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Ndepụta uhie nke IUCN
biological database, red list
Oge/afọ mmalite1964 Dezie
ụdị ọrụ yawildlife conservation Dezie
asụsụ njiemeBekee Dezie
mba/obodoSwitzerland Dezie
Isi ọgbakaInternational Union for Conservation of Nature Dezie
ọdịdị isi ụlọ ọrụObodoézè Nà Ofú Dezie
webụsaịtịhttps://www.iucnredlist.org/ Dezie
mpaghara ọrụzuru ụwa ọnụ Dezie
Ihe onwunwe WikidataIUCN taxon ID Dezie

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Ndepụta uhie nke ụdị egwu egwu, nke a makwaara dị ka IUCN Ndepụta uhie ma ọ bụ Akwụkwọ data uhie, nke e guzobere na 1964, bụ ndepụta zuru oke n'ụwa nke ọnọdụ nchekwa zuru ụwa ọnụ nke ụdị ihe ndị dị ndụ.[1] Ọ na eji usoro ihe ndị a kapịrị ọnụ iji nyochaa ihe ize ndụ nke ọtụtụ puku ụdị na ụdị. Ụkpụrụ ndị a dị mkpa maka ụdị niile na mpaghara niile nke ụwa. Site na ntọala sayensị ya siri ike, a na-amata IUCN Ndepụta uhie dị ka onye nduzi kachasị mma maka ọnọdụ nke ụdị dị iche iche. Mba ma ọ bụ òtù na emepụta usoro Ndepụta Red nke Ógbè, nke na enyocha ihe ize ndụ nke mkpochapụ na ụdị dị iche iche n'ime otu nchịkwa ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị.

Ebumnuche nke IUCN Ndepụta uhie bụ iji mee ka ọha na eze na ndị na eme iwu mara mkpa nke nsogbu nchekwa, yana inyere ndị mba ụwa aka belata mkpochapụ ụdị. Dị ka IUCN si kwuo, ebumnuche ndị Ndepụta uhie kwuru bụ inye ozi dabere na sayensị gbasara ọnọdụ nke ụdị na ụdịdị na ọkwa ụwa, iji dọta uche na ịdị ukwuu na mkpa nke ụdị dị iche iche dị egwu, iji metụta iwu na mkpebi nke mba na nke mba ụwa, yana inye ozi iji duzie omume iji chekwaa ụdị dị iche dị iche iche nke ihe ndị dị ndụ.[2]

Ndị isi na-enyocha ụdị dị iche iche gụnyere BirdLife International, Institute of Zoology (nkewa nyocha nke Zoological Society nke London), Ebe nchekwa nchekwa ụwa na ọtụtụ ndị ọkachamara n'ime IUCN Kọmishọna Ịlanahụ ụdịdị (SSC). N'ozuzu, nyocha nke òtù na otu ndị a na eme ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ ọkara ụdị dị na Ndepụta uhie.

IUCN na ezube ka a nyochaa ụdị nke ụdị ọ bụla ọ dịkarịa ala afọ iri ọ bụla, ma ọ bụ afọ ise ọ bụla ma ọ bụrụ na o kwere omume. A na eme nke a n'ụzọ ndị ọgbọ nyochara site na IUCNOtu ndị ọkachamara pụrụ iche nke Survival Commission, nke bụ Ndị ikike ndepụta Uhie na ahụ maka ụdị, otu ụdị ma ọ bụ mpaghara mpaghara mpaghara, ma ọ bụ n'ihe gbasara International Ndụ Bird, klas dum (Aves).[3]

Ọnụ ọgụgụ nke ụdị ndị a nyochara maka Ndepụta uhie anọwo na abawanye ka oge na aga.[4] As of 2019, [imelite] nke ụdị 105,000 nyochara, a na ewere 28,338 dị ka ndị nọ n'ihe ize ndụ nke ịla n'iyi n'ihi ọrụ mmadụ, ọkachasị igbubiga azụ ókè, ịchụ nta, na mmepe ala.

Akụkọ ihe mere eme[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Pasentị nke ụdị dị n'ọtụtụ ìgwè ndị edepụtara dị ka ndị nọ n'ihe ize ndụ, ndị nọ n"ihe ize ndụ ma ọ bụ ndị na-adịghị ike na 2007 IUCN Red List.

