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Mmiri amniotic

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Mmiri amniotic
biogenic substance type, class of anatomical entity
obere ụdị nkeportion of body fluid solution, akpan akpan anatomical Dezie

Mmiri amniotic bụ mmiri na-echebe nke Akpa amniotic nke Amniote dị ime. Mmiri a na-eje ozi dị ka ihe ndabere maka nwa e bu n'afọ, mana ọ na-arụkwa ọrụ iji mee ka mgbanwe nke ihe oriri, mmiri, na ngwaahịa biochemical dị n'etiti nne na nwa e bu.

Maka ụmụ mmadụ, a na-akpọkarị 'mmiri' amniotic mmiri ma ọ bụ mmiri (Latin liquor amnii).

Ọganihu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Mmiri amniotic dị site na mmepụta nke akpa ime. Mmiri amniotic dị na Akpa amniotic. A na-emepụta ya site na plasma nne, ma na-agafe n'ime ime nwa site na ike osmotic na hydrostatic. Mgbe akụrụ nwa ọhụrụ na-amalite ịrụ ọrụ n'ihe dị ka izu 16, mamịrị nwa ọhụrụ na'enyekwa aka na mmiri ahụ. [1]N'oge gara aga, ekwere na mmiri amniotic mejupụtara kpamkpam site na mamịrị nwa ọhụrụ.

A na-amịkọrọ mmiri ahụ site na anụ ahụ na akpụkpọ ahụ. [2]Mgbe izu 22 ruo 25 nke ime gasịrị, keratinization nke akpụkpọ ahụ embryo na-eme. Mgbe usoro a gwụchara n'ihe dị ka izu nke iri abụọ na ise, eriri afọ nwa na-amị mmiri ahụ maka ihe fọdụrụ n'ime ime.[2][1]

Ihe ndị dị n'ime[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Na mbụ, mmiri amniotic bụ mmiri nwere electrolytes, mana site na izu nke 12 ruo 14, mmiri ahụ nwekwara protein, carbohydrates, lipids na phospholipids, urea, na ihe ndị mejupụtara ECM nke extracellular matrix gụnyere collagens na glycosaminoglycans, gụnyere hyaluronic acid na chondroitin sulfate, nke niile na-enyere aka na uto nke nwa.


Mpịakọta[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ọnụ ọgụgụ nke mmiri amniotic na-agbanwe na uto nke nwa e bu n'afọ. Site na izu nke 10 ruo nke 20 ọ na-abawanye site na ">25 ruo 400 millilitres (0.88 ruo 14.08 US fl dịka. [3]N'ihe dị ka n'izu nke iri na otu, iku ume na ilo nwa e bu n'afọ na-ebelata mmiri. Ọ dịghị mmiri ma ọ bụ ilo na-enye aka n'ụzọ dị ịrịba ama na mgbanwe nke mmiri ruo n'izu nke 25 mgbe keratinization nke akpụkpọ ahụ zuru ezu; mgbe ahụ mmekọrịta dị n'etiti mmiri na uto nwa na-akwụsị. Ọ na-eru ala dị larịị nke ">800 millilitre (28 US fl site na afọ ime izu 28. Ọnụ ọgụgụ nke mmiri na-agbadata ruo ihe dịka ">400 millilitre (14 US fl na izu 42. [3]Ụfọdụ akwụkwọ na-egosi ihe dị ka ">500 ruo 1,000 millilitre (18 ruo 35 US fl nke mmiri amniotic dị mgbe a mụrụ ya.[1][4]

Mkpịsị nke membrane[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A na-ahapụ mmiri ndị dị n'ihu mgbe amnion gbawara. A na-akpọkarị nke a "mmiri na-agbaji". Mgbe nke a na-eme n'oge Ọrụ nwa, a maara ya dị ka "mgbawa nke membrane". Ọ bụrụ na mgbawa ahụ bu ụzọ tupu ọrụ n'oge, Otú ọ dị, a na-akpọ ya "mgbawa nke membrane tupu ọrụ". A na-akpọ mgbawa nke membrane tupu oge eruo "mgbawa nke membrans". Ihe ka ọtụtụ n'ime mmiri azụ na-anọ n'ime akpa nwa ruo mgbe a mụrụ nwa ahụ. A pụkwara imebi mkpuchi (ARM), nkwụsị aka nke akpa amniotic, iji wepụ mmiri ahụ ma ọ bụrụ na amnion emebighị na mberede.

