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Mmetọ ala

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Mmetọ ala

 

Mmetọ àjà ala mmetọ ala, ma ọ bụ mmetọ mbara ala dị ka akụkụ nke mmebi ala na-esite na ọnụnọ nke kemịikalu xenobiotic (nke mmadụ mere) ma ọ bụ mgbanwe ndị ọzọ na gburugburu ala. Ọ na-abụkarị ọrụ ụlọ ọrụ mmepụta ihe, kemịkalu ọrụ ugbo ma ọ bụ mkpofu na-ekwesịghị ekwesị. Chemicals ndị a na-ahụkarị bụ nke akpọrọ na bekee petroleum hydrocarbons, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (dị ka naphthalene na benzo(a)pyrene), solvents, pesticides, lead, na ọla ndị ọzọ dị arọ. Mmetọ na-emetụta ogo mmepụta ihe na ike nke kemikalu. Nchegbu banyere mmetọ ala na-esite n'ihe ize ndụ ahụike, site na mmetụ ihu na ihu na ala emetọ, anwụrụ ọkụ sitere na mmetọ, ma ọ bụ site na mmegọ nke abụọ nke mmiri dị n'ime na n'okpuru ala.[1] Map nke ebe ala emetọ na nhicha ndị na-esi na ya apụta bụ ọrụ na-eri oge ma dị oke ọnụ, ma chọọ nka na geology, hydrology, chemistry, modeling kọmputa, na GIS na mmetọ gburugburu ebe obibi, yana ekele maka akụkọ ihe mere eme nke kemịkal ụlọ ọrụ.[2]

Na ugwu Amerịka na Western Europe, a maara oke ala emetọ nke ọma, ebe ọtụtụ mba dị na mpaghara ndị a nwere usoro iwu iji chọpụta ma dozie nsogbu gburugburu ebe obibi a. Mba ndị na-emepe emepe anaghị achịkwa nke ọma n'agbanyeghị na ụfọdụ n'ime ha enweela nnukwu mmepụta ihe.

Ihe Ndị Na-akpata ya[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Mmetọ ala nwere ike ịpụta site na ihe ndị a (ndepụta na-adịghị agwụ agwụ) :

  • Microplastics
  • Mmanụ na-awụfu
  • Mmanụ ala na ọrụ nke ụlọ ọrụ ndị ọzọ dị arọ
  • Mgbasa na mberede nwere ike ime n'oge ihe omume, wdg.
  • Mgbọrọ nke tankị nchekwa n'okpuru ala (gụnyere ọkpọkọ eji ebufe ihe dị n'ime)
  • Mmiri ozuzo acid
  • Ọrụ ugbo siri ike
  • Agrochemicals, dị ka ọgwụ ahụhụ, ọgwụ ahịhịa na fatịlaịza
  • Petrochemicals
  • Ihe mberede ụlọ ọrụ
  • Ihe mkpofu okporo ụzọ
  • Ọrụ owuwu
  • Ihe osise ndị e sere n'èzí
  • Mmiri na-emetọ n'elu ala na-abanye n'ime ala
  • Mgbọ, kemịkal, na ihe ndị ọzọ na-eme ka agha
  • Ihichapụ ihe mkpofu
    • Mmanụ na mmanụ a na-atụfu
    • Ihe mkpofu nuklia
    • Mgbasa nke ihe mkpofu ụlọ ọrụ na ala
    • Mmiri nsị
    • Ebe a na-ekpofu ahịhịa na ebe a na-awụfu ihe n'ụzọ iwu na-
    • Ọla coal
    • Ihe mkpofu eletrọniki
    • Nkume nwere ọtụtụ ihe na-egbu egbu na-emetọ ya.
    • Pb merụrụ ya n'ihi anwụrụ ọkụ ụgbọ ala, Cd, na Zn nke taya mebiri.
    • Mmetọ site n'ime ka ikuku na-emetọ ikuku sie ike site n'ịkpọ ihe ndị a na-emepụta n'ala ọkụ.

kemikalu ndị a na-ahụkarị bụ nke akpọrọ ndịa; petroleum hydrocarbons, solvents, pesticides, lead, na ọla ndị ọzọ dị arọ.

Ọrụ ọ bụla nke na-eduga n'ụdị ndị ọzọ nke mmebi ala (idie mmiri; compaction, wdg) nwere ike ime ka mmetụta mmetọ ahụ ka njọ n'ụzọ na-apụtaghị ìhè na mmezi ala ahụ na-aghọwanye ihe na-agwụ ike.