1964 Ndepụta uhie nke osisi ndị nọ n'ihe ize ndụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

1964 IUCN Ndepụta uhie nke osisi egwu egwu jiri usoro nyocha Ndepụta uhie nke ochie. N'ihi ya, osisi ndị edepụtara enweghị ike ịpụta na Ndepụta uhie dị ugbu a. IUCN na adụ ọdụ na ọ kachasị mma ịlele ma Ndepụta uhie n'ịntanetị na mbipụta Ndepụta uhie nke afọ 1997.[5]

2006 ntọhapụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ndepụta uhie nke afọ 2006, nke e wepụtara na 4 Mee 2006 nyochara ụdị 40,168 n'ozuzu ya, gbakwunyere ụdị 2,160, ụdị dị iche iche, ụlọ ọrụ mmiri, na subpopulations.

2007 ntọhapụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Na 12 Septemba 2007, World Conservation Union (IUCN) wepụtara 2007 IUCN Ndepụta uhie nke ụdị egwu egwu. Na ntọhapụ a, ha emeela ka nkewa ha nke ma gorilla ọdịda anyanwụ (Gorilla gorilla) na gorilla Cross River (Gorila gorilla diehli) site na ndị nọ n'ihe ize ndụ ruo ndị nọ n"ihe ize ndụ, nke bụ ụdị ikpeazụ tupu ha apụọ n'ọhịa, n'ihi nje Ebola na ịchụ nta, yana ihe ndị ọzọ. Russ Mittermeier, onye isi nke IUCN's Otu Ọkachamara Primate nke dị na Switzerland, kwuru na ụdị 16,306 nọ n'ihe ize ndụ na mkpochapụ, 188 karịa na 2006 (ngụkọta nke ụdị 41,415 na Ndepụta uhie). Ndepụta uhie gụnyere orangutan Sumatran (Pongo abelii) na ngalaba Anọ n'ihe egwu dị egwu na orangutan Bornean (Pongo pygmaeus) na ngalaba N'ihe egwu.

E wepụtara ya n'afọ 2008[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A tọhapụrụ 2008 Ndepụta uhie na 6 Ọktoba 2008 na IUCN Nchekwa ụwa Congress na Barcelona ma "kwado nsogbu mkpochapụ, na ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ otu n'ime anọ [anụ mamma] nọ n'ihe ize ndụ nke ịpụ ruo mgbe ebighị ebi". Nnyocha ahụ na egosi na ọ dịkarịa ala 1,141 n'ime 5,487 anụ na enye nwa ara n'ụwa ka a maara na ha na-eyi egwu mkpochapụ, a na edekwa 836 dị ka Enweghị data.

2012 ntọhapụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A tọhapụrụ Red List nke 2012 na 19 Julaị 2012 na Rio + 20 Nzukọ Ụwa; a gbakwunyere ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ ụdị 2,000, na ụdị 4 na ndepụta ahụ na adịghịzi adị, 2 na ndepụta ahụ achọpụtara ọzọ.[6][7][8] IUCN nyochara ngụkọta nke ụdị 63,837 nke kpughere na 19,817 nọ n'ihe ize ndụ nke mkpochapụ. A kọwara 3,947 dị ka "ndị nọ n'oké egwu" na 5,766 dị ka "n'ihe ize mmiri", ebe edepụtara ihe karịrị 10,000 ụdị dị ka "ihe na adịghị ike".[9][10] N'ihe ize ndụ bụ 41% nke ụdị amphibian, 33% nke corals na ewu reef, 30% nke conifers, 25% nke anụ na enye nwa ara, na 13% nke nnụnụ.[9] IUCN Ndepụta uhie edepụtara ụdị osisi na anụmanụ 132 sitere na India dị ka "Anọ n'ihe egwu dị egwu".[11]

Ụdị[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  A na ekewa ụdị dị iche iche site na IUCN Ndepụta uhie n'ime ìgwè itoolu, akọwapụtara site na njirimara dị ka ọnụego mbelata, ọnụ ọgụgụ mmadụ, mpaghara nke nkesa ala, na ogo nke ọnụ ọgụgụ mmadụ na nkesa nkesa.[12] A na-ekwusi ike na nkwenye nke itinye ụkpụrụ ọ bụla n'ọrụ na enweghị data dị elu gụnyere ebubo na egwu ndị nwere ike ime n'ọdịnihu, "ọ bụrụhaala na enwere ike ịkwado ndị a n'ụzọ ezi uche dị na ya".[13]

