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Oké ọkọchị

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  Oké ọkọchị bụ oge nkụja karịa ọnọdụ nkịtị. Oké ọkọchị nwere ike ịdịru ụbọchị, ọnwa ma ọ bụ afọ. Oké ọkọchị na-enwekarị mmetụta dị ukwuu na gburugburu ebe obibi na ọrụ ugbo nke mpaghara ọ metụtara, na-ebutekwa mmebi akụ na ụba obodo. Oge ọkọchị kwa afọ na oke okpomọkụ na-abawanye ohere nke oke ọkọchị na-etolite na ọkụ na-esote. Oge okpomọkụ nwere ike ime ka ọnọdụ ụkọ mmiri ka njọ site n'ime ngwa ngwa na-ekpochapụ ikuku mmiri.

Oké ọkọchị bụ ihe na-eme ugboro ugboro nke ihu igwe n'ọtụtụ akụkụ nke ụwa, na-aghọwanye njọ na nke a na-atụghị anya ya n'ihi mgbanwe ihu igwe, nke nchọpụta dendrochronological malitere na 1900. E nwere ụdị atọ nke mmetụta ụkọ mmiri ozuzo, gburugburu ebe obibi, akụ na ụba na mmekọrịta ọha na eze. Mmetụta gburugburu ebe obibi gụnyere ihicha ala mmiri, ọkụ na-ebuwanye ibu, mfu nke ụdị ndụ dị iche iche. Nsonaazụ akụ na ụba gụnyere nkwụsị nke mmiri maka akụ na ụba obodo; obere ọrụ ugbo, ọhịa, egwuregwu na ịkụ azụ; ọnụ ahịa mmepụta nri dị elu; na nsogbu na mmiri mmiri maka mpaghara ike. Ọnụ ego ọha na eze na ahụike gụnyere mmetụta ọjọọ na ahụike nke ndị mmadụ na-ekpughe ozugbo na ihe a (oke ọkụ ọkụ), ọnụ ahịa nri dị elu, nchekasị nke owuwe ihe ubi na-ada ada, ụkọ mmiri, wdg. Oké ọkọchị na-adịte aka emewo ka ndị mmadụ na-akwaga mba ọzọ na nsogbu ndị mmadụ.

Ọtụtụ ụdị osisi, dị ka ndị nọ n'ezinụlọ Cactaceae (ma ọ bụ cacti), nwere mgbanwe nkwụsị nke ụkọ mmiri ozuzo dị ka ebe mpempe akwụkwọ na-ebelata na waxy cuticles iji welie ikike ha ịnagide ụkọ mmiri ozuzo. Ụfọdụ ndị ọzọ na-adị ndụ oge ọkọchị dị ka mkpụrụ e liri. Oké ọkọchị na-adịgide adịgide na-emepụta biomes kpọrọ nkụ dị ka ọzara na ala ahịhịa. Ọtụtụ gburugburu ebe obibi kpọrọ nkụ nwere arụpụtaghị ihe dị ala.

Oke ọkọchị kacha ogologo ogologo oge n'ụwa n'akụkọ ihe mere eme na-aga n'ihu na Desert Atacama na Chile (afọ 400). N'akụkọ ihe mere eme nile, ụmụ mmadụ na-elekarị ụkọ mmiri ozuzo anya dị ka "ọdachi" n'ihi mmetụta dị na nnweta nri na ọha mmadụ ndị ọzọ. Ụmụ mmadụ na-agbalịkarị ịkọwa ụkọ mmiri ozuzo dị ka ọdachi ndị na-emere onwe ha, nke ụmụ mmadụ kpatara, ma ọ bụ ihe si n'ike ndị karịrị nke mmadụ pụta.

Nkọwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ubi ndị dị na mpụga Benambra, Australia na-ata ahụhụ site na ọnọdụ ụkọ mmiri ozuzo na 2006.

Akuko nyocha nyocha nke isii IPCC na-akọwa ụkọ mmiri ozuzo dị ka "ọkụ dị ọkụ karịa ọnọdụ nkịtị": 1157  Nke a pụtara na ụkọ mmiri ozuzo bụ "oke mmiri n'ihe metụtara nkezi mmiri dị n'otu oge na oge".

Dị ka National Integrated Drought Information System si kwuo, mmekorita ọtụtụ ụlọ ọrụ, a na-akọwakarị ụkọ mmiri ozuzo dị ka "enweghị ụkọ mmiri ozuzo n'ime ogologo oge (na-abụkarị oge ma ọ bụ karịa), na-ebute ụkọ mmiri". Ụlọ ọrụ National Weather Service nke NOAA na-akọwa ụkọ mmiri ozuzo dị ka "erughị mmiri nke na-ebute mmetụta ọjọọ na ndị mmadụ, anụmanụ, ma ọ bụ ahịhịa n'elu ebe buru ibu".

Oké ọkọchị bụ ihe mgbagwoju anya - metụtara enweghị mmiri - nke siri ike nyochaa na ịkọwa. Ka ọ na-erule mmalite 1980, ebipụtaworị ihe karịrị nkọwa 150 nke "oké ọkọchị". Nkọwa dị iche iche na-egosipụta ọdịiche dị na mpaghara, mkpa, na ụzọ ịdọ aka ná ntị.

