Nsibidi

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Nsibidi
Nsibidi autonym.svg
A symbol simply described as "Nsibidi name written" by Elphinstone Dayrell in 1911.[1]
Ùdì Ideographic with pictographic and perhaps logographic elements
Ásụ̀sụ̀ Igbo,  Ekoid, Ibibio-Efik.
Àgbàtà ógè pre–15th century – present
Úsòrò íshí
Nsibidi (see also Proto-writing)
  • Nsibidi
Úsòrò ụ́mụ̀ anaforuana (Cuba), veve (Haiti)

Nsibidi (amakwaara dịka nsibiri, [2] nchibiddi maọbụ nchibiddy [3] ) bụ usoro ihe nnọchianya ejiri mara ndi ndịda ọwụwa anyanwụ Nigeria na ndị o doro anya na pictograms, ọ bụ ezie na e nwere aro si n'ụfọdụ bụ logograms maọbụ syllabograms . [4] Ihe nnọchianya ahụ adịkarịala ọtụtụ narị afọ - ụdị ndị mbụ pụtara na ite ahụrụ n'ọkụ ma ọ bụ nke nwere ike ịnya ọnya bekee na ebe a na- ete ndịda si mpaghara Calabar, nwere ọtụtụ ụbọchị malite na 400 ruo 1400 O.A. [5]

Enwere ọtụtụ ihe ngosipụta Nsibidi di iche iche, nke ndi edepụtara edepụta ruru ihe kariri nari ise. O nwere mgbe akụzịri ya ụmụakwụkwọ n'ụlọ akwụkwọ.[6] Ọtụtụ n'ime ha bụ maka ihụnanya; ndi n'ahụ maka ịlụ agha na ihe nsọ bụ ndi ezoro ezo. A na-eji Nsibidi achọ ahụ ụlọ mma, ite calabashes, metals (dika brọnz), ahihia ndụ, mma, na tattoos.[2][7] Ndi na-eji y eme ihe bụ ndi Ekpe leopard secret society (nke amaara dika Ngbe maọbụ Egbo), ndi bi na Cross River n'etiti ndi Ekoi, Efik, Igbo people, na ndi ọzọ bi ha nso.

Ndi mba ọzọ bidoro matawa maka nsibidi na 1904 mgbe TD Maxwell choputara akara ndia. [4] Tupu ochichi Britain nke ebe a, e kere nsibidi ka nke di nsọ na nke ọha, nke eji achọ mma nke ụmụ nwanyị nakwa nke enwere ike iji rụọ ụlọ. [7] Akụkụ nke nchịkwa mmadụ dịka agụmakwụkwọ nke Western na ozizi Ndị Kraịst belatara ọnụ ọgụgụ nke ndị nsibidi gụrụ akwụkwọ, na-ahapụ ndị otu nzuzo dị ka ụfọdụ ndị ikpeazụ maara akara ndị ahụ. [8] Nsibidi bụkwara ụzọ akara ngosi ndi Ekpe. A na-ebuga Nsibidi na Cuba na Haiti site na ahia ohu Atlantic, ebe ọ ghọrọ n'ime anaforuana n' akara veve . [9] [10]

Akụkọ[mèzi | mèzi mkpụrụ]

Another picture of a proper noun in nsibidi
Aha nwata nwoke akpọrọ 'Onuaha' nke JK Macgregor dere na 1909. Macgregor tụgharịrị akara abụọ mbụ dị ka mmebi nke mkpụrụedemede Latin 'N' na 'A' na akara ikpeazụ nke ọnya nsibidi. Macgregor chọpụtara otu ndụ ndi Europe si eṅomi nsibidi.
Nsibidi

O nweghị onye ma mmalite nke okwu nsibidi . Otu ụkpụrụ si n' okwu a ahụ si n'asụsụ Ekoid, ebe ọ pụtara "akwụkwọ ozi ọjọọ", na-egosipụta iwu siri ike nke ọtu nzuzo ndi jidere ihe ọmụma nsibidi. [11] [12] Na Calabar, nsibidi na-ejikọkarị aka na leopard societies ụmụ nwoke dịka Ekpe. Otu agụ owuru bụ ikike nke omebe iwu, nke ikpe na nke onye isi tupu ọchịchị amalite ịchị, ọkachasị n'etiti ndị Efik nwere nnukwu mmetụta na Cross River.