Nhazi ihe mkpofu E na Agbogbloshie, Ghana. Nchịkọta na-ekwesịghị ekwesị nke ngwongwo arụpụtara na ihe mkpofu ụlọ ọrụ, na-apụtakarị na obodo ndị dị na ndịda ụwa ga-edozi ngwongwo. Karịsịa na-enweghị nchebe kwesịrị ekwesị, ọla dị arọ na mmetọ ndị ọzọ nwere ike ịbanye n'ime ala, ma mepụta mmetọ mmiri na mmetụ ikuku.

Ntinye nke akụkọ ihe mere eme nke ntụ coal eji eme ihe maka ebe obibi, azụmahịa, na ụlọ ọrụ mmepụta ihe, yana maka usoro mmepụta ihe dị ka ịgbaze ore, bụ isi iyi a na-ahụkarị nke mmetọ n'ógbè ndị mepụtara tupu ihe dị ka afọ 1960. Coal na-ejikọta lead na zinc n'oge ọ na-emepụta, yana ọla ndị ọzọ dị arọ ruo n'ókè dị ala. Mgbe a na-ere coal ọkụ, ọtụtụ n'ime ọla ndị a na-etinye n'ime ntụ (ihe dị iche bụ mercury). Ọkụ coal na slag nwere ike ịnwe ihe zuru ezu iji ruo eruo dị ka "ihe mkpofu dị ize ndụ", akọwapụtara na US dị ka ihe karịrị ise mg / L nke ihe a na-ewepụta site na iji usoro TCLP. Na mgbakwunye na ọta, ntụ coal na-enwekarị ọnụ ọgụgụ dịgasị iche iche ma dị ịrịba ama nke polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; dị ka, benzo(a)anthracene, benzoin(b)fluoranthene, benzoinink, benzon(a)pyrene, indeno(cd)pyrène, phenanthrene, anthracene, na ndị ọzọ). A maara PAHs ndị a dị ka ihe na-akpata ọrịa kansa n'ahụ mmadụ na ọnụ ọgụgụ dị mma nke ha n'ime ala na-adịkarị gburugburu otú mg / kg. Enwere ike ịmata ntụ na ụrọ coal site na ọnụnọ nke mkpụrụ na-acha ọcha n'ime ala, ala na-acha ntụ ntụ, ma ọ bụ (ụrọ coal) bubble, mkpụrụ osisi vesicular pebble-sized grains.

Mmiri nsị a gwọrọ agwọ, nke a maara na ụlọ ọrụ ahụ dị ka biosolids, aghọwo ihe arụmụka dị ka "mkpụrụ osisi". Ebe ọ bụ na ọ bụ ihe na-esite na ọgwụgwọ nsị, ọ na-enwekarị mmetọ dị ka ihe ndị dị ndụ, ọgwụ ahụhụ, na ọla dị arọ karịa ala ndị ọzọ.

Na European Union, ntụziaka Urban Waste Water Treatment na-enye ohere ka a na-awụfu nsị n'ala. A na-atụ anya na ọnụ ọgụgụ ahụ ga-eji okpukpu abụọ ruo tọn otu nde narị asatọ na ise nke ihe siri ike na afọ 2005. Nke a nwere ezigbo ọrụ ugbo n'ihi nitrogen dị elu na phosphate. N'afọ 1990/1991, a na-awụfu pasenti iri na atọ mmiri na pasenti efu pom iri na atọ nke ala; Otú ọ dị, a na-atụ anya na nke a ga-arị elu okpukpu iri na ise site na afọ 2005. Ndị na-akwado [onye?] na-ekwu na ọ dị mkpa ịchịkwa nke a ka microorganisms pathogenic ghara ịbanye n'ime mmiri na iji hụ na enweghị nchịkọta nke ọla dị arọ n'elu ala.[3]

Ọgwụ ahụhụ na ọgwụ ahịhịa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A na-eji ọgwụ herbicides egbu ahịhịa, ọkachasị n'okporo ụzọ na ụzọ ụgbọ okporo ígwè. Ha yiri auxins ma ọtụtụ n'ime ha nwere ike imebi site na nje bacteria ala. Otú ọ dị, otu ìgwè sitere na trinitrotoluene (2:4 D na 2:4:5 T) nwere dioxin na-adịghị ọcha, nke na-egbu egbu ma na-akpata ọnwụ ọbụna na obere. Ọgwụ ọzọ na-egbu ahịhịa bụ Paraquat. Ọ na-egbu egbu nke ukwuu mana ọ na-emebi ngwa ngwa n'ala n'ihi ọrụ nje bacteria ma ọ naghị egbu anụmanụ ala.[4]

