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Ousmane Sembène

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Ousmane Sembène
Mmádu
ụdịekerenwoke Dezie
mba o sịSenegal Dezie
Aha enyereOusmane Dezie
aha ezinụlọ yaSembène Dezie
ụbọchị ọmụmụ ya1 Jenụwarị 1923 Dezie
Ebe ọmụmụZiguinchor Dezie
Ụbọchị ọnwụ ya9 Jụn 2007 Dezie
Ebe ọ nwụrụDakar Dezie
Ebe oliliYoff Dezie
asụsụ ọ na-asụ, na-ede ma ọ bụ were na-ebinye akaFrench language, Wolof Dezie
ebe agụmakwụkwọGerasimov Institute of Cinematography Dezie
Ebe ọrụSenegal Dezie
onye otu ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchịFrench Communist Party Dezie
so naPanafrican Film and Television Festival of Ouagadougou Dezie
conflictWorld War II Dezie
ngalaba aghaSenegalese Tirailleur Dezie
ahọpụtara makaEuropean Film Award for Best Non-European Film Dezie
Nwere ọrụ na mkpokọtaMuseum of Modern Art Dezie
ụdị metụtaraCategory:Films directed by Ousmane Sembène Dezie
ikike nwebiisinka dị ka onye okikeỌrụ nwebiisinka chekwara Dezie

Ousmane Sembène (   [usman sɑ̃ спон]; 1 Jenụwarị 1923 ma ọ bụ 8 Jenụwarụ 1923[1] - 9 June 2007), nke a na-ekwukarị na ụdị French dị ka Sembène Ousmane nke o yiri ka ọ na-akwado dị ka ụzọ isi mesie "mmanye ọchịchị" nke emume aha a ike ma mebie ya, [2] bụ onye nduzi ihe nkiri Senegalese, onye mmepụta na onye edemede.  [3] Los Angeles Times weere ya dị ka otu n'ime ndị edemede kachasị ukwuu n'Africa ma a na-akpọkarị ya "nna nke ihe nkiri Afrịka". [1] sitere n'ezinụlọ Serer site n'akara nne ya sitere n'agbụrụ Matar Sène, Ousmane Sembène dọtara mmasị ya karịsịa na ememme okpukpe Serer karịsịa Ememme Tuur.

Oge ọ malitere[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A mụrụ nwa nwoke nke onye ọkụ azụ, Ousmane Sembène na Ziguinchor na Casamance n'ezinụlọ Lebou. Site n'oge ọ bụ nwata, ọ matara okpukpe Serer karịsịa Ememme Tuur, ebe e mere ya "ohu ofufe". bụ ezie na ndị Tuur na-achọ ka mmụọ ndị nna ha (Pangool) nye ha mmiri ara ehi, Sembène ejighị ọrụ ya dị ka onye na-ejere okpukpe ozi kpọrọ ihe ma bụrụ onye a maara maka ịṅụ onyinye ndị e nyere ndị nna nna ha. Ụfọdụ n'ime ọrụ ya ndị toro eto na-adabere na isiokwu Serer. Nne nne ya zụlitere ya ma nwee mmetụta dị ukwuu n'ebe ọ nọ. Ụmụ nwanyị na-arụ ọrụ dị mkpa n'ọrụ ya. [4]

Ihe ọmụma Sembène banyere French na Arabic bụ isi ma e wezụga Wolof, asụsụ nne ya, sochiri ịga ya na madrasa, dị ka ọ na-adịkarị n'ọtụtụ ụmụ nwoke Alakụba, na ụlọ akwụkwọ French ruo 1936, mgbe ya na onye isi ụlọ akwụkwọ ahụ sere okwu. Sembène [5] nna ya rụọ ọrụ - ọ na-arịa ọrịa n'oké osimiri - ruo 1938, mgbe ahụ ọ kwagara Dakar, ebe ọ rụrụ ọrụ aka dị iche iche.

