu resilience sitere na sayensị gburugburu ebe obibi dị ka nkọwa nke nzaghachi usoro maka mgbanwe, nke sitere na Latin resilire, "ịgba [azụ]".[1] C.S. Holling ji ya mee ihe na mbụ n'echiche dị ugbu a na 1973, dị ka ihe atụ nke ikike mmekọrịta dị n'ime usoro okike iji nọgide, ya bụ, maka ihe ndị dị n'etiti usoro ahụ ka ha ghara ịpụ.[2] Resilience n'echiche nke gburugburu ebe obibi abụghị nguzozi: ọ dị iche na nkwụsi ike, ikike nke usoro iguzogide mgbanwe. Ya mere, usoro nke na-eguzogide, nwere ike ịgbanwe n'efughị usoro na ọrụ ya. N'ihe banyere usoro mmadụ, ọrụ ahụ bụ ndụ na ihe ndị dị mkpa nke ndụ.

N'ime mpaghara nke mbelata ihe ize ndụ ọdachi, otu nkọwa a nabatara n'ọtụtụ ebe nke ike na-abịa site na UNISDR: "Ikike nke usoro, obodo ma ọ bụ ọha mmadụ na-ahụ ihe ize ndụ iji guzogide, na-amị, na-anabata ma na-agbake site na mmetụta nke ihe ize ndụ n'oge na ụzọ dị irè, gụnyere site na nchekwa na iweghachi ihe owuwu na ọrụ ya dị mkpa".[3]

Enwere ike ịhụ mkpa ọ dị na njikwa ihe ize ndụ ọdachi site na etiti nke okwu ahụ na 2005-2015 Hyogo Framework for Action, nke isiokwu ya bụ "Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters". Ya mere, a na-aghọta ugbu a na-ewu ume dị ka ihe mgbaru ọsọ nke ibelata ihe ize ndụ ọdachi.[4]

Mgbanwe ihu igwe[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Mgbanwe ihu igwe, site na ịrị elu nke okpomọkụ, ịgbanwe usoro mmiri ozuzo, na ịrị elu elu nke oke osimiri, na-emetụta ọdịdị nke ihe ize ndụ mmiri nke nwere ike ibute ọdachi. Ihe atụ nke ihe ize ndụ ndị dị otú ahụ bụ ụkọ mmiri ozuzo, idei mmiri, na oké ifufe. Nnyocha banyere mgbanwe ihu igwe anọwo na-aga n'ihu kemgbe afọ ndị 1990: 167 

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Ọganihu na-adịgide adịgide[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Mmepe na-adịgide adịgide na-anwa ịchọta nguzozi n'etiti mmepe akụ na ụba, nchedo gburugburu ebe obibi, na ọdịmma ọha na eze. Akụkọ Brundtland na 1987 kọwara mmepe na-adịgide adịgide dị ka "mmepe nke na-egbo mkpa nke ọgbọ dị ugbu a n'emeghị ka ikike nke ọgbọ ndị na-abịa n'ọdịnihu gboo mkpa nke ha".[5]

Mbelata ihe ize ndụ ọdachi na njikwa nwere ike ịbụ akụkụ dị mkpa nke atụmatụ mmepe na-adịgide adịgide. Usoro dị n'okpuru na-ezo aka na ikike nke njikwa ihe ize ndụ ọdachi iji gbanwee usoro mmepe dị ugbu a dị ka mgbanwe, nke "na-agụnye mgbanwe ndị dị mkpa na njirimara nke usoro, gụnyere usoro uru; usoro nchịkwa, iwu, ma ọ bụ bureaucratic; ụlọ ọrụ ego; na usoro teknụzụ ma ọ bụ biophysical".[6] Mgbanwe na-eme ka ọha mmadụ na-amụta. Mmụta a gụnyere iwu mmekọrịta, nke na-enyere aka ịbawanye ikike mpaghara ma nye aka na mgbanwe ụlọ ọrụ. Nke a n'aka nke ya na-enye ohere ka ọha mmadụ na-aga n'ihu site na adịghị ike, mgbanwe na mmepe gaa na ntachi obi.[7]

DRR bụ ebe ọrụ dị mkpa maka ọtụtụ n'ime UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Karịsịa ọ bụ otu n'ime ụzọ e si emezu ebumnuche maka SDG11. Nke a bụ Target 11.b: "Nchịkwa mmejuputa maka itinye aka, arụmọrụ nke ihe onwunwe na mbelata ihe ize ndụ ọdachi".