Mmiri amniotic a na-eri (n'oge mmepe) na-emepụta mamịrị ma na-enye aka n'ịmepụta meconium. Mmiri amniotic na-echebe nwa e bu n'afọ na-eto eto site n'ịkwado ya pụọ na ihe na-akụ n'afọ nne, na-enye ohere maka mmegharị nwa e bu na-eto n'ụzọ dị mfe ma na-akwalite mmepe / ọkpụkpụ. Mmiri amniotic nke nwa e bu n'afọ na-eri na-enyere aka n'ịmepụta eriri afọ. Ọ na-echebekwa nwa e bu n'afọ pụọ na mgbagwoju anya na mgbagha. Nwa e bu n'afọ, nke na-etolite n'ime akpa amniotic jupụtara na mmiri, na-adabere na Placenta maka mgbanwe gas iku ume karịa akpa ume. Ọ bụ ezie na ọ naghị etinye aka na oxygenation nwa ọhụrụ, mmegharị iku ume nwa ọhụrụ (FBM) ka nwere ọrụ dị mkpa na uto akpa ume na mmepe nke uru iku ume na nchịkwa akwara. A na-achịkwa FBM n'ụzọ dị iche n'ọtụtụ ụzọ karịa iku ume mgbe a mụsịrị nwa, nke na-esite na gburugburu ebe obibi pụrụ iche dị n'ime akpa nwa. Mgbe a mụrụ ya, mgbanwe na iku ume na-aga n'ihu na-agụnye ọdịda nke okpomọkụ, mgbochi nke akpa ume, ịrụ ọrụ nke Hering-Breuer reflex, na njikọ ọrụ nke ọrụ O2 chemoreceptor afferent na ume motoneurons na ebe mkpali.

Ihe ọ pụtara n'ihe gbasara ahụike[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Nchịkọta[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A na-ewepụ mmiri amniotic n'aka nne site na usoro amniocentesis, ebe a na-etinye ogologo agịga site n'afọ n'ime akpa amniotic, na-eji nduzi ultrasound nke mere na nwa e bu n'afọ anaghị emerụ ahụ. Amniocentesis bụ usoro dị ala, nke nwere ihe ize ndụ nke ime ime n'etiti 1 na 1,500 - 1 na usoro 700. Enwere ike ịme amniocentesis iji nweta ozi nchọpụta mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa, nyochaa maka ọrịa intrauterine, ma ọ bụ na-adịkarịghị, iji nyochaa ntozu nke akpa ume nwa ma ọ bụrụ na achọrọ ịmụ nwa n'oge. Ọ bụrụ na ọ dị mma, a na-anakọta mmiri n'etiti izu 16 na 42 nke uto nwa. Ọnụ ọgụgụ nke mmiri e wepụrụ na-adabere na ngosipụta maka usoro na nnwale a ga-eme na mmiri ahụ.

Nnyocha[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Nnyocha nke mmiri amniotic nwere ike ikpughe ọtụtụ akụkụ nke ahụike mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa nke nwa ahụ yana afọ na ịdị irè nke nwa e bu n'afọ. Nke a bụ n'ihi na mmiri ahụ nwere ihe mkpofu metabolic na ihe ndị a na-eji atụle afọ nwa ọhụrụ na ntozu nke akpa ume, mana mmiri amniotic nwekwara mkpụrụ ndụ nwa ọhụrụ, nke enwere ike inyocha maka nkwarụ mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa.