N'afọ 1944, e debara aha Sembène n'akwụkwọ na Senegalese Tirailleurs (otu ndị agha nke Ndị agha France). [6] Ọrụ ya na Agha Ụwa nke Abụọ mechara bụrụ na ndị Free French Forces. Mgbe agha ahụ gasịrị, ọ laghachiri n'ala nna ya ma na 1947 sonye na ogologo oge ụgbọ okporo ígwè, nke o mechara dabere na akwụkwọ akụkọ ya bụ God's Bits of Wood (1960).

Ná ngwụsị afọ 1947, ọ gara France, ebe ọ rụrụ ọrụ na ụlọ ọrụ Citroën na Paris wee gaa n'ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri na Marseilles, na-arụsi ọrụ ike na òtù ndị ọrụ France. Ọ sonyeere CGT nke ndị Kọmunist na-eduzi na ndị Kọmunisti, na-enyere aka iduzi ọgbaghara iji gbochie mbupu ngwá agha maka agha ndị France na Vietnam. N'oge a, ọ chọpụtara onye edemede Harlem Renaissance Claude McKay na onye edemede Marxist nke Haiti Jacques Roumain.

Ọrụ edemede mbụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Sembène kụziiri onwe ya ịgụ na ide na French ma mesịa jiri ọtụtụ ahụmahụ ndụ ya mee ihe na akwụkwọ akụkọ mbụ ya n'asụsụ French, Le Docker Noir (The Black Docker, 1956), [3] akụkọ Diaw, onye Africa na-eme njem nke na-eche ịkpa ókè agbụrụ na mmeso ọjọọ ihu na ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri na Marseilles. Diaw dere akwụkwọ akụkọ, nke nwanyị ọcha mechara zuo ma bipụta ya n'aha ya; ọ na-eche ya ihu, gbuo ya na mberede, ma kpee ya ikpe ma gbuo ya n'ihe nkiri ndị na-echetara Albert Camus The Stranger (1942, nke a sụgharịrị dị ka The Outsider). Ọ bụ ezie na akwụkwọ ahụ na-elekwasị anya karịsịa na mmeso ọjọọ nke ndị mbịarambịa Africa, Sembène kọwakwara mmegbu nke ndị ọrụ Arab na Spanish, na-eme ka o doo anya na okwu ndị ahụ metụtara xenophobia dịka ha na-eme agbụrụ. Dị ka ọtụtụ n'ime akụkọ ifo ya, a na-ede ya n'ụzọ mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya. Ọ malitere aha Sembène n'akwụkwọ ma nye ya nkwado ego iji gaa n'ihu na-ede akwụkwọ.

Akwụkwọ akụkọ nke abụọ nke Sembène,Mba, ndị mara mma m! (Oh mba, ndị m mara mma!, 1957), na-akọ akụkọ banyere Oumar, onye ọrụ ugbo ojii nwere oké ọchịchọ na-alaghachi n'obodo ya bụ Casamance na nwunye ọhụrụ na echiche maka imeziwanye ọrụ ugbo nke mpaghara ahụ. Otú ọ dị, Oumar na-alụ ọgụ megide ma gọọmentị French na usoro mmekọrịta obodo, ma mesịa gbuo ya. Mba, ndị mara mma m! bụ ihe ịga nke ọma mba ụwa, na-enye Sembène akwụkwọ ịkpọ òkù site na gburugburu ụwa, ọkachasị site na mba Ndị Kọmunist dị ka China, Cuba, na Soviet Union.

