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International Union for Conservation of Nature

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IUCN-Headquarters

International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) bụ òtù mba ụwa na-arụ ọrụ n'ọhịa nchedo okike na ojiji na-adịgide adịgide nke ihe onwunwe okike.[1] Ọ na-etinye aka na nchịkọta data na nyocha, nyocha, ọrụ ubi, nkwado, na agụmakwụkwọ. Ebumnuche IUCN bụ "inwe mmetụta, gbaa ume ma nyere ndị mmadụ aka n'ụwa niile iji chekwaa okike na iji hụ na ojiji ọ bụla nke ihe onwunwe okike bụ nke ziri ezi na nke na-adịgide adịgide".

N'ime iri afọ gara aga, IUCN agbasawanyela nlebara anya ya karịa nchekwa gburugburu ebe obibi ma tinye ugbu a okwu metụtara mmepe na-adigide na ọrụ ya. IUCN abụghị n'onwe ya ebum n'obi ịchịkọta ọha na eze na nkwado nke nchekwa ihe okike. Ọ na-agba mbọ imetụta omume nke gọọmentị, azụmahịa na ndị ọzọ metụtara site n'inye ozi na ndụmọdụ yana site n'iwulite mmekọrịta. Ọhaneze mara nzukọ a nke ọma maka ịchịkọta na ibipụta IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, nke na-enyocha ọnọdụ nchekwa nke ụdị dị iche iche n'ụwa niile.

IUCN nwere ndị otu karịrị 1,400 nke gọọmentị na ndị na-abụghị gọọmentị. Ihe dị ka ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị na ndị ọkachamara 16,000 na-ekere òkè n'ọrụ nke kọmitii IUCN n'afọ ofufo. Ọ na-ewe ihe karịrị ndị ọrụ oge niile 900 n'ihe karịrị mba 50. Isi ụlọ ọrụ ya dị na Gland, Switzerland.[2]

IUCN nwere ọkwa nleba anya na nyocha na United Nations, ma na-ekerekwa òkè na mmejuputa nkwekọrịta mba ụwa dị iche iche gbasara nchekwa ihe okike na ụdị ndụ dị iche iche. Ọ tinyere aka n'ịwube Funding World Wide Fund for Nature na World Conservation Monitoring Center. N'oge gara aga, a katọrọ IUCN maka itinye ọdịmma nke okike karịa nke ụmụ amaala. N'afọ ndị na-adịbeghị anya, mmekọrịta chiri anya ya na mpaghara azụmahịa kpatara esemokwu.

E guzobere IUCN na 1948. Na mbụ, a kpọrọ ya International Union for the Protection of Nature (1948-1956) ma bụrụkwa nke a maara dị ka World Conservation Union (1990-2008).

Akụkọ ihe mere eme[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

[note 1]

Ntọala[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

: 16-38[3]

E guzobere IUCN na 5 Ọktoba 1948, na Fontainebleau, France, mgbe ndị nnọchi anya gọọmentị na òtù nchekwa nke UNESCO kpaliri bịanyere aka n'iwu iwu kwadoro nke mejupụtara International Union for the Protection of Nature (IUPN). Mbido iji guzobe nzukọ ọhụrụ ahụ sitere na UNESCO na ọkachasị site n'aka onye isi nchịkwa mbụ ya, onye British biologist Julian Huxley.

Julian Huxley, onye isi nchịkwa mbụ nke UNESCO, butere ụzọ guzobe IUCN.

N'oge e guzobere ya, IUCN bụ naanị nzukọ mba ụwa na-elekwasị anya na ụdị nchekwa okike niile (e guzobere nzukọ mba ụwa maka ichebe nnụnụ, ugbu a BirdLife International, na 1922).

Afọ ndị mbụ: 1948-1956[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

IUCN (International Union for conservation of Nature) malitere na ndị otu 65 na Brussels ma nwee njikọ chiri anya na UNESCO. Ha jikọrọ aka hazie 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature Lake Success, US ma dee ndepụta mbụ nke ụdị dị n'ihe ize ndụ. N'afọ ndị mbụ nke ịdị adị ya, IUCN dabere ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ kpamkpam na ego UNESCO ma bụrụ onye a manyere ibelata ọrụ nwa oge mgbe nke a kwụsịrị na mberede na 1954. IUCN nwere ihe ịga nke ọma n'ịkpọtụrụ ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị a ma ama na ịchọpụta okwu ndị dị mkpa dị ka mmetụta ọjọọ nke ọgwụ ahụhụ na anụ ọhịa mana ọ bụghị ọtụtụ n'ime echiche ọ mepụtara ka a gbanwere ka ọ rụọ ọrụ. Nke a sitere na enweghị mmasị ime ihe n'akụkụ gọọmentị, ejighị n'aka banyere iwu IUCN na enweghị ihe onwunwe. N'afọ 1956, IUCN gbanwere aha ya ka ọ bụrụ International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.