Mmalite[mèzi | mèzi mkpụrụ]

A na-asi n'ọ bụ ndi Ejagham people nke ugwu mpaghara Cross River maka na ndi . Nsibidi spread throughout the region over time and mixed with other cultures and art forms such as the Igbo uri or uli graphic design. In 1909 J. K. Macgregor who collected nsibidi symbols claimed that nsibidi was traditionally said to have come from the Uguakima, Ebe or Uyanga tribes of the Igbo people, which legend says were taught the script by baboons,[3] although one writer believes Macgregor had been misled by his informants.

Ọnọdụ[mèzi | mèzi mkpụrụ]

Nsibidi nwere otutu okwu banyere otutu ihe ndi n’egosi na ihe nlere, ihe nlere ọla, akwa, ihe ndi ozo, akwa ulo, na aru ndi mmadu. A kọwapụtara Nsibidi dị ka “usoro mmiri mmiri” nke nkwukọrịta nke nwere ọtụtụ narị adịghị ama anya na akara ngosi. A kọwara Nsibidi n' oge ọchịchị mgbe "PA Talbot" dị ka ụdị ide ederede oge ochie ", Talbot kọwara na-ejiri nsibidi ezi ozi" agbacha ma ọ bụ see ihe eserese n'ukwụ osisi ". Echiche JK Macgregor bụ n' "Ojiji nke nsibidi bụ nke ederede nkịtị. Enweela m ihe ndekọ nke ikpe n'ụlọ ikpe site n' obodo Enion [Enyong] agbadoro na ya, a na-akọwa nkọwa niile .... Nsibidi gafere agbụrụ di iche iche ma bụrụ ihe na-ejikọ otu agbụrụ na mpaghara Cross River.

Ihe eji ya eme[mèzi | mèzi mkpụrụ]

Oge nka Igbo : ulo mahogany eji akara nsibidi chọọ mma ngosi na Christian ikọnografii na Aba, Nigeria

Okwu ikpe - "Ikpe"[mèzi | mèzi mkpụrụ]

An image of a recorded judgement case known as an 'Ikpe' written in nsibidi from Enyong.
Ikpe Ikpe si Enyong edere na nsibidi nke JK Macgregor depụtara.

Ejiri Nsibidi kpee ikpe amaara dika ’ikpe‘ n’obodo ụfọdụ nke Cross River. Macgregor mere ṅtụghari ndekọ nsibidi sitere n' Enyong nke mkpebi ikpe.

Ihe ndekọ a bụ ikpe. (a) A na-eme ụlọ ikpe n'okpuru osisi dịka omenala siri di, (b) ndị otu n'okwu ikpe ahụ, (c) onye isi nke kpere ya bụ ikpe, (d) ndị ọrụ ya (a na-etinye ya n'okirikiri), (e) Ọ bụ nwoke na-atakira na nti ndi ọzọ na-anoghi n’etiti ndi ihe a metụtara, (f) negosi ndi nile nọ n’otu onye meriri. Ha abụọ (g) na-amakụ, (h) bụ nwoke jidere akwa n’agbata mkpịsị aka ya na isi aka ya ka ọ bụrụ ihe nleda anya. Ọ chọghị ịma okwu e kwuru. Usoro a gbara gburugburu na -egosipụta n' ikpe ahụ bụ ihe siri ike nke ndị obodo na-enweghị ike ikpebi n'onwe ha. Ha wee ziga ozi n'obodo ndị gbara ya gburugburu ka ha kpọọ ndị kachasi maara ihe n'etiti ha, ikpe ahụ nwara ha (j) wee kpebie; (k) na-egosi n' ikpe ahụ bụ nke iko ma ọ bụ nke ọnụọgụgụ 20.