Akwụkwọ akụkọ nke atọ na nke a ma ama nke Sembène bụ Les Bouts de Bois de Dieu (God's Bits of Wood, 1960); [3] ọtụtụ ndị nkatọ na-ewere ya dị ka ọrụ nka ya, naanị Xala na-asọ mpi. Akwụkwọ akụkọ ahụ na-akọ akụkọ ndụ nke ụgbọ okporo ígwè na-eme ngagharị iwe n'ọdụ ụgbọ okporo ígwè Dakar-Niger nke were site na 1947 ruo 1948. Ọ bụ ezie na onye na-ekwuchitere ndị otu ahụ, Ibrahima Bakayoko, bụ onye kachasị mkpa, akwụkwọ akụkọ ahụ enweghị ezigbo dike ma e wezụga obodo ahụ n'onwe ya, nke na-agbakọta ọnụ n'ihu ihe isi ike na mmegbu iji kwado ikike ha. N'ihi ya, akwụkwọ akụkọ ahụ gosipụtara ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ ihe odide iri ise na Senegal na Mali agbata obi ya, na-egosi ọgbaghara ahụ site n'akụkụ niile enwere ike; na nke a, a na-ejikarị akwụkwọ akụkọ ahụ tụnyere Germinal nke Emile Zola.

Sembène sochiri Les Bouts de Bois de Dieu na (1962) nchịkọta akụkọ dị mkpirikpi Voltaïque (Tribal Scars). Nchịkọta ahụ nwere akụkọ dị mkpirikpi, akụkọ, na akụkọ ifo, gụnyere "La Noire de..." nke ọ ga-emecha mee ka ọ bụrụ ihe nkiri mbụ ya. N'afọ 1964, o wepụtara l'Harmattan (The Harmattan), akwụkwọ akụkọ dị egwu banyere ntuli aka maka nnwere onwe n'isi obodo Afrịka.

Site na 1962 ruo 1963, Sembène mụrụ ime ihe nkiri otu afọ na Gorky Film Studio, Moscow, n'okpuru onye nduzi Soviet Mark Donskoy.

Ọrụ edemede mgbe e mesịrị[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Site na mbipụta 1965 nke Le mandat, nke Vehi-Ciosane (The Money Order and White Genesis) bu ụzọ, nkwenye Sembène malitere ịgbanwe. Dị nnọọ ka o ji ike wakpo mmegbu agbụrụ na akụ na ụba nke gọọmentị France, ya na akwụkwọ akụkọ abụọ a, ọ tụgharịrị anya ya na ndị isi Africa rụrụ arụ nke sochiri. [7] bụ otu n'ime ndị nyere aka na Lotus nke a malitere na Cairo na 1968 ma bụrụ nke Egypt na Soviet Union kwadoro.

Sembène gara n'ihu n'isiokwu a na akwụkwọ akụkọ 1973 Xala, akụkọ nke El Hadji Abdou Kader Beye, onye ọchụnta ego bara ọgaranya nke ihe o kwenyere na ọ bụ ọbụbụ ọnụ nke Enweghị ike ("xala" na Wolof) n'abalị agbamakwụkwọ ya na nwunye ya mara mma, nke atọ. El Hadji na-echegbu onwe ya maka iwepụ ọbụbụ ọnụ ahụ site na ileta Marabouts, mana ọ bụ naanị mgbe ọ tụfuru ọtụtụ ego ya na aha ya ka ọ chọpụtara na isi iyi ahụ bụ onye arịrịọ bi n'èzí ọfịs ya, onye o mejọrọ n'inweta akụ ya.

Ihe nkiri[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Dị ka onye edemede na-echegbu onwe ya banyere mgbanwe mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya, Sembène chọrọ imetụ ndị na-ege ntị aka. Ọ ghọtara na ọrụ ya ga-eru naanị ndị isi ọdịbendị, mana na ihe nkiri bụ "ụlọ akwụkwọ abalị ndị mmadụ" [3] ma nwee ike iru ọtụtụ ndị na-ege ntị n'Afrịka.