Nkọwa na mmata: 1956-1965[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

N'oge a, IUCN gbasaa mmekọrịta ya na ụlọ ọrụ UN ma guzobe njikọ ya na Council of Europe. Akwụkwọ IUCN a kacha mara amara, Red Data Book on the conservation status of species, bụ nke mbụ e bipụtara na 1964.

IUCN malitere ikere òkè na mmepe nke nkwekọrịta na mgbakọ mba ụwa, malite na Nkwekọrịta Afrịka na Nchekwa nke Okike na Akụ na Ala.

Afrịka bụ mpaghara mbụ nke IUCN na-elekwasị anya na nchekwa.

Afrịka bụ ebe ọtụtụ n'ime ọrụ nchekwa IUCN mbụ lekwasịrị anya. IUCN kwadoro 'ihe nlereanya Yellowstone' nke njikwa mpaghara echedoro, nke gbochiri ọnụnọ na ọrụ mmadụ iji chebe okike.[4]

IUCN nwetakwara nsogbu site na ego a machibidoro iwu n'afọ ndị mbụ ya. N'ihi nke a, Tracy Philipps, odeakwụkwọ ukwu site na 1955 ruo 1958, enwetaghị ụgwọ ọnwa n'oge ọ nọ n'ọchịchị: 62[3]

Iji guzobe ntọala ego kwụsiri ike maka ọrụ ya, IUCN sonyere n'ịmepụta World Wildlife Fund (1961) (nke bụzi World Wide Fund for Nature WWF) iji rụọ ọrụ na nchịkọta ego iji kpuchie akụkụ nke ụgwọ ọrụ nke IUCN. N'afọ 1961, isi ụlọ ọrụ IUCN si Belgium kwaga Morges na Switzerland.

Nkwado ọnọdụ ya na mmegharị gburugburu ebe obibi nke mba ụwa: 1966-1975[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

N'ime afọ ndị 1960, IUCN gbara Nzukọ Ezumezu nke UN ume ka ha mepụta ọnọdụ ọhụrụ maka NGO. Mkpebi 1296, nke a nabatara na 1968, nyere ndị NGO ọnọdụ 'ndị ndụmọdụ'. IUCN n'onwe ya mechara nweta ikike na òtù UN isii.[5] IUCN bụ otu n'ime òtù gburugburu ebe obibi ole na ole na-etinye aka na nkwadebe nke Nzukọ Mba Ndị Dị n'Otu na gburugburu ebe obibi mmadụ (Stockholm, 1972). Nzukọ Stockholm mechara duga na mgbakọ mba ụwa ọhụrụ atọ, na IUCN na-etinye aka na ide na mmejuputa ha:

  • Nkwekọrịta Banyere Nchebe nke Ihe Nketa Ọdịbendị na Okike Ụwa (1972). IUCN jikọtara aka dee nkwekọrịta ihe nketa ụwa na UNESCO ma tinye aka dị ka ndị ndụmọdụ gọọmentị na okike site na mmalite. [1]
  • CITES - Nkwekọrịta maka Azụmaahịa Mba Nile na Ụdị Anụ Ọhịa na Flora nọ n'Ihe ize ndụ (1974). IUCN bụ otu ndị bịanyere aka na ya na IUCN debanyere aha odeakwụkwọ CITES na mbụ.
  • Nkwekọrịta Ramsar - Nkwekọ maka Ala Mmiri nke Mkpa Mba Nile (1975). A ka na-achịkwa odeakwụkwọ ahụ site na isi ụlọ ọrụ IUCN.

IUCN banyere na nkwekọrịta na United Nations Environment Programme UNEP iji nye nyocha oge niile banyere nchekwa ụwa. Ego nke a nwetara, tinyere ego na-arịwanye elu site na WWF, mere ka nzukọ ahụ nwee ezigbo ego na nke mbụ kemgbe 1948.

Oge a hụrụ mmalite nke mgbanwe nke nta nke nta na usoro IUCN maka nchekwa nke ọ gbalịrị ịghọ ihe na-adọrọ mmasị na mba ndị na-emepe emepe.