A na-eji ọgwụ ahụhụ eme ihe iji kpochapụ ihe oriri na ugbo nke na-emebi ihe ọkụkụ. Ụmụ ahụhụ na-emebi ọ bụghị naanị ihe ọkụkụ guzo ọtọ kamakwa ndị echekwara na n'ebe okpomọkụ a na-eche na otu ụzọ n'ụzọ atọ nke mmepụta zuru ezu na-efu n'oge nchekwa nri. Dị ka ọ dị na fungicides, ọgwụ ahụhụ mbụ e ji mee ihe na narị afọ nke iri na itoolu bụ inorganic di ka. Paris Green na ihe ndị ọzọ nke arsenic. A na-ejikwa nicotine eme ihe kemgbe afọ 1690.[5]

Ugbu a, e nwere ìgwè abụọ bụ isi nke ọgwụ ahụhụ na-egbu egbu.

1. Organochlorines gụnyere DDT, Aldrin, Dieldrin na BHC. Ha dị ọnụ ala iji mepụta, dị ike ma na-anọgidesi ike. A na-eji DDT mee ihe n'ụzọ buru ibu site na afọ 1930s, na ọnụ ọgụgụ kachasị elu nke tọn nde asaa na abụọ eji mee ihe na afọ 1970. Mgbe ahụ, ojiji dara ka a na-ahụ mmetụta na-emerụ ahụ gburugburu ebe obibi. A chọtara ya n'ụwa niile na azụ na nnụnụ ma chọta ya na snow na Antarctic. Ọ na-agbaze na mmiri ma na-agbaza nke ọma na ọbara. Ọ na-emetụta usoro akwara na endocrine ma na-eme ka mkpokoro àkwá nke nnụnụ ghara inwe calcium na-eme na ha na-agbaji ngwa ngwa. A na-eche na ọ bụ ya kpatara mbelata nke ọnụ ọgụgụ nnụnụ na-eri anụ dị ka ospreys na falcons peregrine na afọ 1950s ha na-agbake ugbu a.[6] Tinyere mmụba nke ọnụ ọgụgụ site na eriri nri, a maara na ọ na-abanye site na membranes na-agafe agafe, yabụ azụ na-enweta ya site na gills ha. Ebe ọ bụ na ọ nwere obere mmiri, ọ na-anọkarị n'elu mmiri, yabụ ihe ndị dị ndụ bi n'ebe ahụ na-emetụta ya. DDT a chọtara na azụ nke mejupụtara akụkụ nke usoro nri mmadụ kpatara nchegbu, mana ọkwa a chọtara n'ime imeju, akụrụ na anụ ahụ ụbụrụ erughị otu ppm na abụba bụ iri ppm, nke dị n'okpuru ọkwa nwere ike ịkpata mmerụ ahụ. Otú ọ dị, a machibidoro DDT na UK na United Steeti iji kwụsị ịbawanye ya na usoro nri. Ndị na-emepụta US nọgidere na-ere DDT na mba ndị na-emepe emepe, ndị na-enweghị ike ịzụta kemikalu ndị dị oke ọnụ na ndị na-enweghi iwu siri ike na-achịkwa ojiji nke ọgwụ ahụhụ.[7]

2. Organophosphates, dị ka parathion, methyl parathion na ihe dị ka ọgwụ ahụhụ iri anọ ndị ọzọ dị na mba ahụ. Parathion bụ ihe na-egbu egbu nke ukwuu, methyl-parathion dị obere ma a na-ewere Malathion dị ka ihe dị nchebe n'ozuzu ya n'ihi na ọ nwere obere nsị ma na-agbaji ngwa ngwa na imeju anụ na-enye nwa ara. Ìgwè a na-arụ ọrụ site na igbochi nnyefe akwara dị mma ka a na-egbochi cholinesterase imebi ihe na-ebufe acetylcholine, na-akpata mmegharị ahụ na-enweghị nchịkwa.[8]