Iwu mba ụwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Mmebi nke Chennai mgbe ala ọma jijiji nke 2004 Indian Ocean

A na-arịwanye elu arịrịọ maka nghọta doro anya banyere ihe ndị mejupụtara DRR na ihe ngosi nke ọganihu na-aga n'ihu - ihe ịma aka nke ndị mba ụwa weere na Nzukọ Mba Nile nke UN na Nchịkọta Ọdachi (WCDR) na Kobe, Japan, na 2005, naanị ụbọchị mgbe ala ọma jijiji nke 2004 gasịrị. WCDR malitere usoro nke ịkwanye ụlọ ọrụ mba ụwa na gọọmentị mba karịa okwu na-edoghị anya nke ọtụtụ nkwupụta iwu na ịtọpụta ebumnuche doro anya na nkwa maka DRR.

Hyogo Framework maka Omume[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Nzọụkwụ mbụ na usoro a bụ nkwado iwu na WCDR nke Hyogo Framework for Action (2005-2015) (HFA). Nke a bụ usoro mbụ a nabatara n'ụwa niile maka DRR. O setịpụrụ usoro ebumnuche a haziri ahazi (nsonaazụ - ebumnuche atụmatụ - ihe ndị ka mkpa), yana ihe ise maka ime ihe na-anwa 'ijide' ebe ndị isi nke DRR. Global Platform nke UN maka mbelata ihe ize ndụ ọdachi nyere ohere maka UN na mba ndị so na ya iji nyochaa ọganihu megide Hyogo Framework. O nwere nnọkọ mbụ ya 5-7 June 2007 na Geneva, Switzerland, ebe UNISDR dị. E mere Global Platforms ndị sochirinụ na June 2009, May 2011 na May 2013, niile na Geneva.

Usoro Sendai maka Mbelata Ihe Iche Ọdachi[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

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Ihe omume mba ụwa ndị ọzọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Omume UN ngosi aka imeziwanye ma kwalite echiche ahụ na mba ụwa, nke a ịhụnanya na mbụ site na nhọpụta UN nke afọ 1990 dị ka "Afọ Iri Mba Nile maka Mbelata Ọdachi Okike". N'afọ 1999, mba ndị otu UN akwụkwọ International Strategy for Disaster Risk Reduction, nke ọma site na omenala na nzaghachi na mbenata, site n'ịchọta "omenala ozi". N'ime usoro ọzọ iji kwalite ndị zuru ụwa ọnụ nke mbelata ihe ize ndụ ndị, ​​Ezumezu nke Mba Ndị Dị n'Otu Ụtọ ụbọchị, ụwa nke a mara ugbu a dị ka mgbaàmà Mba Nile maka Mbelata Ihe ize ndụ na October 13 ọ nkọwa. egwu a bụ ụbọchị mba ụwa nke na-agba nwa amaala ọ il na mgbanaka ume isonye n'iwu obodo na mba ndị ọzọ na-anagide iche. Njikọ ahụ bụ nke nke UN nke International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction. N'afọ 2009, fasaxa Ezumezu nke UN nha aha ahụ ka ọ ghara Mba Nile maka Mbelata Ọdachi.