Atụmatụ Nchekwa Ụwa 1975-1985[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

N'afọ 1975, IUCN malitere ịrụ ọrụ na World Conservation Strategy (1980).[6] Usoro ide ihe, na mkparịta ụka ya na ụlọ ọrụ UN metụtara, dugara na mgbanwe n'iche echiche n'ime IUCN na nnabata na-arịwanye elu nke eziokwu ahụ bụ na nchedo nke okike site na ịmachibido ọnụnọ mmadụ anaghịzi arụ ọrụ. Usoro a sochiri na 1982 site na World Charter for Nature, nke United Nations General Assembly nabatara, mgbe IUCN kwadebere.

N'afọ 1980, IUCN na WWF kwagara n'ọfịs ọhụrụ na Gland, Switzerland. Nke a gosipụtara oge mmekọrịta chiri anya na WWF, mana mmekọrịta chiri anya dị n'etiti IUCN na WWF kwụsịrị na 1985 mgbe WWF kpebiri ịchịkwa ọrụ nke ya, nke IUCN nọ na-achịkwa.

Mmepe[3] na mpaghara na-adịgide adịgide: 1985 ruo taa: 176-222N'afọ 1982, IUCN hiwere Conservation for Development Center n'ime odeakwụkwọ ya. Ụlọ ọrụ ahụ na-arụ ọrụ iji hụ na e jikọtara nchekwa ihe okike na enyemaka mmepe yana na amụma akụ na ụba nke mba ndị ka na-emepe emepe. N'ime afọ ndị gafeworonụ, ọ kwadoro mmepe nke atụmatụ nchekwa mba na mba 30. Ọtụtụ mba Europe malitere inyefe enyemaka dị iche iche site na ọrụ IUCN. Ndị ọrụ IUCN na-arụ ọrụ ndị a nke ọma, na-arụkarị ọrụ site na ụlọ ọrụ mpaghara na obodo ọhụrụ IUCN guzobere gburugburu ụwa. Nke a gosipụtara mgbanwe n'ime nzukọ a. Na mbụ, kọmitii ndị ọrụ afọ ofufo nwere mmetụta dị ukwuu, ugbu a, ndị odeakwụkwọ na ndị ọrụ ya malitere ịrụ ọrụ kachasị mkpa. N'afọ 1989, IUCN kwagara n'ụlọ dị iche na Gland, nke dị nso n'ụlọ ọrụ ya na WWF kesara. Na mbụ, a ka na-elekwasị anya n'ikike isi ụlọ ọrụ dị na Gland mana ụlọ ọrụ mpaghara na ndị otu mpaghara ji nwayọọ nwayọọ nweta nnukwu ọnụ na ọrụ.

N'afọ 1991, IUCN (ya na UNEP na WWF) bipụtara Caring for the Earth, onye nọchiri World Conservation Strategy.[5]

Akụkụ mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya nke nchekwa ka a na-ejikọta ya na ọrụ IUCN; na Nzukọ Ezumezu na 1994 e degharịrị ọrụ IUC N na okwu ya ugbu a iji tinye ojiji ziri ezi na gburugburu ebe obibi nke ihe onwunwe okike.

Ịdị nso na azụmahịa: 2000 ruo taa

Nlebara anya dị ukwuu na mmepe na-adịgide adịgide dị ka ụzọ isi chebe okike mere ka IUCN bịarukwuo ngalaba ụlọ ọrụ nso. Ndị otu ahụ kpebiri megide nke a, mana IUCN jikọtara aka na World Business Council for Sustainable Development. IUCN megharịrị MOU (Memorandum of understanding) ọtụtụ afọ na WBCSD na Disemba 2015.

N'afọ 1996, mgbe ọtụtụ iri afọ nke ịchọ idozi nsogbu azụmaahịa ụfọdụ gasịrị, ndị otu IUCN rịọrọ maka usoro zuru oke iji tinye aka na ngalaba azụmaahịa. Mkpebi 1.81 nke IUCN World Conservation Congress mere n'afọ ahụ "gba ndị otu IUCN na onye isi nchịkwa, dabere na mkpa ọ dị imetụta iwu ụlọ ọrụ onwe onye iji kwado Ọrụ nke IUC N, ịgbasawanye mkparịta ụka na mmekọrịta na-arụpụta ihe na ụlọ ọrụ onwe ma chọta ụzọ ọhụrụ iji soro ndị otu azụmaahịa na-emekọrịta ihe".