Mmiri amniotic na-enwekarị pH nke 7.0 ruo 7.5. N'ihi na pH dị n'elu akụkụ ahụ nwanyị na-abụkarị acidic (pH 3.8-4.5), nyocha pH nke akụkụ ahụ nwanyị nke na-egosi pH nke ihe karịrị 4.5 na-eme ka a na-enyo enyo na ọ ga-agbawa nke membranes ma ọ bụrụ na ọpụpụ nke akụkụ ahụ nwoke doro anya n'oge ime. [5]Nnyocha ndị ọzọ maka ịchọpụta mmiri amniotic gụnyere ule akwụkwọ nitrazine na Ule fern. [6]Otu isi ule nke a na-eme na mmiri amniotic bụ ule L / S (lecithin / sphingomyelin). A na-eji ule a chọpụta ntozu nke akpa ume nwa. Ma lecithin na sphingomyelin bụ ihe na-eme n'akpa ume nke na-adị n'ọnụ ọgụgụ na-arịwanye elu n'ime nwa e bu n'afọ, ọ bụ ezie na izu 33 gara aga, ọkwa sphingomYelin na-anọgide na-adịgide adịgide. Ịtụle ọnụ ọgụgụ nke L / S nke 2:1 ma ọ bụ karịa na-egosi na enwere ike ịmụ nwa ahụ n'enweghị nsogbu, na akpa ume na-arụ ọrụ.

Nsogbu ndị metụtara mmiri amniotic[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A na-akpọ obere mmiri amniotic oligohydramnios. N'ọnọdụ ole na ole ọ nwere ike ịbụ ihe kpatara nsogbu maka nne na nwa. Ihe ndị a gụnyere nkwonkwo ụkwụ na aka, ịkụ ụkwụ na aka aka, yana ọnọdụ na-eyi ndụ egwu a na-akpọ akpa ume hypoplastic. Usoro Potter na-ezo aka na ìgwè nke nchọpụta ndị metụtara mmiri amniotic na-ezughị ezu.

N'oge ọ bụla tupu amụọ nwa, onye na-ahụ maka ịmụ nwa, onye ọkachamara n'ihe gbasara ụmụ nwanyị ma ọ bụ onye na-amụ nwa kwesịrị iji teepu tụọ ogo nke onye ọrịa ahụ. Ọ dị mkpa ka a tụọ ịdị elu nke ndabere ma dekọọ ya nke ọma iji soro uto nwa ọhụrụ kwesịrị ekwesị na mmepe na-arịwanye elu nke mmiri amniotic. Dọkịta na-ahụ maka ịmụ nwa, dọkịta na-amụ nwa ma ọ bụ onye na-amụ ime kwesịrị ịdebe onye ọrịa ultrasound - usoro a ga-enyekwa ihe ngosi nke uto nwa ọhụrụ kwesịrị ekwesị na mmepe mmiri amniotic. Oligohydramnios nwere ike ibute ọrịa, nsogbu nke akụrụ ma ọ bụ nkwarụ (ebe ọ bụ na ọtụtụ n'ime ọnụ ọgụgụ mmiri amniotic bụ mamịrị), usoro ndị dị ka sampling chorionic villus (CVS), na rupture premature of membranes (PPROM). Oligohydramnios nwere ike ịgwọ mgbe ụfọdụ site na ezumike n'àkwà, mmiri na-abanye n'ime akwara, ọgwụ nje, steroid, na amnioinfusion.   [citation needed]

Ihe megidere oligohydramnios bụ polyhydramnios, oke mmiri amniotic na akpa amniotic.

Amniotic fluid embolism bụ ọnọdụ a na-adịghị ahụkebe ma na-egbu egbu maka nne na nwa.