Ndị agha[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ikpochapụ mgbọ, na enweghị nlekọta n'imepụta mgbọ nke sitere na ngwa ngwa nke mmepụta, nwere ike imerụ ala ruo ogologo oge. E nwere obere ihe akaebe e bipụtara banyere ụdị mmetọ a n'ụzọ dị ukwuu n'ihi ihe mgbochi nke gọọmentị nke ọtụtụ mba tinyere na mbipụta nke ihe metụtara agha. Otú ọ dị, gas mustard echekwara n'oge Agha Ụwa nke Abụọ emetọla ụfọdụ ebe ruo afọ iri ise na nnwale nke Anthrax dị ka ngwá agha nwere ike imerụ agwaetiti Gruinard dum.[9][10]

Ahụike mmadụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ụzọ ndị mmadụ si ekpughe ihe[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ala mmetọ ma ọ bụ nke mbara emetọ emeto na-emetụta ahụike mmadụ n'onwe ya site na mmetụ aka na ala ma ọ bụ site na iku ume nke mmetọ ala nke na-agbaze; enwere ike ibute egwu site na mmegide nke mmetụ ala n'ime mmiri dị n'okpuru ala nke a na-eji eme ihe mmadụ, mgbe ụfọdụ n'ebe ndị dị anya site na isi iyi ọ bụla doro anya nke mmetorita n'elu ala. Mmanụ ndị na-egbu egbu nwekwara ike ịga n'ihu n'usoro nri site na osisi ndị bi n'ala nwere nnukwu ọla dị arọ. Nke a na-akpata mmepe nke ọrịa metụtara mmetọ.

Ihe ka ukwuu n'ihe ngosi bụ ihe mberede, ihe ngosi nwere ike ime site na:[11]

  • Iri uzuzu ma ọ bụ ala n'onwe ya
  • Iri nri ma ọ bụ akwụkwọ nri a na-akụ n'ala emetọ ma ọ bụ na nri na-emetụta ihe na-emetọ emetọ
  • Mmetụta akpụkpọ ahụ na uzuzu ma ọ bụ ala
  • Mmiri si n'ala
  • Ịekuru uzuzu mgbe ị na-arụ ọrụ n'ala ma ọ bụ ebe ikuku na-efe

Otú ọ dị, ụfọdụ nnyocha na-eme atụmatụ na pasenti iri itoolu nke ikpughe bụ site na iri nri na-emetọ emetọ.[11]

Nsonaazụ ya[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Mmetụta ahụike sitere na mmetọ ala dịgasị iche iche dabere na ụdị mmetọ, ụzọ mwakpo, na adịghị ike nke ndị a na-ahụ. Ndị na-eme nchọpụta na-atụ aro na ọgwụ ahụhụ na ọla dị arọ n'ime ala nwere ike imerụ ahụike obi, gụnyere ọzịza na mgbanwe na elekere dị n'ime ahụ.[12]

Mmetụta na-adịghị ala ala na chromium, ọtụrụ, na ọla ndị ọzọ, mmanụ, solvents, na ọtụtụ ọgwụ ahụhụ na herbicide nwere ike ibute ọrịa cancer, nwere ike ịkpata nsogbu ọmụmụ, ma ọ bụ nwere ike ịkpalite ọnọdụ ahụike ndị ọzọ na-adịghị elu. Ụlọ ọrụ mmepụta ihe ma ọ bụ nke mmadụ mepụtara nke ihe ndị na-apụta n'okike, dị ka nitrate na ammonia jikọtara ya na nsị anụ ụlọ site na ọrụ ugbo, achọpụtakwala dị ka ihe ize ndụ ahụike n'ala na mmiri dị n'okpuru ala.[13]

A maara na ikpughe benzene na-adịghị ala ala na oke zuru oke nwere njikọ na oke leukemia. A maara Mercury na cyclodienes ka ha na-akpata ihe dị elu nke mmebi akụrụ na ụfọdụ ọrịa ndị a na-apụghị ịgbanwe agbanwe. PCBs na cyclodienes nwere njikọ na nsị imeju. Organophosphates na carbonates nwere ike ịkpata usoro mmeghachi omume na-eduga na mgbochi neuromuscular. Ọtụtụ solvents chlorinated na-akpata mgbanwe imeju, mgbanwe akụrụ, na ịda mbà nke usoro akwara etiti. E nwere ọtụtụ mmetụta ahụike ndị ọzọ dị ka isi ọwụwa, agbọ onunu, ike ọgwụgwụ, iwe anya na akpụkpọ ahụ maka ihe ndị a kpọtụrụ aha n'elu na kemịkal ndị ọzọ. Na dosages zuru oke ọnụ ọgụgụ dị ukwuu nke mmetọ ala nwere ike ịkpata ọnwụ site na ikpughe site na mmetụ aka, iku ume ma ọ bụ iri ihe mmetọ na mmiri dị n'okpuru ala nke mmeto site na ala.