Ihe ize ndụ ọdachi bụ ihe na-egosi mmepe na-adịghị mma, yabụ ibelata ihe ize ndụ ọghọm chọrọ ijikọta omume DRR n'ime 17 Sustainable Development Goals. Ndị na-eme mkpebi kwesịrị ijikwa ihe ize ndụ, ọ bụghị naanị ọdachi.[8]

Ọganihu na DRR[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ka ọ na-erule afọ 2022, ọnụ ọgụgụ mba nwere atụmatụ mba maka DRR bụ 125. Nke a bụ nnukwu mmelite kemgbe a nabatara Sendai Framework (site na 55 na 2015).[9]

Ọnụ ego na ego[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

ego akụ na nkwado nke ngwaọrụ na-arị elu, mana a na-etinye ọtụtụ ego maka iji ọgụ a na nzaghachi maka ngwaọrụ, kama ijikwa ihe ize ndụ ha n'ekiri. naanị 4% nke ihie $ 10 na ndị isi nhọrọ kwa apụ na-etinye aka na ntinye (isi iyi), ma dollar ọ mgba a na-emefu na mbelata ihe ize ndụ na-echekwa n'etiti $ 5 na $ 10 na mfu akụ na isiokwu site na ngwaọrụ. ikpe nke Niger mmetụta dị mma na uru maka fu ego na-agafe ọnọdụ 3 dị iche iche (site na ọkwa zuru oke nke ngwaọrụ, ruo na mbenata nwere ike ịla n'iyi na-agụtụ), na-eme akwụkwọ na $ 1 ọ mgbasa a na-emefu na-ewu na $ 3.25 ruo $ 5.31 nke uru.

E nweela mmụba na mmefu akụ na ụba site na ọdachi metụtara ihu igwe na ihu igwe, nke nyere aka na ijeri $ 165 nke mmefu akụna ụba n'ụwa niile na 2018 dịka atụmatụ sitere na nnukwu ụlọ ọrụ ịnshọransị Swiss Re.[10]

Nsogbu na ihe ịma aka[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Obodo na òtù ha[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

esemokwu / echiche obodo na-eme echiche na-eduhie eduhie obodo. Nke mbụ, ọ na-ahụ ụdị ndị ọzọ nkọwa nke ọha na eze (ndị ọrụ afụ na ndị obodo, òtù ọha na eze na-akpa) dị ka ndị na-eche isi na ime ihe ike. A na-ele omume site na obodo ma ọ bụ otu ndị isi (ikike, na ịzọpụta) anya dị ka ihe na- ike uru ma ọ bụ ihe na-akpaghasị, n'ihi na ndị njikwa njikwa ha. Echiche nke abụọ bụ na-ahụ na-ahụ 'ndị isi ahụ' na-akpata isi bụ ndị nsogbu ma ọ bụ omume na-arụ ọrụ (ụjọ, ịpụnara mmadụ ihe, ọrụ onwe onye). Ya mere, ọ dị mkpa ka a gwa ha ihe ha ga-eme na a ga-achịkwa omume ha - n' tọrọ ndị siri ike, site na ịkwọ ndị agha. E nwere ike ndị mmadụ na ibe ya iji gbaghaa 'ụrọ ifo' dị otú ahụ.

Echiche ọzọ, nke ọtụtụ mkpa [dị mkpa] mere, na-emesi ike mkpa obodo na ụlọ ọrụ mpaghara dị na njikwa ihe ize ndụ ngwaọrụ. Eziokwu maka njikwa ihe ize ndụ nke obodo na ọ na-azaghachi na nsogbu na mkpa mpaghara, na-adabere na ihe na nka mpaghara, dị ọnụ ala, na-eme ka nchekwa nke nkwado dị mma site na ezigbo 'onye nwe' nke ọrụ, na-ewusi ike ikike iwu na nhazi obodo, ma na-enye ndị mmadụ ike site n'inyere ha aka akara ihe aka ndị a na ndị ọzọ. Ndị obodo na òtù bụ ndị isi na-eme ihe na ibelata ihe ize ndụ na nzaghachi n'ịlụ ọ elala. N'ihi ya, a hụla na onyeisi isi obodo ọha na eze dị na obodo nwere ike inye aka nke ukwuu beta ihe ize ndụ na mpaghara obodo.