Ukara Ekpe[mèzi | mèzi mkpụrụ]

A na-eji Nsibidi achọ akwa 'ukara ekpe' nke akpara akpa nke eji (but also green and red) and is covered in nsibidi symbols and motifs. Ukara ekpe cloths are woven in Abakaliki, and then they are designed by male nsibidi artists in the Igbo-speaking towns of Abiriba, Arochukwu and Ohafia to be worn by members of the Ekpe society. Symbols including lovers, metal rods, trees, feathers, hands in friendship war and work, masks, moons, and stars are dyed onto ukara cloths. The cloth is dyed by post-menopausal women in secret, and young males in public. Ukara was a symbol of wealth and power only handled by titled men and post-menopausal women.[13]

N' omenaala a ma ama[mèzi | mèzi mkpụrụ]

Nsibidi butere maka usoro edemede ndị Wakandan gosipụtara na fim 2018 Marvel Cinematic Universe 2018 Black Panther . [14]

Omumaatu Nsibidi[mèzi | mèzi mkpụrụ]

N'okpuru bụ ụfọdụ nsibidi nke JK Macgregor (1909) na Elphinstone Dayrell (1910 na 1911) debanyere maka Journal nke Royal Anthropological Institute nke Great Britain na Ireland na Man . Ha abụọ dekọtara akara site n'ọtụtụ ebe n'akụkụ Cross River, na mpaghara Ikom nke ama ugbu a dika Cross River State . Ndịị edemede abụọ dere ozi iji weghachite nsibidi ndị a na-ewere dị ka ihe nzuzo ma gaakwa ọtụtụ obodo na Cross River. Àtụ:Col-start Àtụ:Col-3

Nsibidi name written
"Nsibidi"
Nsibidi welcome
"Welcome"
Nsibidi talk
"Two men talking"
Nsibidi door
"Door"
Nsibidi gun
"Gun"
Nsibidi crossbow
"Crossbow"

Àtụ:Col-3

Nsibidi calabash
"Calabash"
Nsibidi big drum
"Big drum"
Etak Ntaña Nsibidi
"Etak Ntaña Nsibidi — Nsibidi's bunch of plantains. When the head of the house wants plantains he sends this sign to the head boy on the farm."[15]
Nsibidi umbrella
"Umbrella"
Nsibidi toilet soap
"Toilet soap"

Àtụ:Col-3

Nsibidi matchet
"Matchet"
Nsibidi woman
"Woman"
Nsibidi man
"Man"
Nsibidi moon
"Moon"
Nsibidi tortoise
"Tortoise"[1][16][15]

Àtụ:Col-end

Eserese[mèzi | mèzi mkpụrụ]

Ihe ngosipụta nsigbidi ndi ọzọ


Ṅrụtụaka[mèzi | mèzi mkpụrụ]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Dayrell, Elphinstone (July–December 1911). "Further Notes on 'Nsibidi Signs with Their Meanings from the Ikom District, Southern Nigeria". Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 41: 521–540. DOI:10.2307/2843186. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 Elechi, O. Oko (2006). Doing Justice without the State: The Afikpo (Ehugbo) Nigeria Model. CRC Press. ISBN 0-415-97729-0. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Diringer, David (1953). The Alphabet: A Key to the History of Mankind. Philosophical Library. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 Gregersen, Edgar A. (1977). Language in Africa: An Introductory Survey. CRC Press. ISBN 0-677-04380-5. 
  5. Slogar, Christopher (2005). Iconography and Continuity in West Africa: Calabar Terracottas and the Arts of the Cross River Region of Nigeria/Cameroon. University of Maryland. 
  6. Isichei, Elizabeth Allo (1997). A History of African Societies to 1870. Nsibidi: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-45599-5. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 Rothenberg, Jerome (1983). Symposium of the Whole: A Range of Discourse Toward an Ethnopoetics. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-04531-9. 
  8. Slogar, Christopher (2005). Iconography and Continuity in West Africa: Calabar Terracottas and the Arts of the Cross River Region of Nigeria/Cameroon. University of Maryland. 
  9. University of Southwestern Louisiana (1987). Baking in the Sun: Visionary Images from the South. University of Southwestern Louisiana. 
  10. Asante, Molefi K. (2007). The History of Africa: The Quest for Eternal Harmony. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-77139-9. 
  11. Sublette, Ned (2007). Cuba and its music: from the first drums to the mambo, Volume 1. Chicago Review Press. ISBN 978-1-55652-632-9. 
  12. Marshall, Richard (1992). Jean-Michel Basquiat. Whitney Museum of American Art. ISBN 0-87427-081-2. 
  13. Chuku, Gloria (2005). Igbo women and economic transformation in southeastern Nigeria, 1900-1960. Paragraph 3: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-97210-8. 
  14. Bill Desowitz (22 Feb 2018). 'Black Panther': How Wakanda Got a Written Language | IndieWire.
  15. 15.0 15.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named dayrellman
  16. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named macgregor

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