Ụdị[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

E nwere ụdị atọ bụ isi nke ụkọ mmiri ozuzo dabere na ebe n'ime okirikiri mmiri, ụkọ mmiri na-apụta: ọkọchị ihu igwe, ụkọ mmiri ozuzo, na ụkọ mmiri ugbo ma ọ bụ nke gburugburu ebe obibi. Ọkọchị mmiri dị n'ime mmiri metụtara obere mpụta mmiri, iyi iyi, na nchekwa nchekwa. Oké ọkọchị na-akọ ugbo ma ọ bụ nke gburugburu ebe obibi na-akpata nrụgide ihe ọkụkụ site na nchikota nke evaporation na ala dị ala.: 1157  Ụfọdụ ụlọ ọrụ na-agbakwụnye otu ọzọ: ụkọ mmiri ozuzo ọha na eze na-eme mgbe ọchịchọ maka akụ akụ na ụba karịrị nke a n'ihi ụkọ mmiri metụtara ihu igwe. ọkọnọ. Ọkọchị akụ na ụba ọha na eze bụ echiche yiri ụkọ mmiri.

Ụdị ụkọ mmiri ozuzo dị iche iche nwere ihe dịgasị iche ma mmetụta yiri ya:

  1. Ọkọchị ihu igwe na-eme mgbe enwere ogologo oge na-erughị oke mmiri ozuzo. Ọkọchị ihu igwe na-ebutekarị ụdị ụkọ mmiri ozuzo ndị ọzọ. Ka ụkọ mmiri ozuzo na-aga n'ihu, ọnọdụ ndị gbara ya gburugburu na-eji nwayọọ nwayọọ na-akawanye njọ na mmetụta ọ na-enwe n'ebe ndị bi na mpaghara nọ na-abawanye nwayọọ nwayọọ.
  2. A na-ebute ụkọ mmiri ozuzo mgbe oke mmiri dị na isi mmalite dị ka aquifers, ọdọ mmiri na ọdọ mmiri dara n'okpuru ebe dị ịrịba ama na mpaghara. Mmiri mmiri ozuzo na-eji nwayọọ nwayọọ na-apụta n'ihi na ọ na-agụnye mmiri a na-echekwara nke a na-eji eme ihe ma na-ejupụtaghị. Dị ka ụkọ mmiri ozuzo n'ugbo, nke a nwere ike ịkpalite ọ bụghị naanị mfu nke mmiri ozuzo. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, n'ihe dị ka afọ 2007 Kazakhstan nyere nnukwu ego site n'aka ụlọ akụ ụwa maka iweghachi mmiri e bufere na mba ndị ọzọ site n'Oké Osimiri Aral n'okpuru ọchịchị Soviet. Ọnọdụ ndị dị otú ahụ na-etinyekwa ọdọ mmiri ha kasị ukwuu, Balkhash, n'ihe ize ndụ nke ịkpọnwụ kpamkpam.
  3. Oké ọkọchị nke ugbo ma ọ bụ gburugburu ebe obibi na-emetụta mmepụta ihe ọkụkụ ma ọ bụ gburugburu ebe obibi n'ozuzu ya. Ọnọdụ a nwekwara ike ibilite n'adabereghị na mgbanwe ọ bụla nke oke mmiri ozuzo ma ọ bụrụ na ịba ụba nke ogbugba mmiri n'ubi ma ọ bụ ọnọdụ ala na mbuze nke na-ebute site na atụmatụ ọrụ ugbo na-emeghị atụmatụ na-akpata ụkọ mmiri dị n'ubi.

Ihe Ndị Na-akpata ya[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Nchịkọta / Nkọwa n'ala kpọrọ nkụ nke ọzara Sonora, n"ebe ugwu ọdịda anyanwụ Mexico, nso ókèala steeti California na Arizona nke United States

Enweghị mmiri ozuzo n'ozuzu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Usoro mmepụta mmiri ozuzo gụnyere convective, stratiform, na orographic mmiri ozuzo. Usoro convective na-agụnye mmegharị kwụ ọtọ siri ike nke nwere ike ime ka ikuku na-atụgharị na ọnọdụ ahụ n'ime otu elekere ma mee ka mmiri ozuzo dị arọ, ebe usoro stratiform na-agụnye mmegharị elu na-esighị ike na oke mmiri ozuzo na-adịte aka. Enwere ike kewaa mmiri ozuzo ụzọ atọ, dabere ma ọ dara dị ka mmiri mmiri, mmiri mmiri nke na-ajụ oyi na kọntaktị na elu, ma ọ bụ ice. Oke ọkọchị na-ebute tumadi na mpaghara ebe oke mmiri ozuzo na-adịkarị, n'onwe ha, dị ntakịrị. Ọ bụrụ na ihe ndị a anaghị akwado oke mmiri ozuzo nke ọma iji rute elu n'ime oge zuru oke, ihe ga-esi na ya pụta bụ ụkọ mmiri ozuzo. Enwere ike ịkpalite ụkọ mmiri site n'ogo dị elu nke ìhè anyanwụ na-egosipụta na karịa nkezi nke usoro nrụgide dị elu, ifufe na-ebu kọntinent, kama ikuku ikuku nke oké osimiri, na mkpọda nke ebe nrụgide dị elu nwere ike igbochi ma ọ bụ gbochie mmepe nke ọrụ égbè eluigwe ma ọ bụ mmiri ozuzo karịa otu. mpaghara ụfọdụ. Ozugbo mpaghara nọ n'oké ọkọchị, usoro nzaghachi dị ka ikuku kpọrọ nkụ nke mpaghara, ọnọdụ ọkụ nke nwere ike ịkwalite ikpo ọkụ na-ekpo ọkụ, na obere evapotranspiration nwere ike ime ka ọnọdụ ụkọ mmiri ka njọ.