Ọchịchị[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

N'ọtụtụ mba, njikwa ihe ize ndụ na-agbasa na gọọmentị ime obodo. N'ime obodo ukwu, ngwá ọrụ a na-ejikarị eme ihe bụ atụmatụ mmepe mpaghara (obodo, atụmatụ zuru oke ma ọ bụ atụmatụ n'ozuzu ya), na-esote atụmatụ mberede na mbelata ihe ize ndụ nke gọọmentị ime obodo chọrọ ka ha nabata site na iwu ma na-emelite kwa afọ 4-5. Obodo ukwu na-ahọrọ atụmatụ kwụ otu ebe, a na-akpọ, dabere na ihe gbara ya gburugburu, na-adịgide adịgide, na-ebelata, ma ọ bụ atụmatụ ahịhịa ndụ. N'ime ime obodo, itinye ụkpụrụ mbelata ihe ize ndụ n'ime atụmatụ mmepe obodo (obodo ma ọ bụ distrikti) na-achịkwa.[11] N'ọtụtụ ọnọdụ, ọkachasị South of the Sahara, usoro a na-emegide enweghị ego ma ọ bụ usoro maka ịnyefe ihe onwunwe site na etiti gaa na mmefu ego mpaghara. Ọtụtụ mgbe atụmatụ anaghị ejikọta ihe ọmụma mpaghara, sayensị na teknụzụ. N'ikpeazụ, ha na-enye ndị bi n'otu n'otu mmejuputa iwu n'enweghị itinye ha n'ụzọ zuru ezu na usoro mkpebi. Ezigbo nnọchiteanya nke obodo na ntinye aka nwoke na nwanyị na usoro mkpebi ka bụ ebumnuche nke atụmatụ mmepe mpaghara kama ịbụ ụzọ isi wuo ha.[12]

Ụdị ọdachi dị iche iche

Mmekọahụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ihe ize ndụ ọdachi abụghị nke na-anọpụ iche na nwoke ma ọ bụ nwanyị. Nnyocha egosiwo na ọdachi na-emetụta ụmụ nwanyị na ụmụ agbọghọ n'ụzọ na-ekwesịghị ekwesị. Mgbe tsunami nke afọ 2004 gasịrị n'Oké Osimiri India, 77% na 72% nke ndị nwụrụ na mpaghara North Aceh na Aceh Besar, Indonesia, bụ ụmụ nwanyị. Na India 62% nke ndị nwụrụ bụ ụmụ nwanyị.[13] Nke a bụ n'ihi ọrụ nwoke na nwanyị nke ọha na eze na-ekpebi ụkpụrụ na omume ndị ụmụ nwanyị na ụmụ nwoke, na ụmụ agbọghọ na ụmụ nwoke. Karịsịa, ụmụ nwanyị na-eburu ibu ọrụ maka ọrụ ndị dị n'ụlọ ma nwee ike ịghara ịhapụ akụ ha ma ọ bụrụ na ịdọ aka ná ntị banyere ihe ize ndụ; ha anaghị amụta nkà ndụ nke nwere ike inyere aka na ọdachi, dị ka ịmụta igwu mmiri ma ọ bụ ịrịgo.

Ụzọ na-emetụta nwoke na nwanyị ga-achọpụta otú ọdachi si emetụta ụmụ nwoke, ụmụ nwanyị, ụmụ nwoke na ụmụ nwanyị n'ụzọ dị iche ma kpụzie iwu nke na-edozi nsogbu, nchegbu na mkpa ndị mmadụ.[14]