Mmetụta ọgwụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A na-eji ya eme ihe na ịwa ahụ ụfọdụ n'èzí anya. [7]A na-amụkwa ya maka ụfọdụ ọnọdụ ọkpụkpụ.[8][9]

Nnyocha mkpụrụ ndụ stem[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  Nnyocha ndị e mere n'oge na-adịbeghị anya na-egosi na mmiri amniotic nwere ọnụ ọgụgụ dị ukwuu nke mkpụrụ ndụ stem. [10]Mkpụrụ ndụ amniotic ndị a nwere ọtụtụ ike ma nwee ike ịmata ọdịiche dị n'ime anụ ahụ dị iche iche, nke nwere ike ịba uru maka itinye mmadụ n'ọrụ n'ọdịnihu. [11][12][13][14]Ụfọdụ ndị na-eme nchọpụta achọpụtala na mmiri amniotic bụkwa isi iyi nke mkpụrụ ndụ stem na-abụghị nke embryonic. [15]Mkpụrụ ndụ ndị a egosila ikike nkewa n'ime ọtụtụ ụdị mkpụrụ ndụ dị iche iche, gụnyere ụbụrụ, imeju na ọkpụkpụ.

Ọ ga-ekwe omume ichekwa mkpụrụ ndụ stem ndị a na-ewepụta na mmiri amniotic na ụlọ akụ mkpụrụ ndụ stem nke onwe.

Hụkwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Mmiri iku ume
  • Ọrịa Potter
  • Ọrịa mmịnye ọbara ejima

Edensibia[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Larsen (2001). Human embryology, 3., Philadelphia, Pa.: Churchill Livingstone, 490. ISBN 978-0443065835.  Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; name "LARSEN2001" defined multiple times with different content
  2. 2.0 2.1 Underwood (May 2005). "Amniotic Fluid: Not Just Fetal Urine Anymore - Journal of Perinatology". Journal of Perinatology 25 (5): 341–348. DOI:10.1038/sj.jp.7211290. PMID 15861199. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Underwood (24 March 2005). "Amniotic Fluid: Not Just Fetal Urine Anymore". Journal of Perinatology 25 (5): 341–348. DOI:10.1038/sj.jp.7211290. PMID 15861199. 
  4. Caroline (1977-01-03). "Medical Care in the Streets". JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 237 (1): 43–6. DOI:10.1001/jama.1977.03270280045020. ISSN 0098-7484. PMID 576129. 
  5. Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Nassos2009
  6. Bennett (2008). "The Ferning and Nitrazine Tests of Amniotic Fluid Between 12 and 41 Weeks Gestation". American Journal of Perinatology 10 (2): 101–104. DOI:10.1055/s-2007-994637. PMID 8476469. 
  7. Meller (2011). "Amniotic Membrane Transplantation in the Human Eye". Deutsches Ärzteblatt International 108 (14): 243–248. DOI:10.3238/arztebl.2011.0243. ISSN 1866-0452. PMID 21547164. 
  8. Rennie (2012). "Applications of Amniotic Membrane and Fluid in Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine". Stem Cells International 2012: 721538. DOI:10.1155/2012/721538. ISSN 1687-966X. PMID 23093978. 
  9. Frank (2018-11-22). OrthoBiologics in Sports Medicine , An Issue of Clinics in Sports Medicine, E-book (in en). Elsevier Health Sciences. ISBN 978-0-323-65495-1. 
  10. "Stem cells in amniotic fluid show promise", Los Angeles Times, Jan 8 2007, retrieved 27 July 2009
  11. De Coppi (2007). "Isolation of amniotic stem cell lines with potential for therapy". Nature Biotechnology 25 (1): 100–106. DOI:10.1038/nbt1274. PMID 17206138. 
  12. "Scientists See Potential In Amniotic Stem Cells", Washington Post, Jan 8 2007, retrieved 27 July 2009
  13. "Versatile Stem Cell Identified in Amniotic Fluid", Pamela J. Hines, International Society of Stem Cell Research, March 21, 2008, retrieve 27 July 2009 ISSCR :: Public : Stem Cell Briefings. Archived from the original on 2009-04-06. Retrieved on 2009-05-09.
  14. "Amniotic Stem Cells - "Mesenchimal Stem Cells in Human Application", Biocell Center Group, 2009, retrieved 27 July 2009 Archived copy. Archived from the original on 2009-04-19. Retrieved on 2009-05-09.
  15. De Coppi (2007). "Isolation of amniotic stem cell lines with potential for therapy". Nature Biotechnology 25 (1): 100–106. DOI:10.1038/nbt1274. PMID 17206138. 

Àtụ:Pregnancy