Oge ọkọchị[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

N'ime ebe okpomọkụ, oge dị iche iche, mmiri mmiri na ọkọchị na-apụta n'ihi mmegharị nke Mpaghara Convergence Mpaghara ma ọ bụ Monsoon trough. Oge ọkọchị na-abawanye oke ụkọ mmiri ozuzo, a na-ejikwa ya dị ala iru mmiri, na oghere mmiri na osimiri na-akpọnwụ. N'ihi enweghị oghere mmiri ndị a, a na-amanye ọtụtụ anụmanụ na-ata nri ịkwaga n'ihi enweghị mmiri na-achọ ala ndị ọzọ na-eme nri. Ihe atụ nke anụmanụ ndị dị otú ahụ bụ zebra, enyí, na anụ ọhịa ọhịa. N'ihi enweghị mmiri dị na osisi, ọkụ na-agba n'oké ọhịa na-adịkarị. Ebe ọ bụ na uzu mmiri na-esiwanye ike na okpomọkụ na-arịwanye elu, a na-achọkwu ikuku mmiri iji mee ka ụkpụrụ iru mmiri dị elu ruo 100% na okpomọkụ dị elu (ma ọ bụ iji mee ka okpomọkụ daa n'ókè igirigi). Oge okpomọkụ na-eme ka mkpụrụ osisi na akwụkwọ nri na-aga ngwa ngwa, na-abawanye evaporation na transpiration site na osisi, na-akawanye njọ ọnọdụ ụkọ mmiri ozuzo.

El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO)[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Mmetụta mpaghara nke ihe omume ENSO na-ekpo ọkụ (El Niño)

Ihe omume El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) nwere ike na-ekere òkè mgbe ụfọdụ na ụkọ mmiri ozuzo. ENSO nwere usoro abụọ nke anomalies okpomọkụ na etiti oke osimiri Pasifik, nke a maara dị ka La Niña na El Niño. A na-ejikọta ihe omume La Niña n'ozuzu ya na ọnọdụ nkụ na ọkụ ọkụ na n'ihu nke oké ọkọchị na California na Southwwest United States, na ruo n'ókè U.S. Southeast. Ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị na-ahụ maka ihu igwe achọpụtawo na La Niñas na-amụbawanye ka oge na-aga.

N'aka nke ọzọ, n'oge ihe omume El Niño, ihu igwe na-ekpo ọkụ ma na-ekpo ọkụ na-eme n'akụkụ akụkụ nke Amazon River Basin, Colombia, na Central America. Oge oyi n'oge El Niño na-ekpo ọkụ na nkụ karịa nkezi ọnọdụ na Northwest, north Midwest, na north Mideast United States, ya mere mpaghara ndị ahụ na-enweta mbelata oke mmiri ozuzo. Ọnọdụ dịkwa nkụ karịa ka ọ dị site na Disemba ruo February na ndịda etiti Africa, ọkachasị na Zambia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique na Botswana. Mmetụta El Niño kpọmkwem nke na-ebute ọnọdụ kpọrọ nkụ na-eme n'akụkụ ụfọdụ nke Ndịda Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ Eshia na Northern Australia, na-amụba ọkụ ohia, ikuku na-akawanye njọ, na mbelata ogo ikuku nke ukwuu. A na-ahụkwa ọnọdụ kpọrọ nkụ karịa ka ọ na-adịkarị na Queensland, n'ime ime Victoria, n'ime ime New South Wales, na ọwụwa anyanwụ Tasmania site na June ruo August. Ka mmiri na-ekpo ọkụ na-esi n’ebe ọdịda anyanwụ Pacific na Oke Osimiri India gbasaa n’ebe ọwụwa anyanwụ Pacific, ọ na-akpata oké ọkọchị na ọdịda anyanwụ Pacific. Singapore nwetara ọkacha mmasị na February na 2014 kemgbe ndekọ malitere na 1869, na naanị 6.3 mm nke mmiri ozuzo na-ada n'ọnwa yana okpomọkụ na-erute 35 Celsius C na 26 February. Afọ 1968 na 2005 nwere Febụwarị mmiri na-esote, mgbe mmiri ozuzo 8.4 mm dara.

Mmetụta nke mgbanwe ihu igwe na mmiri nke ala na 2 °C nke okpomọkụ ụwa. Mbelata nke otu ntụgharị ọkọlọtọ pụtara na nkezi mmiri ga-eru nso n'afọ nke itoolu kachasị akọrọ n"etiti 1850 na 1900.

Enweghị mmiri ozuzo n'ihi mgbanwe ihu igwe[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Akụkọ nyocha nke isii nke IPCC (2021) tụrụ anya mmụba dị ukwuu na ugboro ole ihe omume ndị siri ike ma e jiri ya tụnyere oge tupu ụlọ ọrụ mmepụta ihe maka ebili mmiri ozuzo, ụkọ mmiri na nnukwu mmiri, maka ọnọdụ mgbanwe ihu igwe dị iche iche.[1]

A na-atụ anya mgbanwe ihu igwe zuru ụwa ọnụ ga-ebute oke ọkọchị nwere mmetụta dị ukwuu na ọrụ ugbo n'ụwa niile, ọkachasị na mba ndị ka na-emepe emepe. Tinyere ụkọ mmiri ozuzo na mpaghara ụfọdụ, idei mmiri na mbuze nwere ike ịbawanye na ndị ọzọ. Ụfọdụ omume mbelata mgbanwe ihu igwe tụrụ aro na-elekwasị anya na usoro ndị na-arụsi ọrụ ike karị, njikwa radieshon anyanwụ site na iji oghere anwụ maka otu, nwekwara ike ibuwanye ohere nke ụkọ mmiri ozuzo.