  • Anwụ anwụ(EX) karịa obi abụọ ezi uche dị na ya na ụdị ahụ adịghịzi adị.
  • A na-ahụkarị ya n'ọhịa (EW) na adị ndụ naanị n'ụlọ mkpọrọ, ọrụ ugbo na / ma ọ bụ n'èzí ebe a mụrụ ya, dịka a na eche mgbe nyocha zuru oke gasịrị.
  • Ezigbo ihe ize ndụ (CR) n'ọnọdụ dị oke egwu.
  • Ndị nọ n'ihe ize ndụ (EN) dị elu nke mkpochapụ n'ọhịa, na emezu ihe ọ bụla n'ime ụkpụrụ A ruo E maka ndị nọ n'Ihe ize ndụ.
  • Vulnerable (VU) na emezu otu n'ime 5 Usoro Ndepụta uhie ma si otú a were ya dị ka onye nọ n'ihe ize ndụ dị elu nke mkpochapụ na abụghị nke okike (nke mmadụ kpatara) na enweghị ntinye aka ọzọ nke mmadụ.
  • Ọ fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ ihe na eyi egwu (NT) na eru nso n'ihe ize ndụ n'ọdịnihu dị nso.
  • O yighị ka nchegbu na-adịchaghị mkpa (LC) ọ ga abụ ihe ize ndụ ma ọ bụ kwụsị n'ọdịnihu dị nso.
  • Data na adịghị mma (DD)
  • A naghị enyocha ya (NE)

Na IUCN Ndepụta uhie "ndị nọ n'ihe ize ndụ" na agụnye ụdị nke Anọ n'ihe egwu dị egwu, N'ihe egwu na adịghị ike.[14]

Ụdị 1994 na usoro 2001[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ndepụta nke okenye nke 1994 nwere naanị otu ụdị "Obere ihe ize ndụ" nke nwere ngalaba atọ:

  • Nchebe Na-adabere (LR/cd)
  • Ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ ihe iyi egwu (LR/nt)
  • Nchegbu Kasị Adịchaghị (LR/lc)

N'ime usoro 2001, Na nso Egwu na Nchegbu kacha nta ghọrọ ụdị nke ha, ebe ewepụrụ Dabere na nchekwa ma jikọta ọdịnaya ya na Na nso Egwu.

O nwere ike ịbụ na ọ nwụọla[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A na eji mkpado nke "ma eleghị anya na adịghịzi adị" (PE) eme ihe site na Birdlife Mba ụwa, Ndepụta uhie ikike maka nnụnụ maka IUCN Ndepụta uhie.[15][16] BirdLife Mba ụwa atụwo aro ka PE bụrụ mkpado gọọmentị maka ụdị dị egwu, a nabatara nke a ugbu a, yana mkpado "O nwere ike ịpụ n'anya n'ọhịa" maka ụdị nwere ndị na adị ndụ n'agbụ ma o yikarịrị ka ha ga apụ n'anya na ọhịa.

Nsụgharị[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ịtụle ọnụ ọgụgụ nke ụdị dị na ụdị ọ bụla nke IUCN Red List

E nweela ọtụtụ nsụgharị, site na 1991, gụnyere:[17][18]

  • Nsụgharị 1.0 (1991)
  • Nsụgharị 2.0 (1992)
  • Nsụgharị 2.1 (1993)
  • Nsụgharị 2.2 (1994)
  • Nsụgharị 2.3 (1994)
  • Nsụgharị 3.0 (1999)
  • Nsụgharị 3.1 (2001)

Nnyocha IUCN ọhụrụ niile kemgbe afọ 2001 ejirila mbipute 3.1 nke ụdị na njirimara.

Nkatọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Icons for Red List categories
1994 IUCN Red List categories (version 2.3), eji maka ụdị ndị a na-enyochabeghị kemgbe afọ 2001.

N'afọ 1997, IUCN Ndepụta uhie nwetara nkatọ n'ihi nzuzo (ma ọ bụ ma ọ dịkarịa ala akwụkwọ na-adịghị mma) gbara isi iyi nke data ya gburugburu.[19] Ebubo ndị a emeela ka IUCN na eme mgbalị iji melite akwụkwọ ya na ogo data ya, yana ịgụnye nyocha ndị ọgbọ nke taxa na Ndepụta uhie.[12] Ndepụta ahụ naemeghe maka mkpesa megide nhazi ya, dabere na akwụkwọ ma ọ bụ ụkpụrụ.[20]

Na mbipụta Nọvemba 2002 nke Trends in Ecology & Evolution, otu isiokwu tụrụ aro na IUCN Red List na ọrụ ndị yiri ya nwere ike iji ya mee ihe n'ụzọ na-ezighị ezi site na gọọmentị na otu ndị ọzọ na-eme ka nkwubi okwu na-ekwesịghị ekwesị na ọnọdụ gburugburu ebe obibi ma ọ bụ na-emetụta iji ihe onwunwe okike eme ihe.[21]