E guzobere IUCN Global Business and Biodiversity Program (BBP) na 2003 iji metụta ma kwado ndị mmekọ onwe ha na-edozi nsogbu gburugburu ebe obibi na mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya.[7] N'afọ 2004, e mepụtara usoro IUCN nke mbụ (n'ịzaghachi mkpebi kansụl C/58/41). Ihe a ma ama na Business and Biodiversity Program bụ mmekọrịta afọ ise IUCN malitere na ụlọ ọrụ ike Shell International na 2007.[8][9]

IUCN etinyela aka na obere ike na enweghị carbon kemgbe afọ 2005 site na ijikọta ihe nchekwa ike, nke Jean-Luc Sandoz mepụtara na nzọụkwụ Julius Natterer.[10]

Taa, Business and Biodiversity Programme na-aga n'ihu na-esetịpụ ntụziaka atụmatụ, na-ahazi usoro IUCN n'ozuzu ya ma na-enye nkwenye dị mma na ọrụ azụmahịa niile. Ihe omume ahụ na-ahụ na a na-etinye usoro itinye aka na azụmaahịa site na mmemme isiokwu zuru ụwa ọnụ na mpaghara nke IUCN yana inyere aka iduzi ọrụ nke kọmitii isii nke IUCn.

Ịkwado Ngwọta ndị dabeere na okike: 2009 ruo taa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ihe ngwọta sitere na okike (NbS) na-eji usoro gburugburu ebe obibi na ọrụ ha na-enye iji dozie nsogbu ọha na eze dịka mgbanwe ihu igwe, nchekwa nri ma ọ bụ ọdachi okike.[11]

Mpụta nke echiche NbS na sayensị gburugburu ebe obibi na ọnọdụ nchekwa okike bịara dị ka òtù mba ụwa, dị ka IUCN na World Bank, na-achọ ihe ngwọta iji rụọ ọrụ na gburugburu ebe obibi kama ịdabere na ntinye aka injinia omenala (dị ka mgbidi mmiri), iji mee ka mmetụta mgbanwe ihu igwe dị mma, ka ọ na-emeziwanye ndụ na-adịgide adịgide ma na-echebe gburugburu ebe obibi dị iche iche.

Na IUCN World Conservation Congress 2016, ndị otu IUCN kwekọrịtara na nkọwa nke ngwọta sitere na okike.[12] Ndị otu ahụ rịọkwara gọọmentị ka ha tinye ihe ngwọta sitere na okike na atụmatụ iji lụso mgbanwe ihu igwe ọgụ.

Usoro iheomume[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. About. IUCN (2014-12-03). “The organisation changed its name to the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources in 1956 with the acronym IUCN (or UICN in French and Spanish). This remains our full legal name to this day.”
  2. About IUCN. IUCN. Retrieved on 17 November 2014.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Holdgate (1999). The green web: a union for world conservation. Earthscan. ISBN 1-85383-595-1. 
  4. Kenya: The Maasai Stand up to IUCN Displacement Attempts from their Forest. World Rainforest Movement. Archived from the original on 27 September 2017. Retrieved on 2 December 2014.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Understanding NGOs. agendatwentyone.wordpress.com (2010-06-28). Retrieved on 5 December 2014.
  6. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (1980). World Conservation Strategy: Living Resource Conservation for Sustainable Development. IUCN–UNEP–WWF. 
  7. Global Business and Biodiversity Programme. IUCN. Retrieved on 28 November 2014.
  8. IUCN and Shell: Guiding the way. Business & Biodiversity. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved on 5 December 2014.
  9. Environmentalists spar over corporate ties. Worldwatch. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved on 5 December 2014.
  10. Le projet puritain de l'Union pour la nature (29 November 2005).
  11. (2016) in Cohen-Shacham: Nature-based solutions to address global societal challenges. portals.iucn.org. DOI:10.2305/IUCN.CH.2016.13.en. ISBN 9782831718125. 
  12. 077 – Defining Nature-based Solutions | 2016 Congress portal (en). portals.iucn.org. Archived from the original on 8 August 2019. Retrieved on 2017-07-04.

Ụfọdụ ụbọchị dị mkpa na uto na mmepe nke IUCN:Àtụ:Conservation organisationsIUCN na-arụ ọrụ na ndabere nke mmemme afọ anọ, nke ndị otu kpebiri. Na mmemme IUCN maka afọ 2017-2020, a na-ejikọta nchedo okike na ụdị dị iche iche na mmepe na-adịgide adịgide na mbelata ịda ogbenye. IUCN na-ekwu na ọ na-achọ inwe ntọala eziokwu siri ike maka ọrụ ya ma na-eburu n'uche ihe ọmụma nke ndị otu ụmụ amaala na ndị ọzọ na-eji ihe onwunwe okike eme ihe.