Enwere ịrị elu nke ụkọ mmiri ozuzo na-ekpo ọkụ na Europe bụ nke na-eme n'otu oge yana mmụba nke ikuku evapotranspiration.

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Mgbochi na ọrụ mmadụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ọrụ mmadụ nwere ike ịkpalite ihe ndị na-akawanye njọ dịka ịkọ ugbo, oke ogbugba mmiri n'ubi, igbukpọ osisi, na mbuze na-emetụta ikike ala ahụ ijide na ijide mmiri. N'ebe ugwu kpọrọ nkụ, isi ihe na-ebute mbuze bụ ifufe. Mbipu nwere ike ịbụ n'ihi mmegharị ihe onwunwe site na ifufe. Ikuku nwere ike ime ka e buliri obere irighiri ihe ya mere kwaga mpaghara ọzọ (deflation). Ihe ndị kwụsịtụrụ n'ime ikuku nwere ike imetụta ihe siri ike na-ebute mbuze site na abrasion (nchịkọta gburugburu ebe obibi). Ikuku mbuze na-emekarị n'ebe ndị nwere obere ahịhịa ma ọ bụ na-enweghị ahịhịa, na-emekarị na mpaghara ebe enweghị mmiri ozuzo zuru oke iji kwado ahịhịa.

Loess bụ ihe jikọrọ ọnụ, nke na-adịghị ahụkebe, nke na-adịghị mma, nke na-adịghị mma, nke na-adịghị mma, na-ejikọta ntakịrị, na-adịkarị calcareous, nke dị mma, silty, icha mmirimmiri odo ma ọ bụ buff, ikuku ifufe (Aeolian). Ọ na-apụtakarị dị ka ebe nchekwa mkpuchi mkpuchi zuru ebe niile nke na-ekpuchi mpaghara narị narị square kilomita na oke iri puku kwuru iri. Loess na-eguzokarị na ihu mkpọdada ma ọ bụ kwụ ọtọ. Loess na-achọ itolite ka ọ bụrụ ala bara ụba nke ukwuu. N'okpuru ọnọdụ ihu igwe kwesịrị ekwesị, mpaghara nwere loess so na ndị kasị arụpụta ọrụ ugbo n'ụwa. Nkwụnye ego Loess na-esighi n'ike n'ike site na okike, ọ ga-emebi ngwa ngwa. Ya mere, ndị ọrụ ugbo na-akụkarị ikuku (dị ka nnukwu osisi na ohia) iji belata mbuze nke loess. Mbibi ikuku na-akawanye njọ n'ebe kpọrọ nkụ na n'oge ụkọ mmiri ozuzo. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, na Great Plains, a na-eme atụmatụ na mfu ala n'ihi mbuze ifufe nwere ike ịdị ihe ruru ugboro 6100 karịa n'ime afọ ụkọ mmiri ozuzo karịa afọ mmiri.

Nsonaazụ ya[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ihe ize ndụ nke ụkọ mmiri ozuzo zuru ụwa ọnụ
Oryx abụọ nwụrụ anwụ na Namibia n'oge ụkọ mmiri ozuzo nke 2018 na Southern Africa.
Mgbe ọtụtụ afọ nke ụkọ mmiri ozuzo na uzuzu gasịrị, a gbahapụrụ obodo Farina dị na South Australia.

Mmadụ nwere ike kewaa mmetụta nke ụkọ mmiri ozuzo na ụkọ mmiri ụzọ atọ: gburugburu ebe obibi, akụ na ụba na mmekọrịta ọha na eze (gụnyere ahụike).

  • N'ihe banyere mmetụta gburugburu ebe obibi: ala ala na mmiri dị n'okpuru ala, ọkwa dị ala (na mbelata n'okpuru nke kacha nta na-eduga n'ihe ize ndụ kpọmkwem maka ndụ amphibian), mmụba nke mmetọ nke mmiri dị n'elu, ihicha nke ala mmiri, na-arịwanye elu. ọkụ ọkụ, oke deflation siri ike, ọnwụ nke ụdị ndụ dị iche iche, ahụike dị njọ nke osisi na ọdịdị nke pests na ọrịa dendroid.
  • Mfu akụ na ụba gụnyere obere ọrụ ugbo, oke ohia, egwuregwu na ịkụ azụ, ọnụ ahịa mmepụta nri dị elu, obere mmepụta ike na osisi mmiri, mfu nke njem nlegharị anya mmiri na-akpata na-akpata na ego ụgbọ njem, nsogbu na mmiri maka mpaghara ike na maka usoro teknụzụ. na metallurgy, Ngwuputa Ngwuputa, kemịkalụ, akwụkwọ, osisi, ụlọ ọrụ ihe oriri na ihe ndị ọzọ, nkwụsị nke mmiri mmiri maka akụ na ụba obodo. The Global Commission of Economics of Water mepụtara akụkọ "Gịnị, Gịnị mere na otú nke World Water Crisis" maka UN Conference of Water 2023 iji nye ọrụ ala maka ịghọta akụ na ụba nke mmiri na ime ihe na nsogbu mmiri.
  • Ọnụ ego nke ọha na eze na-agụnye mmetụta ọjọọ na ahụike nke ndị mmadụ na-ekpughe ozugbo na ihe a (oke ọkụ ọkụ), njedebe nke mmiri mmiri nwere ike ime, mmụba mmetọ, ọnụ ahịa nri dị elu, nchekasị nke owuwe ihe ubi na-ada ada, ụkọ mmiri, wdg. Nke a na-akọwa ihe kpatara ụkọ mmiri ozuzo na ụkọ mmiri ji arụ ọrụ dịka ihe na-eme ka ọdịiche dị n'etiti mba ndị mepere emepe na mba ndị ka na-emepe emepe.