N'afọ 1963, Sembène mepụtara ihe nkiri mbụ ya, obere ihe a na-akpọ Barom Sarret (The Wagoner). N'afọ 1964, o mere obere ihe ọzọ akpọrọ Niaye. N'afọ 1966, o mepụtara ihe nkiri mbụ ya, La Noire de...Onye Ojii nke ..., dabere na otu n'ime akụkọ mkpirikpi nke ya; ọ bụ ihe nkiri mbụ nke onye nduzi mpaghara Sahara Africa wepụtara. Ọ bụ ezie na ọ bụ naanị nkeji iri isii, ihe nkiri asụsụ French meriri Prix Jean Vigo, [3] na-eweta uche mba ụwa ozugbo na ihe nkiri Afrịka n'ozuzu ya na Sembène kpọmkwem. Sembène sochiri ihe ịga nke ọma a na 1968 Mandabi, na-emezu nrọ ya nke imepụta ihe nkiri n'asụsụ obodo ya bụ Wolof. [3]

Ihe nkiri ndị e mechara jiri asụsụ Wolof gụnyere Xala (1975, nke dabeere na akwụkwọ akụkọ nke ya), Cedar (1977), Camp de Thiaroye (1987), na Guelwaar (1992). [8][9][10] machibidoro mbipụta nke Cedar na Senegal nke ukwuu, n'ihi nsogbu na akwụkwọ Sembène, ọ bụ ezie na ụfọdụ ndị nkatọ na-atụ aro na nyocha a nwere ihe jikọrọ ya na ihe a ga-akọwa dị ka ihe na-emegide ndị Alakụba na fim ahụ. Otú ọ dị, Sembène kesara akwụkwọ mpịakọta na ụlọ ihe nkiri na-akọwa ihe ndị a na-enyocha ma wepụta ihe nkiri ahụ na-enweghị mbelata maka ahịa mba ụwa. N'afọ 1971, Sembène mekwara ihe nkiri na French na Diola nke akpọrọ Emitaï, nke a banyere na 7th Moscow International Film Festival, ebe ọ meriri Silver Prize. [11][12] machibidoro ya iwu na French West Africa niile. [10] [2] [3] [13] tinyere ihe nkiri ya nke 1975 Xala n'ime 9th Moscow International Film Festival. [1]

Ọnwụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ousmane Sembène nwụrụ na 9 June 2007, mgbe ọ dị afọ 84. na-arịa ọrịa kemgbe Disemba 2006, ma nwụọ n'ụlọ ya na Dakar, Senegal, ebe e liri ya n'ime ákwà mkpuchi e ji amaokwu koranic chọọ mma. Sembè[14] nwere ụmụ nwoke atọ site n'alụmdi na nwunye abụọ.

Seipati Bulane Hopa, odeakwụkwọ ukwu nke Pan African Federation of Filmmakers (FEPACI), kọwara Sembène dị ka "onye na-enwu ọkụ nke na-enwe ọkụ maka ndị nkịtị ka ha na-aga n'ụzọ nke ìhè... olu na-ekwu okwu n'egbughị oge, nwoke nwere nkà na-enweghị ntụpọ nke na-ejide ụkpụrụ nka ya ma jiri iguzosi ike n'ezi ihe na ùgwù mee nke ahụ"

Pallo Jordan nke South Africa, Minista nke nka na ọdịbendị, gara n'ihu n'ịkwalite Sembène dị ka "onye nwere ọgụgụ isi nke ọma na onye nwere ọdịbendị pụrụ iche... onye nkatọ mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya [onye] nyere ụwa ihe ọmụma ọzọ banyere Africa".

Ọrụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Akwụkwọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Ọzọkwa mbipụta ọhụrụ site n'aka onye na-ebipụta Présence Africaine nke 2002. [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] Ụgbọ mmiri ojii Ndị edemede Africa. London: Heinemann. ISBN 9780435908966 OCLC 16084389. [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] Ụgbọ mmiri ojii Ndị edemede Africa. Oxford: Heinemann. ISBN 9780435908973 OCLC 476822988.Sembène (1956). Le Docker noir. Paris: Debresse. 
  • Sembène (1957). O Pays, mon beau peuple!. Amiot Dumont, 1957. OCLC 1009422560. 
  • [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] Akụkụ osisi nke Chineke: Banty mam yall. [Paris]: Akwụkwọ Contemporain. OCLC 62109468. Mbipụta nke mbụ nke 1960.
    • Sembène (1995). God's Bits of Wood. London: Heinemann. OCLC 562242510. 