Na mbipụta Nọvemba 2016 nke Ọganihu Sayensị, otu edemede nyocha na-ekwu na enwere nnukwu enweghị nkwekọrịta n'ụzọ IUCN si kewaa ụdị dị iche iche. Ndị na eme nchọpụta na ekwu na usoro nke IUCN nke ịhazi ihe bụ "ihe mgbe ochie, ma hapụ ohere maka imeziwanye", ma na-ekwusi ike na mkpa ọ dị mfe ịnweta ma dị mfe ịgụnye data geospatial, dị ka satellite na foto ikuku. Mkpebi ha jụrụ ọ bụghị naanị usoro IUCN kamakwa izi ezi nke ebe ụdị ụfọdụ na-ada na Ndepụta ahụ. Ha kwenyere na ijikọta data ala nwere ike ịbawanye ọnụ ọgụgụ nke ụdị dị iche iche dị mkpa ka a gbanwee ya na ụdị ihe ize ndụ dị elu.[22]

See also[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

 

  • CITES
  • Ọnọdụ nchekwa
  • Ndepụta Ndepụta Na-acha Uhie
  • Ndepụta uhie mpaghara
  • Ụdị site na IUCN Red List category
  • Nchekwa Anụ Ọhịa

Ihe ndị e kwuru[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. Background & History. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved on 19 May 2021.
  2. CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora), Joint Meeting of the Animals and Plants Committees, Shepherdstown (United States of America), 7–9 December 2000, Retrieved 14 November 2012.
  3. Red List Overview. IUCN Red List. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Archived from the original on 30 June 2014. Retrieved on 20 June 2012.
  4. Lovejoy (8 August 2017). "Extinction tsunami can be avoided". PNAS 114 (32): 8840–8841. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1711074114. PMID 28747527. 
  5. Frequently Asked Questions. IUCN. Archived from the original on 27 June 2014. Retrieved on 11 October 2011.
  6. Matthew Knight. "Extinction threat 'a call to world leaders' at Rio Earth Summit", edition.cnn.com, 19 June 2012. Retrieved on 13 November 2018.
  7. Jessica Phelan (19 June 2012). IUCN Red List update: Nearly 2,000 species added. www.pri.org. Archived from the original on 16 November 2018. Retrieved on 13 November 2018.
  8. IUCN 2012 update – 4 species extinct – 2 rediscovered – Food security waning. wildlifeextra.com (19 June 2012). Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved on 14 November 2018.
  9. 9.0 9.1 James Ayre. "The Red List Of Threatened Species, Annual Report Released", planetsave.com, 20 June 2012. Retrieved on 13 November 2018.
  10. The list is queryable at: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved on 6 March 2020.
  11. K.S. Sudhi. "Red list has 132 species of plants, animals from India", thehindu.com, 21 June 2012. Retrieved on 13 November 2018.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Mace (December 2008). "Quantification of Extinction Risk: IUCN's System for Classifying Threatened Species" (in en). Conservation Biology 22 (6): 1424–1442. DOI:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2008.01044.x. PMID 18847444.  Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Mace 1424–1442" defined multiple times with different content
  13. IUCN RED LIST CATEGORIES AND CRITERIA Version 3.1 Second edition. 2012 International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (2012). Archived from the original on 1 March 2019. Retrieved on 28 February 2019.
  14. MACE (3 December 2008). "Quantification of Extinction Risk: IUCN's System for Classifying Threatened Species". Conservation Biology 22 (6): 1424–1442. DOI:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2008.01044.x. ISSN 0888-8892. PMID 18847444. 
  15. Butchart (5 June 2006). "Going or gone: defining 'Possibly Extinct' species to give a truer picture of recent extinctions". Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 126A: 7–24. 
  16. Birds on the IUCN Red List. BirdLife International. Archived from the original on 14 October 2013. Retrieved on 26 January 2007.
  17. 2001 Categories & Criteria (version 3.1). IUCN. Archived from the original on 27 June 2014. Retrieved on 27 January 2013.
  18. Historical IUCN Red Data Books and Red Lists. Archived from the original on 27 June 2014. Retrieved on 9 June 2016.
  19. Mrosovsky (October 1997). "IUCN's credibility critically endangered". Nature 389 (6650): 436. DOI:10.1038/38873. 
  20. Information Sources & Quality. IUCN Red List. Archived from the original on 17 September 2008. Retrieved on 19 September 2008.
  21. Possingham (November 2002). "Limits to the use of threatened species lists". Trends in Ecology & Evolution 17 (11): 503–507. DOI:10.1016/S0169-5347(02)02614-9. 
  22. Stocks (10 November 2016). New study claims that the IUCN Red List is inaccurate. Discover Wildlife. Retrieved on 24 April 2022.

Nkwupụta n'ozuzu na ndị e depụtara[dezie | dezie ebe o si]