Ọrụ ọ na-arụ ugbu a[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ihe Omume IUCN 2017-2020[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Dị ka ebe nrụọrụ weebụ ya si kwuo, IUCN na-arụ ọrụ na isiokwu ndị a: azụmahịa, mgbanwe ihu igwe, akụ na ụba, gburugburu ebe obibi, iwu gburugburu ebe obibi، nchekwa ọhịa, okike, iwu ụwa, iwu mmiri na polar, ebe echedoro, sayensị na ihe ọmụma, iwu mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya, ụdị, mmiri, na ihe nketa ụwa.[1]

IUCN na-arụ ọrụ na ndabere nke mmemme afọ anọ, nke ndị otu kpebiri. Na mmemme IUCN maka afọ 2017-2020, a na-ejikọta nchedo okike na ụdị dị iche iche na mmepe na-adịgide adịgide na mbelata ịda ogbenye. IUCN na-ekwu na ọ na-achọ inwe ntọala eziokwu siri ike maka ọrụ ya ma na-eburu n'uche ihe ọmụma nke ndị otu ụmụ amaala na ndị ọzọ na-eji ihe onwunwe okike eme ihe.

Ihe omume IUCN 2017-2020 na-akọwa ebe atọ kachasị mkpa:[2]

  1. Ịkwalite na ichekwa ihe okike.
  2. Ịkwalite na ịkwado ọchịchị dị irè na nke ziri ezi nke ihe onwunwe okike.
  3. Ntinye ngwọta ndị dabeere na okike iji dozie nsogbu ọha na eze gụnyere mgbanwe ihu igwe, nchekwa nri, na mmepe akụ na ụba na mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya.[2]

IUCN n'onwe ya anaghị achọ ịhazi ọha na eze n'onwe ha. Agụmakwụkwọ abụwo akụkụ nke mmemme ọrụ IUCN kemgbe ụbọchị ndị mbụ mana a na-elekwasị anya na itinye aka na nkwurịta okwu atụmatụ karịa mkpọsa ọha.[3]

Ebe obibi na ụdị[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ndepụta nke IUCN Animal Threat Category

IUCN na-arụ ọrụ n'ọhịa maka ebe obibi na nchekwa ụdị gburugburu ụwa. Ọ na-emepụta IUCN Red List of Threatened Species na IUCN red List of Ecosystems. IUCN Red List of Ecosystems na-emetụta mpaghara, mba, mpaghara, na ọkwa ụwa.

Ebumnuche IUCN kwuru bụ ịgbasa netwọk zuru ụwa ọnụ nke ogige ntụrụndụ mba na ebe ndị ọzọ echedoro ma kwalite ezigbo njikwa nke mpaghara ndị dị otú ahụ.[4][5] Karịsịa, ọ na-elekwasị anya na nchebe ka ukwuu nke oké osimiri na ebe obibi mmiri.

Mmekọrịta azụmahịa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

IUCN nwere usoro mmekọrịta na-eto eto na ngalaba ụlọ ọrụ na mpaghara, mba na mba ụwa iji kwalite ojiji na-adịgide adịgide nke ihe onwunwe okike.[6]

Iwu mba na nke mba ụwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Na mba, IUCN na-enyere gọọmentị aka ịkwadebe ụkpụrụ dị iche iche nke mba. Na mba ụwa, IUCN na-enye ndụmọdụ maka mgbakọ gburugburu ebe obibi dị ka Convention on Biological Diversity, CITES, na Framework Convention on Climate Change. Ọ na-adụ UNESCO ọdụ maka ihe nketa ụwa. Ọ nwere ọrụ na-adịgide adịgide na United Nations.[2] IUCN nwere mmekọrịta gọọmentị na ọtụtụ ụlọ ọrụ mba ụwa ndị ọzọ.[7]

Ọdịdị nzukọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Dị ka nzukọ, IUCN nwere ihe atọ: òtù ndị otu, kọmitii sayensị isii na odeakwụkwọ.