Sembène (1988). Les bouts de bois de Dieu : Banty mam yall. [Paris]: Le Livre Contemporain. OCLC 62109468. 

Sembène (1962). Voltaïque (fr). Paris: Présence Africaine. OCLC 312515053. 

  • Sembène, Ousmane (1964). L'Harmattan (akwụkwọ akụkọ) Paris: Ọnụnọ Africa. OCLC 460661419. E bipụtaghachiri ya na 1973.Sembène (1964). L'Harmattan (novel). Paris: Présence Africaine. OCLC 460661419. 
  • Sembène (1965). Vehi-Ciosane ou Blanche-Genèse, suivi du Mandat. Paris: Présence Africaine (Ligugé, impr. Aubin). OCLC 460661424. 
  • Sembène (1973). Xala. Paris: Présence africaine. 
  • Sembène (1981). Le dernier de l'Empire. Paris: L'Harmattan. ISBN 9782858021697. OCLC 405576233. 
    • [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] Nke ikpeazụ nke Alaeze Ukwu ahụ: akwụkwọ akụkọ Senegalese. Ọ bụ Adams, Adrian sụgharịrị ya. London: Heinemann. ISBN 9780435902506. OCLC 10030343. "A key for Senegalese politics" - Werner Glinga.Sembène (1983). The last of the Empire : a Senegalese novel. London: Heinemann. ISBN 9780435902506. OCLC 10030343. 
  • Sembène (1987). Niiwam : nouvelles. Paris: Présence africaine. ISBN 9782708704862. OCLC 631337297. 
    • Ọzọkwa Oxford na Portsmouth, N.H.: Heinemann, 1992.Sembène (1991). Niiwam and Taaw [two novellas]. [Cape Town]: D. Philip. ISBN 9780864861221. OCLC 24360778. 

Ihe nkiri ndị a họọrọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

[15][16] nkiri Sembène gụnyere:[17][18]

Afọ Ihe nkiri Ụdị Ọrụ Ogologo oge (min)
1963 Borom Sarret Ihe nkiri dị mkpirikpi nke nwoke Senegalese dara ogbenye. Ihe nkiri mbụ nke onye isi ojii mere. [16]

Onye nduzi na onye edemede 20m
1964 Niaye Ihe nkiri dị mkpirikpi Ihe ihere nke nwa agbọghọ dị ime
Onye nduzi na onye edemede 35 mita
1966 Onye Ojii nke ... Ihe nkiri A Senegalese girl becomes a servant in France
Onye nduzi na onye edemede 65 mita
1968 Mandabi Ihe nkiri A Senegalese nwoke ga-anagide iwu ego si Paris
Onye nduzi na onye edemede 92 mita
1970 Tauw Ihe nkiri dị mkpirikpi Nwa okorobịa na-eme ụlọ maka enyi ya nwanyị dị ime
Onye nduzi na onye edemede 24 mita
1971 Emitaï Ihe nkiri ndị mmadụ na-eme mkpesa maka Agha Ụwa nke Abụọ French
Onye nduzi na onye edemede 103 mita
1975 Xala Akụkụ na-atọ ọchị A na-akọ onye ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị rụrụ arụ n'enweghị ike
Onye nduzi na onye edemede 123 mita
1977 Cedar Ihe nkiri na-eme ngagharị iwe ndị si n'èzí (Ceddo, ndị na-abụghị ndị Alakụba) na-atọrọ nwa eze ojii
Onye nduzi na onye edemede ya na Carrie Sembene 120m
1988 Ogige nke Thiaroye Ihe nkiri akụkọ ihe mere eme Na 1944 Thiaroye massacre ndị agha France gburu ndị agha ojii na-enupụ isi
Onye nduzi na onye edemede ya na Thierno Faty Sow 147 mita
1992 Guelwaar Ihe nkiri na-eme ihe nkiri na-atọ ọchị na okpukpe na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị banyere olili ozu na-ezighị ezi
Onye nduzi na onye edemede 115 mita
2000 Faat Kiné Ihe nkiri Otu nne na-alụbeghị di na-enwe ihe ịga nke ọma n'ọrụ
Onye nduzi na onye edemede 120m
2004 Moolaadé Ihe nkiri Ndị inyom na-eme mkpesa maka igbu ọkpụkpụ nwanyị
Mkpịsị akụkụ ahụ nwanyị
Onye nduzi na onye edemede 124 mita