Gọọmentị Scotland enyewo ụlọ ọrụ Institute of Occupational Medicine ọrụ ka ha nyochaa usoro iji nyochaa ihe ize ndụ maka ahụike mmadụ site na ala emetọ. Ebumnuche zuru oke nke ọrụ a bụ ịrụ ọrụ nduzi nke kwesịrị ịba uru nye ndị isi obodo Scotland n'ịtụle ma saịtị na-anọchite anya nnukwu ohere nke nnukwu mmerụ ahụ (SPOSH) na ahụike mmadụ. A na-atụ anya na mmepụta nke ọrụ ahụ ga-abụ akwụkwọ dị mkpirikpi na-enye nduzi dị elu na nyocha ihe ize ndụ ahụike na-ezo aka na nduzi na usoro ndị e bipụtara ugbu a nke a chọpụtara dị ka ndị dị mkpa ma na-enyere aka. Ọrụ ahụ ga-enyocha etu e si mepụta ntuziaka iwu maka ikpebi nnabata nke ihe ize ndụ na ahụike mmadụ ma tụọ aro ụzọ iji nyochaa ihe mejupụtara ihe ize ndụ a na-anabataghị na-agbaso ụkpụrụ maka SPOSH dịka akọwapụtara na iwu na Ntuziaka Iwu Scotland.

Mmetụta gburugburu ebe obibi[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Mmiri na ihe mkpofu na-emetọ mpaghara a na-eme ka gburugburu ebe obibi ghara ịdị ọcha

Ọ bụghị na mberede, mmetọ ala nwere ike inwe nnukwu ihe na-emerụ ahụ maka gburugburu ebe obibi.[14] Enwere mgbanwe kemịkalụ ala siri ike nke nwere ike ịpụta site na ọnụnọ nke ọtụtụ kemịkal dị ize ndụ ọbụna na obere ọnụ ọgụgụ nke ụdị mmetọ. Mgbanwe ndị a nwere ike igosi na mgbanwe nke metabolism nke microorganisms na arthropods bi na gburugburu ala enyere. Nsonaazụ ya nwere ike ịbụ mkpochapụ nke ụfọdụ n'ime usoro nri bụ isi, nke n'aka nke ya nwere ike inwe nnukwu nsonaazụ maka anụ na-eri anụ ma ọ bụ ụdị ndị na-eri. Ọbụna ma ọ bụrụ na mmetụta kemikalu na ụdị ndụ dị ala dị obere, ọkwa pyramid dị ala nke usoro nri nwere ike iri kemịkal ndị ọzọ, nke na-abụkarị ihe na-elekwasị anya maka ọkwa ọ bụla na-eri nri. A maara ọtụtụ n'ime mmetụta ndị a nke ọma ugbu a, dị ka njupụta nke ihe DDT na-adịgide adịgide maka ndị na-azụ nnụnụ, na-eduga n'ike ọgwụgwụ nke mkpokoro àkwá, mmụba ọnwụ ụmụ ọkụkọ na njedebe nke ụdị.[15]

Mmetụta na-eme na ala ugbo nke nwere ụdị mmetọ ala ụfọdụ. Ihe ndị na-emetọ ihe na-agbanwekarị metabolism nke osisi, na-akpatakarị mbelata nke ihe ọkụkụ. Nke a nwere mmetụta nke abụọ na nchekwa ala, ebe ọ bụ na ihe ọkụkụ na-adịghị ike enweghị ike ichebe ala ụwa pụọ na mbuze. Ụfọdụ n'ime kemikalu ndị a na-emetọ ihe nwere ogologo oge ọkara ndụ na n'ọnọdụ ndị ọzọ, a na-emepụta kemikalu sitere na mbibi nke mmetọ ala.[16]

Mmetụta ndị nwere ike ime site na mmetọ na ọrụ ala[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Mmetụta dị arọ na ihe ndị ọzọ na-emetọ ala nwere ike imetụta ọrụ, ihe mejupụtara ụdị na ọtụtụ nke akpọrọ microorganisms nke ala, si otú ahụ na-eyi ọrụ ala egwu dị ka cycling nke carbon na nitrogen.[17] Otú ọ dị, mmetọ ala nwekwara ike ịghọ obere bioavailable site n'oge, na microorganisms na ecosystems nwere ike ime mgbanwe na ọnọdụ gbanwere. Ihe onwunwe ala dị ka pH, ihe dị n'ime ala na ọdịdị dị ezigbo mkpa ma gbanwee njem, bioavailability na nsị nke mmetọ n'ala emetọ.[18] Otu ihe mmetọ ahụ nwere ike ịbụ ihe na-egbu egbu n'otu ala mana ọ dịghị emerụ ahụ n'ala ọzọ. Nke a na-emesi ike mkpa ọ dị nyocha na usoro ihe ize ndụ nke ala.