Ndị otu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ndị otu IUCN bụ steeti (na-eme ka IUCN bụrụ GONGO nke mba), ụlọ ọrụ gọọmentị, òtù mba ụwa na-abụghị nke gọọmentị na òtù ndị obodo. N'afọ 2017, IUCN nwere ndị otu 1400.[8] Ndị otu ahụ nwere ike ịhazi onwe ha na kọmitii mba ma ọ bụ mpaghara iji kwalite imekọ ihe ọnụ. N'afọ 2016, e nwere kọmitii mba 62 na kọmitii mpaghara 7.[6]

stampụ Soviet na-echeta Nzukọ Ezumezu IUCN nke 1978 na Ashgabat

Ọrụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Kọmitii asaa nke IUCN gụnyere ndị ọkachamara afọ ofufo sitere na ọzụzụ dịgasị iche iche. Ha 'na-enyocha ọnọdụ nke ihe onwunwe okike nke ụwa ma na-enye Union ezigbo ihe ọmụma na ndụmọdụ iwu gbasara nsogbu nchekwa'.[9]

  • Commission on Education and Communication (CEC): nkwurịta okwu, mmụta na njikwa ihe ọmụma na IUCN na obodo nchekwa ka ukwuu.
  • Commission on Environmental, Economic and Social Policy (CEESP): ihe akụ na ụba na mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya maka nchekwa na ojiji na-adịgide adịgide nke ụdị dị iche iche.
  • World Commission on Environmental Law (WCEL): ịzụlite echiche na ngwá ọrụ iwu ọhụrụ na iwulite ikike nke ọha mmadụ iji iwu gburugburu ebe obibi maka nchekwa na mmepe na-adịgide adịgide.
  • Commission on Ecosystem Management (CEM): usoro njikọ gburugburu ebe obibi maka njikwa nke okike na nke gbanwere agbanwe.
  • Species Survival Commission (SSC): akụkụ teknụzụ nke nchekwa na ọrụ maka ụdị ndị na-eyi egwu na mkpochapụ. Ìgwè ndị ọkachamara nke SSC na-akwadebe atụmatụ mgbake nke ụdị dị n'ihe ize ndụ nke a maara dị ka Species Action Plans, nke a na-eji akọwapụta usoro nchekwa nke ụdị.[10]
  • World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA): nguzobe na njikwa dị irè nke netwọk nke ala na mpaghara mmiri.
  • Kọmitii Nsogbu Ihu igwe: guzobere 2021.[11]

Odeakwụkwọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Isi ụlọ ọrụ IUCN dị na Gland, Switzerland. Ọfịs mpaghara asatọ nke onye nduzi na-eduzi na-etinye usoro IUCN na mpaghara ha. Kemgbe afọ 1980, IUCN eguzobewo ọfịs n'ihe karịrị mba 50.[12]

Ọchịchị na ego[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ọchịchị[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

World Conservation Congress (Members' Assembly) bụ òtù kachasị elu na-eme mkpebi na IUCN. Nzukọ ahụ na-ezukọ afọ anọ ọ bụla. Ọ na-ahọpụta kansụl, gụnyere Onye isi ala, ma kwado usoro ọrụ IUCN maka afọ anọ na-esote na mmefu ego.

Kansụl IUCN bụ ndị isi na-achị isi nke IUCN. Kansụl a na-enye ntụzịaka atụmatụ maka mmemme nke otu, na-ekwurịta okwu gbasara amụma ma na-enye ntụzịaka gbasara ego na mmepe otu nke otu. Kansụl ahụ bụ Onye isi ala, ndị osote onye isi anọ (ndị kansụl họpụtara n'etiti ndị otu ya), onye na-echekwa ego, ndị isi oche nke kọmitii isii nke IUCN, ndị kansụl mpaghara atọ sitere na mpaghara asatọ nke IUCN nke ọ bụla na onye kansụl sitere na steeti ahụ. IUCN nwere oche ya (Switzerland). Onye isi oche IUCN ugbu a bụ Razan Al Mubarak.

Kansụl ahụ na-ahọpụta onye isi nchịkwa, onye na-ahụ maka njikwa zuru oke nke IUCN na ịrụ ọrụ nke Secretariat. Onye isi nchịkwa IUCN ugbu a bụ Bruno Oberle.[13] Ọ nọchiri Inger Andersen.Àtụ:Prince of Asturias Award for Concord

Nkwado[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ngụkọta ego IUCN nwetara na 2012 bụ nde CHF 114, nke ruru ihe dịka nde Euro 95 ma ọ bụ nde US dollar 116. Ego IUCN na-esikarị na mmefu ego enyemaka mmepe nke ụlọ ọrụ abụọ na nke ọtụtụ. Nke a nọchitere anya 61% nke ego ọ na-enweta na 2012. Ihe ndị ọzọ na-akpata ego bụ ụgwọ ndị otu, yana onyinye na ego ọrụ site na ntọala, ụlọ ọrụ, na ụlọ ọrụ.[14]

Mmetụta na nkatọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Mmetụta[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A na-ewere IUCN dị ka otu n'ime òtù nchekwa kachasị emetụta ma, ya na World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) na World Resources Institute (WRI), a na-ahụ ya dị ka ihe na-akpali ịrị elu nke mmetụta nke òtù gburugburu ebe obibi na UN na gburugburu ụwa.[15][16]

O guzobere netwọk zuru ụwa ọnụ nke òtù gọọmentị na ndị na-abụghị gọọmentị, na-agụnye ndị ọkachamara na Kọmitii IUCN, nwere njikọ iwu na nkwekọrịta mba ụwa na òtù gọọmentụ na mmekọrịta na azụmaahịa mba ụwa. Ihe omume World Conservation Congress na World Parks Congress nke IUCN haziri bụ nnukwu nnọkọ nke òtù na ndị mmadụ na-etinye aka na nchekwa n'ụwa niile.