Mmetụta dị iche iche dabere na adịghị ike. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, ndị ọrụ ugbo na-eri nri na-enwekarị ike ịkwaga n'oge ụkọ mmiri ozuzo n'ihi na ha enweghị ụzọ ọzọ ha si enweta nri. Mpaghara nwere ọnụ ọgụgụ ndị na-adabere na isi mmiri dị ka isi nri na-esi enweta nri na-adị mfe karịa ụnwụ.

Mmetụta gburugburu ebe obibi na akụ na ụba[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Mmetụta ndị a na-ahụkarị na gburugburu ebe obibi na akụ na ụba nke ụkọ mmiri ozuzo gụnyere:

  • Mbelata uto nke ihe ọkụkụ ma ọ bụ mmepụta ihe na ikike ibu anụ ụlọ
  • Gbanwee ọrụ dị iche iche nke obodo osisi nke nwere ike imetụta mmepụta isi na ọrụ ndị ọzọ nke gburugburu ebe obibi.[2]
  • Ọkụ ọhịa, dị ka ọkụ ọhịa nke Australia na ọkụ ọkụ na United States, na-aghọ ihe a na'ahụkarị n'oge ụkọ mmiri ozuzo ma nwee ike ịkpata ọnwụ mmadụ.[3]
  • Efere ájá, n'onwe ha bụ ihe ịrịba ama nke mbuze, nke na-emebi ala ahụ
  • Oké ifufe uzuzu, mgbe ụkọ mmiri ozuzo na-emetụta ebe ọzara na mbuze
  • Mmebi ebe obibi, na-emetụta ma anụ ọhịa nke ala ma nke mmiri[4]
  • Mgbanwe nke ụdị dị iche iche nke obodo osisi, nke nwere ike inwe mmetụta na mmepụta isi na ọrụ ndị ọzọ nke gburugburu ebe obibi.[5]
  • Mbelata mmepụta ọkụ eletrik n'ihi mbelata mmiri na-agafe n"ụgbọ mmiri eletriki
  • Enweghị mmiri maka ndị ọrụ ụlọ ọrụ[6][7]
  • Mgbanwe nke agwọ, nke na-akpata ịta agbụ[8]
  • Ikpughe na oxidation nke ala acid sulfate n'ihi ọdịda mmiri na ala.[9][10][11]
  • Mbelata ịdị mma nke mmiri, n'ihi na mmiri na-ebelata mgbawa nke mmetọ ma na'amụba mmegide nke isi iyi mmiri fọdụrụnụ.[12][13]
  • Mmebi ala na mmebi nke mmiri, na-akpata mbibi mmepụta nke ala.[14]

Mmetụta mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya na ahụike[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Enweghị mmiri, nkwụsị nke ihe ọkụkụ, ụnwụ nri[15] na ụkwara mmiri ozuzo na-enye obere mmiri iji kwado ihe oriri; nsogbu nri, mmiri ịta n'ahụ na ọrịa ndị yiri ya
  • Nnukwu mbata, na-akpata mbịarute n'ime obodo na ndị gbara ọsọ ndụ mba ụwa
  • Ọgba aghara ọha na eze
  • Agha maka ihe ndị sitere n'okike, gụnyere mmiri na nri
  • Nchịkọta nke cyanotoxin n'ime usoro nri na mmiri (ụfọdụ n"ime ha so na nsí kachasị ike nke sayensị maara) nwere ike ịkpata ọrịa kansa na obere ikpughe ogologo oge.[16] Ọnụ ọgụgụ dị elu nke microcystin pụtara na San Francisco Bay Area salt-water shellfish na mmiri dị ọcha na steeti California niile na 2016.

Mmetụta ọ na-emetụta ihe ọkụkụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Nchegbu mmiri na-emetụta mmepe na ịdịmma osisi n'ụzọ dị iche iche: nke mbụ ụkọ mmiri ozuzo nwere ike ime ka mkpụrụ osisi na-adịghị mma na mmepe nke mkpụrụ osisi na-adịghị mma. N'otu oge ahụ uto osisi na-adabere na nkewa cellular, mmụba cell, na ọdịiche. Nchegbu ụkọ mmiri ozuzo na-emebi mitosis na cell elongation site na mfu nke nrụgide turgor nke na-ebute uto na-adịghị mma. Mmepe nke akwụkwọ na-adaberekwa na nrụgide turgor, itinye uche nke nri, na carbon assimilates [nkọwa dị mkpa] nke niile na-ebelata site na ọnọdụ ụkọ mmiri ozuzo, yabụ nrụgide ụkọ mmiri ozuzo na-eduga na mbelata nha na ọnụọgụ akwụkwọ. Egosipụta elu osisi, biomass, nha akwụkwọ na girth stem na-ebelata na ọka n'okpuru ọnọdụ mmachi mmiri. A na-enwekwa mmetụta na-adịghị mma site na nrụgide ụkọ mmiri ozuzo, mbelata nke ihe ọkụkụ na-esi na mbelata nke foto synthetic, mgbanwe na mmepe akwụkwọ, na mgbanwe nke ihe onwunwe niile n'ihi nrụgide ụkọ mmiri ozuzo. Ihe ọkụkụ ndị a kụrụ n'ubi na-enwe nrụgide nke ụkọ mmiri ozuzo na-ata ahụhụ site na mbelata nke mmiri akwụkwọ nwere ike ime na ọnụego mmịfe. Iji mmiri eme ihe na-abawanye na ihe ọkụkụ dị ka ọka wit ebe ọ na-ebelata na ndị ọzọ, dị ka poteto.