Ịgụ ihe ọzọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Edensibia[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. Samba Gadjigo (6 May 2010). Ousmane Sembène: The Making of a Militant Artist. Indiana University Press, 7. ISBN 978-0-253-00426-0. 
  2. Jonassaint (2010). "Le cinéma de Sembène Ousmane, une (double) contre-ethnographie : (Notes pour une recherche)" (in fr). Ethnologies 31 (2): 241–286. DOI:10.7202/039372ar. ISSN 1481-5974. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 Ousmane Sembene, 84; Senegalese hailed as 'the father of African film'. Los Angeles Times (2007-06-14). Retrieved on 2017-11-11. Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; name "LA" defined multiple times with different content
  4. Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Sem
  5. Ousmane Sembene: The Life of a Revolutionary Artist. newsreel.org. Retrieved on 2016-10-04.
  6. Busch (2008). Ousmane Sembène: Interviews (in en). University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 9781934110867. 
  7. Firoze Manji. "The Rise and Significance of Lotus", CODESRIA, 3 March 2014. Retrieved on 24 October 2021.
  8. Busch, Annett, and Max Annas (eds), (2008). Ousmane Sembène: Interviews. University Press of Mississippi, p. 135.
  9. Berridan, Brenda F. (2004), Manu Dibango and Ceddo's Transatlantic Soundscape, in Focus on African Films. Indiana University Press, p. 151.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Emitai Ceddo. Retrieved on 2013-10-17.
  11. 7th Moscow International Film Festival (1971). MIFF. Archived from the original on 3 April 2014. Retrieved on 2012-12-24.
  12. Ceddo Emitai Ousmane Sembene (2 February 1998). Archived from the original on 5 October 2016. Retrieved on 17 October 2013.
  13. 9th Moscow International Film Festival (1975). MIFF. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved on 2013-01-06.
  14. Macnab. "Obituaries – 'Ousmane Sembene'", The Independent, 13 June 2007. Retrieved on 2009-11-14.
  15. Ousmane Sembène Director. African Film Festival, Inc. (AFF). Retrieved on 8 October 2023.
  16. 16.0 16.1 Ousmane Sembène na IMDb
  17. Ousmane Sembène. Réalisateur/trice, Ecrivain/ne, Acteur/trice, Producteur/trice, Scénariste, Personne concernée. Sénégal (French). africultures.com. Africultures. Les mondes en relation (2023). Retrieved on 8 October 2023.
  18. Ousmane Sembène Film director, Writer, Actor, Producer, Screenwriter, Person concerned. africine.org. Fédération africaine de la critique cinématographique (FACC) (2020). Retrieved on 8 October 2023.

Njikọ mpụga[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Vidio[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • ","href":"./Template:YouTube"},"params":{"id":{"wt":"9ipcync79CI"},"title":{"wt":"Ceddo (1977), with English and French Subtitles (**enable Closed Caption for English subtitles**)"}},"i":0}}]}' data-ve-no-generated-contents="true" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9ipcync79CI" id="mwAuY" rel="mw:ExtLink nofollow" typeof="mw:Transclusion">Ceddo (1977), na Bekee na French Subtitles (**enable Closed Caption for English subtitles**) na YouTube. Oge vidiyo 1h:51m:41s. Onye na-ebudata XMusicMusicX 2013.
  • FILM GUELEWAR Ousmane Sembene 1992 (n'asụsụ French) . Oge vidiyo 1h:29m:38s. Onye na-ebudata Roomnart 2022.

Ọchịagha[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

N'asụsụ French[dezie | dezie ebe o si]