Nhọrọ nhicha[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị gburugburu ebe obibi na-enyocha nhicha ma ọ bụ mgbazi gburugburu ebe obibi bụ ndị na-eji nyocha nke kemikalu ala ma na-etinye ụdị kọmputa (GIS na mmetọ gburugburu ebe obibi) maka nyochaa njem na ọdịnihu nke kemịl ala.[19] E mepụtara teknụzụ dị iche iche maka idozi ala na ala na-emetọ mmanụ. E nwere ọtụtụ atụmatụ isi maka idozi:[20]

  • Gwuo ala ma buru ya gaa n'ebe a na-ekpofu ahịhịa site na ụzọ dị njikere maka mmekọrịta mmadụ ma ọ bụ nke dị nro. Usoro a na-emetụtakwa ịdọrọ apịtị nwere nsí.
  • Mmiri nke ala n'ebe emetọ (nke nwere ihe ize ndụ nke ịmepụta mmetọ ikuku)
  • Mgbanwe okpomọkụ site na iwebata okpomọkụ iji bulie okpomọkụ dị n'okpuru ala nke ọma iji mee ka mmetọ kemịkal na-apụ n'ime ala maka iwepụta ikuku. Nkà na ụzụ gụnyere ISTD, ọkụ eletrik (ERH), na ET-DSP.
  • Bioremediation, nke na-agụnye mgbari nke ụfọdụ kemịkalụ. Usoro eji eme ihe na bioremediation gụnyere ọrụ ugbo ala, biostimulation na bioaugmentating soil biota na microflora dị na ahịa.
  • Mmiri dị n'okpuru ala ma ọ bụ ikuku ala na usoro eletromechanical na-arụ ọrụ, na-ewepụ ihe na-emetọ ihe site na ihe a na-ewepụta.
  • Njide nke mmetọ ala (dị ka site na ikpuchi ma ọ bụ paving n'ebe).
  • Phytoremediation, ma ọ bụ iji osisi (dị ka willow) wepụta ọla dị arọ.
  • Mycoremediation, ma ọ bụ iji fungus mee ka ihe na-emetọ ihe ma na-akwakọta ọla dị arọ.
  • Mgbanwe nke mmanụ na-emetọ site na microbubbles ikuku na-emebi onwe ya.[21]
  • Mmiri na-agbapụta n'elu mmiri
  • Interfacial solar evaporation iji wepụta ion metal dị arọ site na ala mmiri.[22]

Site na mba[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ụkpụrụ mba dị iche iche maka njupụta nke ụfọdụ mmetọ gụnyere ndị akpọrọ United States EPA Region itoolu Preliminary Remediation Goals (U.S. PRGs), US EPA Region 3 Risk Based Concentrations (U.s. EPA RBCs) na National Environment Protection Council of Australia Guideline on Investigation Levels in Soil and Groundwater.

People's Republic of China[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Uto dị ukwuu na nke na-aga n'ihu nke People's Republic of China kemgbe afọ 1970 emeela ka ọnụahịa ala ahụ dị na mmụba nke mmetọ ala. Ministri nke Ecology na Environment kwenyere na ọ bụ ihe iyi egwu nye gburugburu ebe obibi, nchekwa nri na ọrụ ugbo na-adịgide adịgide. Dabere na nnwale sayensị, nde otu narị na iri ise mu (otu nde narị skwer kilomita) nke ala a na-akọ ugbo na China emetọla, na-eji mmiri emetọ emetọ eme ihe iji gbaa mmiri ọzọ iri atọ na abụọ pom ise nde mu (nde abụọ na otu narị isii na iri ase skwer kilomita) na nde mu abụọ ọzọ (otu nde narị atọ Skwer kilomita) kpuchiri ma ọ bụ mebie ya site na ihe mkpofu siri ike. N'ozuzu, mpaghara ahụ bụ otu ụzọ n'ụzọ iri nke ala a na-akọ ugbo na China, ọ dịkwa n'ógbè ndị mepere emepe. A na-eme atụmatụ na nde tọn iri na abụọ nke ọka na-emetọ site na ọla dị arọ kwa afọ, na-akpata mfu nke ijeri yuan iri abụọ ($ 2.57 ijeri USD).[23] Nnyocha e mere n'oge na-adịbeghị anya na-egosi na pasenti iri na itoolu nke ala ugbo emetọla nke nwere ọla dị arọ na metalloids. Ọnụ ọgụgụ nke ọla ndị a dị arọ n'ime ala amụbaala nke ukwuu.[24]