Dị ka ụfọdụ si kwuo, IUCN nwere mmetụta dị ukwuu n'ịkọwa ihe nchedo okike bụ n'ezie.[17] IUCN Red List of Threatened Species na IUCN red List of Ecosystems na-ekpebi ụdị na ebe okike kwesịrị nchebe. Site na Green List of Protected and Conserved Areas na usoro nke IUCN protected area categories IUCN na-emetụta otú e si jikwaa ebe ndị a na-echebe.

Nkatọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A na-azọrọ na IUCN na-etinye mkpa nke okike karịa nke ụmụ mmadụ, na-eleghara echiche akụ na ụba na ọdịmma nke ụmụ amaala na ndị ọzọ na-eji ala eme ihe. Ruo n'afọ 1980, IUCN kwadoro "Yellowstone Model" nke nchedo nke kpọrọ maka iwepụ ụmụ mmadụ n'ebe echedoro. Ịchụpụ ndị Maasai na Serengeti National Park na Ngorongoro Conservation Area bụ ma eleghị anya ihe atụ a maara nke ọma nke usoro a.[18][19]

Mmekọrịta IUCN na ndị na-eji ala eme ihe dị ka ndị Maasai akpatawo esemokwu n'oge gara aga.

Ejikọtara nke a na nkatọ ọzọ a na-eduzi na IUCN, ya bụ na n'ime akụkọ ihe mere eme ya, ọ bụ 'Northern lekwasịrị anya', ya bụ, nwere echiche West-European ma ọ bụ North-American maka nchekwa ụwa. Ụfọdụ ndị nkatọ na-arụtụ aka n'eziokwu ahụ bụ na ọtụtụ ndị na-etinye aka na nguzobe nke IUCN anọwo na-eduga ọnụ ọgụgụ na British Society for the Preservation of the Wild Fauna of Empire, nke chọrọ ichebe ụdị dị iche iche megide mmetụta nke nrụgide ịchụ nta 'nwa amaala' iji mee chebe ịchụ nta nke ndị Europe. Eziokwu ahụ bụ na, ma ọ dịkarịa ala ruo n'afọ 1990, ọtụtụ ndị ọrụ IUCN, oche nke Commissions na President IUCN sitere na mba ndị dị n'ebe ọdịda anyanwụ ebutewokwa nkatọ.

N'oge na-adịbeghị anya, ndị otu na-akwado gburugburu ebe obibi na-arụrịta ụka na IUCN nwere njikọ chiri anya na òtù gọọmentị na mpaghara azụmahịa. Mmekọrịta IUCN na Shell batara maka nkatọ, sitekwa n'aka ndị otu ya. Mmekọrịta chiri anya IUCN na Coca-Cola na Vietnam - ebe ha na-emekọ ihe ọnụ na-ebupụta ogige obodo lekwasịrị anya Coca-Cola - adọtakwala ụfọdụ nkatọ na ebubo nke ịsa ahịhịa. Mkpebi ya iji jide 2012 World Conservation Congress na Jeju Island, South Korea, ebe ndị obodo na ndị na-akwado gburugburu ebe obibi na mba ụwa na-eme mkpesa megide iwu ụlọ ndị agha mmiri buterekwa esemokwu.

Akwụkwọ ndị e bipụtara[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

IUCN nwere ọtụtụ akwụkwọ, akụkọ, ntuziaka, na nchekwa data (gụnyere Global Invasive Species Database) metụtara nchekwa na mmepe na-adịgide adịgide. Ọ na-ebipụta ma ọ bụ na-ede ihe karịrị 100 akwụkwọ na nnukwu nyocha kwa afọ, yana ọtụtụ narị akụkọ, akwụkwọ, na ntuziaka.[20] N'afọ 2015, e bipụtara isiokwu 76 nke IUCN na akwụkwọ akụkọ sayensị ndị ọgbọ nyochara.[21]

Otu akụkọ, ewepụtara na IUCN World Parks Congress na Sydney na 12 Nọvemba 2014 gosiri na nchekwa nchekwa 209,000 gburugburu ụwa ugbu a na-ekpuchi pasenti 15.4 nke mkpokọta ala. Nke a bụ nzọụkwụ iji chebe pasenti 17 nke ala na pasent 10 nke gburugburu oke osimiri n'ụwa ka ọ na-erule afọ 2020 kemgbe nkwekọrịta dị n'etiti mba ụwa na Nkwekọrịta nke Diversity Diversity, nke e mere na Japan na 2010.

Hụkwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ihe edeturu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Àtụ:Conservation organisationsÀtụ:Prince of Asturias Award for Concord

Njikọ mpụga[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Àtụ:Col-begin Àtụ:Col-break

  • 1948: International Union for the Protection of Nature (IUPN) established.[22]
  • 1956: Name changed to the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN).
  • 1959: UNESCO decides to create an international list of Nature Parks and equivalent reserves, and the United Nations Secretary General asks the IUCN to prepare this list.
  • 1961: The World Wildlife Fund set up as a complementary organisation to focus on fund raising, public relations and increasing public support for nature conservation.
  • 1969: IUCN obtains a grant from the Ford Foundation which enables it to boost its international secretariat.
  • 1972: UNESCO adopts the Convention Concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage and the IUCN is invited to provide technical evaluations and monitoring.
  • 1974: IUCN is involved in obtaining the agreement of its members to sign a Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), whose secretariat was originally lodged with the IUCN.
  • 1975: The Convention on Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar Convention) comes into force and its secretariat is administered from the IUCN's headquarters.Àtụ:Col-break
  • 1980: IUCN (together with the United Nations Environment Programme and the World Wide Fund for Nature) collaborate with UNESCO to publish a World Conservation Strategy.
  • 1982: Following IUCN preparation and efforts, the United Nations General Assembly adopts the World Charter for Nature.
  • 1990: Began using the name World Conservation Union as the official name, while continuing using IUCN as its abbreviation.
  • 1991: IUCN (together with United Nations Environment Programme and the World Wide Fund for Nature) publishes Caring for the Earth.
  • 2003: Establishment of the IUCN Business and Biodiversity Program.
  • 2008: Stopped using World Conservation Union as its official name and reverted its name back to International Union for Conservation of Nature.
  • 2012: IUCN publishes list of The world's 100 most threatened species.
  • 2016: Created a new IUCN membership category for indigenous peoples' organisations.Àtụ:Col-end

Àtụ:Col-begin Àtụ:Col-break

IUCN Presidents since 1948[23]

Àtụ:Col-break

IUCN Directors General since 1948[23]
  1. What we do. IUCN. Archived from the original on 23 May 2016. Retrieved on 4 December 2014.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 "IUCN Programme", IUCN, 2015-10-01. Retrieved on 2017-07-04. (in en)
  3. CEC – what we do. IUCN. Archived from the original on 26 December 2014. Retrieved on 26 December 2014.
  4. "'Green List' awards world's top conservation sites", Australian Geographic, 14 November 2014. Retrieved on 18 November 2014.
  5. "Key Biodiversity Areas", IUCN, 2016-03-08. Retrieved on 2017-07-04. (in en)
  6. 6.0 6.1 IUCN 2016 Annual Report (2017).
  7. UNESCO NGO database. UNESCO. Archived from the original on 8 December 2014. Retrieved on 4 December 2014.
  8. "IUCN welcomes 13 new Members", IUCN, 2017-06-06. Retrieved on 2017-07-04. (in en)
  9. IUCN – Commissions. International Union for Conservation of Nature (12 May 2010). Retrieved on 8 September 2010.
  10. IUCN – Species Action Plans. Archived from the original on 25 March 2016. Retrieved on 21 March 2016.
  11. Expert Commissions.
  12. About IUCN. IUCN. Retrieved on 22 December 2014.
  13. Director General (en). IUCN (2015-08-31). Retrieved on 2019-08-24.
  14. IUCN Annual Report 2012. IUCN. Retrieved on 22 December 2014.
  15. Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Understanding NGOs
  16. Ellis (7 October 2020). What is IUCN?. WiseGeek.
  17. MacDonald. IUCN: A History of Constraint. UCLouvain. Retrieved on 12 December 2014. 
  18. Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named wrm.org.uy
  19. Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named holdgate
  20. Publications. IUCN. Retrieved on 2012-01-28.
  21. IUCN Annual Report 2015. IUCN. 
  22. International Union for Conservation of Nature (16 September 2016).