Osisi chọrọ mmiri maka iweta nri sitere na ala, yana maka ibufe nri na-edozi ahụ n'osisi ahụ: ọnọdụ ụkọ mmiri ozuzo na-egbochi ọrụ ndị a na-eduga n'ịkwalite uto. Nchegbu nke ụkọ mmiri ozuzo na-ebutekwa mbelata nke ọrụ photosynthesis na osisi n'ihi mbelata nke anụ ahụ photosynthetic, mmechi stomatal, na mbelata ọrụ nke ígwè ọrụ photosynthetic. Mbelata a na ọrụ photosynthetic na-enye aka na mbelata ihe ọkụkụ na ihe ọkụkụ. Ihe ọzọ na-emetụta mbelata ihe ọkụkụ na ihe ọkụkụ gụnyere ikenye ihe onwunwe; na-eso osisi nrụgide ụkọ mmiri ozuzo ga-ekenyekwu ihe onwunwe na mgbọrọgwụ iji nyere aka na mmiri na-abawanye uto mgbọrọgwụ na ibelata uto nke akụkụ osisi ndị ọzọ ma na-ebelata ihe ọkụkụ.

Nchebe, ibelata na enyemaka[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Osisi ndị na-atọ ụtọ na'ụzọ dị mma iji dịrị ndụ ogologo oge nke ụkọ mmiri ozuzo.
Mmiri nkesa na Marshall Islands n'oge El Niño.

N'ọrụ ugbo, ndị mmadụ nwere ike belata oke mmetụta nke ụkọ mmiri ozuzo site na ịgba mmiri na ntụgharị ihe ọkụkụ. Ọdịda imepụta atụmatụ mbelata ụkọ mmiri ozuzo zuru oke na-ebute nnukwu ọnụ ahịa mmadụ n'oge ọgbara ọhụrụ, na-akawanye njọ site na ọnụ ọgụgụ ndị mmadụ na-abawanye. Onye isi ala Roosevelt na Eprel 27, 1935, bịanyere aka n'akwụkwọ na-ekepụta Ọrụ Nchekwa Ala (SCS)—ugbu a Ọrụ Nchekwa Ọdịbendị (NRCS). E zigara ụdị iwu ahụ na steeti ọ bụla ebe e debere ha. Ndị a bụ mmemme bara uru nke mbụ na-adịgide adịgide iji belata ike ọgwụgwụ nke ụkọ mmiri ozuzo n'ọdịnihu, na-emepụta ụlọ ọrụ ndị malitere imesi usoro nchekwa ala iji chebe ala ugbo taa. Ọ bụghị ruo n'afọ 1950 ka etinyere mkpa dị na nchekwa mmiri n'ime iwu ndị dị adị (NRCS 2014).

Atụmatụ maka nchedo ụkọ mmiri ozuzo, ibelata ma ọ bụ enyemaka gụnyere:

  • Ihe mgbochi mmiri na ọdọ mmiri ndị metụtara ya na-enye mmiri ọzọ n'oge ụkọ mmiri ozuzo.[17]
  • Igwe ojii na-agbanye ụdị mgbanwe ihu igwe iji mee ka mmiri ozuzo.[18] Nke a ka bụ isiokwu arụmụka siri ike, dịka United States National Research Council wepụtara akụkọ na 2004 na-ekwu na ruo ugbu a, enweghi ihe akaebe sayensị doro anya banyere ịdị irè nke mgbanwe ihu igwe.[19]
  • Desalination Ojiji nke mmiri oké osimiri maka ịgba mmiri ma ọ bụ oriri.[20]
  • Nlekota ụkọ mmiri ozuzo Na-aga n'ihu na nyocha nke mmiri na iji ya tụnyere ọkwa ojiji ugbu a nwere ike inyere aka igbochi ụkwara mmiri nke mmadụ mere. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, nyocha nke ojiji mmiri na Yemen ekpughere na tebụl mmiri ha (n'okpuru ala) nọ n'ihe ize ndụ dị ukwuu site na iji ya eme ihe iji mee ka ihe ọkụkụ Khat ha. Nlekọta nke ọma nke ọkwa mmiri nwekwara ike inye aka ịkọ ihe ize ndụ dị ukwuu maka ọkụ ọhịa, na-eji usoro dị ka Keetch-Byram[3] Drought Index ma ọ bụ Palmer Drough Index.
  • Iji ala eme ihe nke ọma nwere ike inye aka belata mbuze ma nye ndị ọrụ ugbo ohere ịkụ ihe ọkụkụ na-adabere na mmiri n'afọ ndị kpọrọ nkụ.
  • Mmachibido iwu iji mmiri eme ihe n'èzí Na-achịkwa ojiji nke sprinklers, hose ma ọ bụ bọket na ụlọ ọrụ ndị dị n"èstre, ọdọ mmiri, na ọrụ mmezi ụlọ ndị ọzọ na-eji mmiri arụ ọrụ. Xeriscaping yards nwere ike belata mmiri na-enweghị isi site n'aka ndị bi n"obodo na obodo.
  • Mmiri ozuzo Nchịkọta na nchekwa nke mmiri ozu site n'elu ụlọ ma ọ bụ ebe ndị ọzọ kwesịrị ekwesị.
  • Mmiri a na-emegharị eme ihe bụ mmiri nsị nke a gwọrọ ma mee ka ọ dị ọcha maka iji ya mee ihe ọzọ.
  • Transvasement Iwu ọwa mmiri ma ọ bụ redirecting osimiri dị ka nnukwu mgbalị ịgba mmiri n'ebe mmiri na-enwekarị.