Njikọ Europe[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Dabere na data natara site na mba ndị otu, na European Union ọnụ ọgụgụ nke ebe ndị a na-eme atụmatụ na ha nwere ike imerụ ahụ karịrị nde abụọ pom ise na ebe ndị a chọpụtara na ha emetụla ihe dị ka puku narị ato iri anọ na abụọ.[25] Ihe mkpofu obodo na ụlọ ọrụ mmepụta ihe na-enye aka na mmetọ ala (pasenti iri atọ na asatọ), na-esote ụlọ ọrụ mmepe / azụmahịa (pasenti iri ato na anọ ). Mmanụ ala na ọla dị arọ bụ isi ihe na-emetọ ihe na-enye aka na pasenti iri isii na mmetọ ala. N'ihe gbasara mmefu ego, a na-eme atụmatụ na njikwa nke ebe ndị emetọ ga-efu ihe dị ka ijeri Euro isii (€) kwa afọ.[25]

United Kingdom[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ntuziaka n'ozuzu nke a na-ejikarị eme ihe na United Kingdom bụ Ala Guideline Values nke Ngalaba Na-ahụ Maka Gburugburu Ebe Obibi, Nri na Mmekọrịta Ime Obodo (DEFRA) na Ngalaba Na'Oké Ala bipụtara. Ndị a bụ ụkpụrụ nyocha nke na-egosi ọkwa dị ala nke ihe. N'elu nke a, enweghị ike ịnwe mmesi obi ike n'ihe gbasara nnukwu ihe ize ndụ nke mmerụ ahụ mmadụ. A na-enweta ihe ndị a site na iji Contaminated Land Exposure Assessment Model (CLEA UK). A na-enye ụfọdụ ntinye ntinye dị ka Health Criteria Values, afọ na ojiji ala na CLEA UK iji nweta mmepụta nwere ike [citation needed].

Ntuziaka site na ndị akpọrọ Inter Departmental Committee for the Redevelopment of Contaminated Land (ICRCL) ka DEFRA wepụrụ, maka iji ya dị ka akwụkwọ na-enye iwu iji chọpụta mkpa ọ dị imezi ma ọ bụ nyocha ọzọ.[26]

Ihe nlereanya CLEA nke DEFRA na Environment Agency (EA) bipụtara n'ọnwa Machị afọ 2002 setịpụrụ usoro maka nyocha kwesịrị ekwesị nke ihe ize ndụ maka ahụike mmadụ site na ala emetọ, dị ka akụkụ IIA nke Iwu Nchedo Gburugburu Ebe Obibi 1990 chọrọ. Dị ka akụkụ nke usoro a, e mepụtara ụkpụrụ nduzi ala (SGVs) ugbu a maka mmetọ iri iji mee ihe dị ka "ụkpụrụ ntinye aka".[27] A gaghị ele ụkpụrụ ndị a anya dị ka ihe mgbaru ọsọ mana ụkpụrụ ndị dị n'elu nke a ga-atụle nyocha zuru ezu; lee ụkpụrụ Dutch.

E mepụtara usoro atọ nke CLEA SGVs maka iji ala eme ihe atọ dị iche iche, ya bụ,

  • ebe obibi (na-enweghị osisi)
  • nkewa
  • azụmahịa / ụlọ ọrụ mmepụta ihe

Ebumnuche ya bụ na SGVs ga-anọchi ụkpụrụ ICRCL mbụ. CLEA SGVs na-emetụta ịtụle ihe ize ndụ na-adịghị ala ala (ogologo oge) na ahụike mmadụ ma ọ naghị emetụta nchebe nke ndị ọrụ ala n'oge owuwu, ma ọ bụ ndị ọzọ nwere ike ịnata dịka mmiri n'okpuru ala, ụlọ, osisi ma ọ bụ usoro okike ndị ọzọ. CLEA SGVs anaghị arụ ọrụ kpọmkwem na saịtị kpuchiri kpamkpam na ihe siri ike, ebe ọ bụ na enweghị ụzọ mmeghe kpọmkwem na ala emetọ.[28]