Ihe Nlereanya[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Bangladesh[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Dabere na Climate Risk Index, Bangladesh bụ otu n'ime mba ndị nwere ọdachi n'ụwa.[15] Bangladesh nwere nnukwu nsogbu maka ụdị ọdachi dị iche iche n'ihi mgbanwe ihu igwe, ihe ndị siri ike, ọnụ ọgụgụ dị elu nke ndị mmadụ, oke ịda ogbenye na enweghị ikpe ziri ezi, ikike ụlọ ọrụ na-adịghị mma, ego ezughi oke, na akụrụngwa na-adịghị ike. Bangladesh malitere nkwadebe ọdachi ya mgbe oké ifufe nke 1991 gasịrị ma ugbu a nwee atụmatụ zuru oke nke mba maka nchịkwa ọdachi nke na-enye usoro na mba na mpaghara mba.[16]

Njikọ Europe[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  Na mgbakwunye na inye ego maka enyemaka mmadụ, European Commission's Directorate-General for European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations (DG-ECHO) na-ahụ maka EU Civil Protection Mechanism iji hazie nzaghachi maka ọdachi na Europe na karịa ma na-enye aka na ọ dịkarịa ala 75% nke njem na / ma ọ bụ ụgwọ ọrụ nke itinye aka.[17] N'ịbụ nke e guzobere na 2001, usoro ahụ na-akwalite imekọ ihe ọnụ n'etiti ndị na-ahụ maka nchekwa obodo na Europe. Ka ọ dị ugbu a, mba iri atọ na anọ bụ ndị otu Mechanism; mba iri abụọ na asaa niile so na EU na mgbakwunye na Iceland, Norway, Serbia, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Turkey na Bosnia na Herzegovina. E guzobere usoro ahụ iji mee ka enyemaka jikọọ aka site na steeti ndị sonyere na ya nye ndị ọdachi ndị sitere n'okike na ndị mmadụ kpatara na Europe na ebe ndị ọzọ.

Hụkwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

 

Ihe odide[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

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  4. UNISDR. (2012) Towards a post-2015 framework for disaster risk reduction. United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction.
  5. United Nations General Assembly (20 March 1987). Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future; Transmitted to the General Assembly as an Annex to document A/42/427 – Development and International Co-operation: Environment; Our Common Future, Chapter 2: Towards Sustainable Development; Paragraph 1. United Nations General Assembly. Retrieved on 1 March 2010.
  6. Toward a Sustainable and Resilient Future.. Retrieved on Nov 27, 2020.
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  8. Disaster risk reduction & disaster risk management | PreventionWeb.net. www.preventionweb.net. Retrieved on 2020-11-25.
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  10. Natural catastrophes and man-made disasters in 2018: "secondary" perils on the frontline. SwissRe Institute SIGMA (2019).
  11. Tiepolo (2017). Relevance and Quality of Climate Planning for Large and Medium-Sized Cities of the Tropics, Green Energy and Technology. Cham: Springer, 199–226. DOI:10.1007/978-3-319-59096-7_10. ISBN 978-3-319-59096-7. 
  12. Tiepolo (2020). "Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction into Local Development Plans for Rural Tropical Africa: A Systematic Assessment". Sustainability 12 (2196). DOI:10.3390/su12062196. 
  13. Neumayer, E and Plümper, T. (2007) 'The gendered nature of natural disastersL the impact of catastrophic events on the gender gap in making disaster risk reduction gender-sensitive: policy and practical guidelines life expectancy 1981–2002', Annals of the Association of American Geographers97(3): 551–566.
  14. Dr Virginie Le Masson and Lara Langston, Overseas Development Institute, March 2014, How Should the new international disaster risk framework address gender equality? http://cdkn.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/CDKN_Gender_DRR_PolicyBrief_Final_WEB.pdf
  15. Eckstein (2019). GLOBAL CLIMATE RISK INDEX 2020 Who Suffers Most from Extreme Weather Events? Weather-Related Loss Events in 2018 and 1999 to 2018. Archived from the original on February 24, 2021. Retrieved on Nov 27, 2020.
  16. Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh Ministry of Disaster Management and Relief: National Plan for Disaster Management (2016-2020) Building Resilience for Sustainable Human Development
  17. EU Civil Protection Mechanism. European Commission. Archived from the original on 2015-03-10. Retrieved on 2021-07-28.