Ọnụ ọgụgụ na ihe atụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ụfọdụ oke ọkọchị na narị afọ nke 21 gụnyere:

  • Oké ọkọchị nke afọ 1997 na 2009 na Australia dugara na nsogbu mmiri n'ọtụtụ akụkụ nke mba ahụ. N'ihi ya, e wuru ọtụtụ ụlọ ọrụ desalination na nke mbụ (lee ndepụta).
  • N'afọ 2006, mpaghara Sichuan nke China nwere oke ọkọchị kachasị njọ n'oge a na ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ nde mmadụ 8 na ụlọ karịrị nde ehi 7 na-eche ụkọ mmiri ihu.
  • Oké ọkọchị afọ iri na abụọ nke bibiri ndịda ọdịda anyanwụ Western Australia, ndịdaya ọwụwa anyanwụ South Australia.
  • 20152018 Nsogbu mmiri nke Cape Town. Mgbanwe ihu igwe mere ka ohere a okpukpu atọ.[21]
Ebe ndị metụtara na mpaghara ọdịda anyanwụ Sahel n'oge ụkọ mmiri ozuzo nke afọ 2012.

Agha Darfur nke dị na Sudan, na-emetụtakwa Chad, bụ ihe kpatara ọtụtụ iri afọ nke ụkọ mmiri ozuzo; nchikota nke unwu, ọzara na oke onu ogugu ndi mmadu so na ihe butere agha Darfur, n'ihi na ndi Arab Baggara ndi na-acho mmiri ga-ebuga anu ha n'iru na ndida, n'ala nke ndi na-abụghị ndi Arab na-akpa ugbo bu.

Ebe ụkọ mmiri ozuzo metụtara na Karnataka, India na 2012.

Ihe dị ka ijeri mmadụ 2.4 bi na mmiri mmiri na-asọpụta n'osimiri Himalaya. India, China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal na Myanmar nwere ike ịnweta idei mmiri na-esote ụkọ mmiri ozuzo n'ime iri afọ na-abịanụ. Oké ọkọchị dị n'India na-emetụta Ganges bụ ihe pụrụ iche, ebe ọ na-enye mmiri ọṅụṅụ na ogbugba mmiri n'ubi maka ihe karịrị nde mmadụ 500. Oke osimiri ọdịda anyanwụ nke North America, nke na-enweta mmiri dị ukwuu site na glaciers na ugwu ugwu dị ka ugwu Rocky na Sierra Nevada, ga-emetụtakwa.

N'afọ 2005, akụkụ ụfọdụ nke ọdọ mmiri Amazon nwetara ụkọ mmiri ozuzo kacha njọ n'ime 100 afọ. Otu akụkọ 23 July 2006 kọrọ nsonaazụ Woods Hole Research Center na-egosi na oke ọhịa dị ugbu a nwere ike ịlanarị naanị afọ atọ nke ụkọ mmiri ozuzo. Ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị na National Institute of Amazonian Research na-arụrịta ụka n'akụkọ ahụ na nzaghachi ụkọ mmiri ozuzo a, yana mmetụta nke igbukpọsị osisi na ihu igwe mpaghara, na-akpali oke ọhịa ahụ gaa "n'ebe ọnyà" ebe ọ ga-amalite ịnwụ n'enweghị mgbagha. O kwubiri na oke ọhịa dị n'ọnụ nke ịbụ savanna ma ọ bụ ọzara, na-akpata ọdachi na-akpata ihu igwe ụwa. Dị ka WWF si kwuo, nchikota nke mgbanwe ihu igwe na igbutu osisi na-abawanye mmetụta nke nkụ nke osisi ndị nwụrụ anwụ na-eme ka ọkụ na-agba ọhịa.[22]

Ọdọ Mmiri Chad na foto Satellite nke afọ 2001. Ọdọ mmiri ahụ ejirila pasent 95 belata kemgbe afọ 1960.[23][24]