Ka ọ dị ugbu a, e bipụtara iri mbụ n'ime iri ise na ise na-emetọ SGVs, maka ihe ndị a: arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, inorganic mercury, nickel, selenium ethyl benzene, phenol na toluene. E mepụtara atụmatụ SGVs maka benzene, naphthalene na xylene mana mbipụta ha na-echere. E bipụtara data toxicological (Tox) maka nke ọ bụla n'ime ihe ndị a nakwa maka benzo[a]pyrene, benzene, dioxins, furans na PCBs dị ka dioxin, naphthalene, vinyl chloride, 1,1,2,2 tetrachloroethane na 1,1,1,2 tetrachloethane, 1,1,1 trichloroethane, tetrachlene, carbon tetrachloride, 1,2-dichloroethene, trichloroene na xylene. SGVs maka ethyl benzene, phenol na toluene na-adabere na ihe dị n'ime ala (SOM) (nke enwere ike ịgbakọ site na ngụkọta carbon (TOC) ọdịnaya). Dị ka ihuenyo mbụ, a na-ewere SGVs maka 1% SOM dị ka kwesịrị ekwesị. [citation needed]

Canada[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ka ọ na-erule n'ọnwa Febụwarị afọ 2021, e nwere ngụkọta nke ebe nde abụọ narị ise na ebe ndị e metọrọ emetọ na Canada.[29] Otu ebe a na-emetọ emetọ dị nso na ebe a na'ebe a na-agbaze nickel-copper na Sudbury, Ontario. Nnyocha na-enyocha mmetọ ígwè dị arọ n'akụkụ ebe a na-agbaze ihe na-ekpughe na a chọtara ọkwa dị elu nke nickel na ọla kọpa n'ime ala; uru dị elu dị ka nde ise otu narị na anọ ppm,Ni, na nde abụọ narị asatọ iri itoolu na abụọ ppm Cu n'ime kilomita otu pom otu nke ebe a na na-agbapụta ihe. A chọpụtakwara ọla ndị ọzọ n'ime ala; ọla ndị dị otú ahụ gụnyere ígwè, cobalt, na ọlaọcha. Ọzọkwa, mgbe a na-enyocha ahịhịa dị iche iche gbara ebe a na-agbaze ihe, o doro anya na ha metụtakwara ya; nsonaazụ na-egosi na osisi ndị ahụ nwere nickel, ọla kọpa na aluminum n'ihi mmetọ ala.[30]

India[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

N'ọnwa Machị afọ 2009, mbipụta nke nsị uranium na Punjab dọtara mgbasa ozi. A na-ebo ya ebubo na ọ bụ ọdọ mmiri ntụ nke ụlọ ọrụ ọkụ eletrik na-efe efe kpatara ya, nke a kọrọ na ọ na-eduga na nkwarụ ọmụmụ siri ike n'ime ụmụaka na mpaghara Faridkot na Bhatinda nke Punjab. Akụkọ akụkọ kwuru na ọkwa uranium karịrị okpukpu iri isii karịa oke nchekwa.[31][32] N'afọ 2012, Gọọmentị India kwupụtara na mmiri dị n'okpuru ala na Malwa belt nke Punjab nwere uranium metal nke dị 50% karịa ókè nke United Nations 'World Health Organization (WHO) setịpụrụ.[33] Nnyocha sayensị, dabere na ihe karịrị otu nde nlereanya site na ebe nnwale dị iche iche, enweghị ike ịchọpụta isi iyi na-efe efe na isi iyi ọ bụla sitere na ụlọ ọrụ ọkụ ma ọ bụ ụlọ ọrụ dị ka ebubo mbụ. Nnyocha ahụ kpughekwara na uranium dị n'ime mmiri dị n'okpuru ala nke mpaghara Malwa abụghị okpukpu 60 nke oke WHO, mana naanị pasenti iri ise karịa oke ndị akpọrọ WHO na ebe atọ. Ọnụ ọgụgụ kachasị elu a chọtara na nlereanya dị ala karịa ndị a chọtara n'ụzọ okike na mmiri ala nke a na-eji eme ihe ugbu a maka ebumnuche mmadụ n'ebe ndị ọzọ, dị ka Finland.[34] A na-eme nnyocha iji chọpụta ihe okike ma ọ bụ ihe ndị ọzọ maka uranium.

Hụkwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

 

Ndemsibia[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

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Njikọ mpụga[dezie | dezie ebe o si]