Ka ọ dị ugbu a akụkụ kachasị ukwuu nke Australia bụ ọzara ma ọ bụ ala kpọrọ nkụ nke a na-akpọkarị azụ. Nnyocha e mere n'afọ 2005 nke ndị nchọpụta Australia na America mere nyochara ọzara nke ime ime, ma tụọ aro na otu nkọwa metụtara ndị ọbịa mmadụ bụ́ ndị bịarutere ihe dị ka afọ 50,000 gara aga. Ndị ọbịa a na-agba ọkụ mgbe niile nwere ike igbochi udu mmiri ịbata n'ime ime Australia. Na June 2008 ọ bịara mara na otu ọkachamara panel dọrọ aka ná ntị maka ogologo oge, ma eleghị anya, a gaghị agbanwe agbanwe, nnukwu mmebi gburugburu ebe obibi maka ebe obibi Murray-Darling dum ma ọ bụrụ na ọ nwetaghị mmiri zuru oke site na October 2008. Australia nwere ike ịnweta oké ọkọchị na ha nwere ike ịghọ. Ugboro ugboro n'ọdịnihu, otu akụkọ gọọmentị nyere kwuru na July 6, 2008. Ọkachamara na-ahụ maka gburugburu ebe obibi nke Australia bụ Tim Flannery, buru amụma na ọ gwụla ma ọ mere nnukwu mgbanwe, Perth dị n'Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ Australia nwere ike ịghọ obodo mmụọ mbụ nke ụwa, obodo gbahapụrụ agbahapụ nke na-enweghị mmiri ọzọ. iji kwado ndị bi na ya. Ogologo oge ụkọ mmiri ozuzo nke Australian Millennial dara na 2010.

Oké ọkọchị na-aga n'ihu na-akpata ọzara n'Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ Africa akpatala ọdachi dị egwu nke gburugburu ebe obibi, na-akpata ụkọ nri na 1984-85, 2006 na 2011. N'oge ụkọ mmiri ozuzo 2011, e mere atụmatụ na ndị mmadụ 50,000 ruo 150,000 nwụrụ, n'agbanyeghị na ọnụ ọgụgụ ndị a na ókè ọ ruru. nsogbu na-arụrịta ụka. Na February 2012, UN mara ọkwa na nsogbu ahụ akwụsịla n'ihi mmụba nke ọrụ enyemaka na oke owuwe ihe ubi. Ụlọ ọrụ enyemaka mechara mesie ike na mbọ mgbake, gụnyere igwu mmiri ọwa mmiri na ikesa mkpụrụ osisi. Oke mmiri ozuzo nke afọ 2020-2022 karịrị oke ụkọ mmiri ozuzo na 2010-2011 n'ogologo na ogologo oge.

N’afọ 2012, oké ọkọchị mere n’ebe ọdịda anyanwụ Sahel. Methodist Relief & Development Fund (MRDF) kwuru na ihe karịrị nde mmadụ 10 nọ na mpaghara ahụ nọ n'ihe ize ndụ nke ụnwụ nri n'ihi oke ọkụ na-ewe ọnwa ole na ole na-efegharị na Niger, Mali, Mauritania na Burkina Faso. E kesara ego ruru ihe dị ka puku £20,000 nye mba ndị ụkọ mmiri ozuzo metụtara.

Akụkọ ihe mere eme[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ugbo South Dakota n'oge Dust Bowl, 1936

N'akụkọ ihe mere eme nile, ụmụ mmadụ na-elekarị ụkọ mmiri ozuzo anya dị ka "ọdachi" n'ihi mmetụta dị na nnweta nri na ọha mmadụ ndị ọzọ. Ụmụ mmadụ na-agbalịkarị ịkọwa ụkọ mmiri ozuzo dị ka ọdachi ndị na-emere onwe ha, nke ụmụ mmadụ kpatara, ma ọ bụ ihe si n'ike ndị karịrị nke mmadụ pụta. Ọ bụ otu n'ime ihe omume ihu igwe mbụ edekọtara, dị na Epic of Gilgamesh ma jikọta ya na akụkọ Akwụkwọ Nsọ banyere mbata Josef na Ọpụpụ ahụ mechara si n'Ijipt oge ochie. Mbugharị ndị dinta na-achịkọta na 9,500 BC Chile jikọtara ya na ihe omume ahụ, dịkwa ka ọpụpụ nke ụmụ mmadụ mbụ si n'Africa na banye n'ụwa ndị ọzọ n'ihe dị ka afọ 135,000 gara aga. Ememe na-adị iji gbochie ma ọ bụ gbochie ụkọ mmiri ozuzo, ime mmiri ozuzo nwere ike isi na ịgba egwu gaa n'ịgba egwu gaa n'àjà mmadụ. N'oge a, ihe ka ọtụtụ n'ime omume ochie ndị ahụ bụ ndị a na-atụgharị n'akụkọ ọdịnala ma jiri nlezianya na-achịkwa mmiri dochie ya.

Oké ọkọchị n'akụkọ ihe mere eme gụnyere:

  • 1540 Central Europe, nke a na-ekwu na ọ bụ ụkọ mmiri ozuzo kachasị njọ nke puku afọ na ọnwa iri na otu na enweghị mmiri na okpomọkụ nke 5o7 °C karịa nkezi nke narị afọ nke 20[25][26]
  • 1900 India na-egbu n'etiti 250,000 na 3.25 nde.
  • 1921 Soviet Union nke ihe karịrị nde mmadụ ise nwụrụ n'ihi ụnwụ nri n"ihi oke ọkọchị.
  • 1928 Southwest China nke kpatara ọnwụ ihe karịrị nde mmadụ atọ n'ihi ụnwụ nri.
  • 1936 na 1941 Sichuan Province China kpatara ọnwụ nde 5 na nde 2.5 n'otu n"otu.

Hụkwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

 

Ihe odide[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

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