Tu Youyou

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Àtụ:Infobox scientisthttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peking_University_Health_Science_Center

Tu Youyou ( Chinese  ; amụrụ Disemba 30,1930) bụ onye na -ahụ maka ọgwụ na ọrịa ịba na China. Ọ chọpụtara artemisinin (nke a makwaara dị ka qīnghāosù青蒿素) na dihydroartemisinin, nke a na-eji agwọ ịba , ọganihu dị na ọgwụ ebe okpomọkụ nke narị afọ nke iri abụọ, na-azọpụta ọtụtụ nde mmadụ na ndida China, Ndịda Ọwụwa A bunyanwụ Eshia, Afrika, na South Amerika.

Maka ọrụ ya, Tu nwetara nturu ugo Lasker 2011 na orụ ogige ọgwụ na 2015 Nobel Prize na Physiology ma ọ bụ Medicine ya na William C. Campbell na Satoshi Ōmura . Tu bụ onye mbụ nwetara ihe nrite Nobel na China na physiology ma ọ bụ medicin ma bụrụ nwa nwanyị mbụ nke ndị peoples Republic of China nwetara Nrite Nobel na ụdị ọ bụla. Ọ bụkwa onye China mbụ nwetara ihe nrite Lasker . A mụrụ Tu, ọ gụọ akwụkwọ ma mee nyocha ya naanị na China. [1]

Ndụ mbido[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

A mụrụ Tu na Ningbo, Zhejiang, China, na Disemba 30,1930. [2]


My[first] name Youyou was given by my father,who adapted it from the sentence

Ọ gara ụlọ akwụkwọ sekọndrị Xiaoshi maka akwụkwọ juniọ sekọndrị na afọ mbụ nke ụlọ akwụkwọ sekọndrị, tupu ọ gafere na Ningbo Middle School na 1948. Ọrịa ụkwara nta gbochiri agụmakwụkwọ ụlọ akwụkwọ sekọndrị ya, mana kpaliri ya ka ọ banye nyocha ahụike. [3] Site na 1951 ruo 1955, ọ gara ụlọ akwụkwọ mahadum Peking University / Beijing Medical College. [note 1] Na 1955, Youyou Tu gụsịrị akwụkwọ Mahadum gbasara Ahụike na Beijing ngalaba ọgwụ wee gaa n'ihu nyocha ya na ọgwụ ahịhịa China na China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences. Tu gụrụ akwụkwọ na ngalaba sayensị ọgwụ, wee gụchaa na 1955. Ka oge na -aga, a zụlitere Tu maka afọ abụọ na ọkara n'ọgwụ ọdịnala ndị China .

Mgbe ọ gụsịrị akwụkwọ, Tu rụrụ ọrụ na Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine (ugbu a bụ China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medical Sciences [note 2] ) na Beijing.

Ọrụ nyocha[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Tu carried on her work in the 1960s and 70s during China's Cultural Revolution, when scientists were denigrated as one of the nine black categories in society according to Maoist theory (or possibly that of the Gang of Four).

Schistosomiasis[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

N'ime afọ ndị mbụ ya na nyocha, Tu mụrụ Lobelia chinensis, ọgwụ ọdịnala China maka ịgwọ schistosomiasis, [4] kpatara site na trematodes nke na -efe efe na eriri afọ ma ọ bụ eriri afọ, nke juru ebe niile na ọkara mbụ nke narị afọ nke 20 na South China. 

Ịba[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

  N'afọ 1967, n'oge agha Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh, onye ndu North Vietnam (nke na -ebuso South Vietnam na United States agha), riọrọ onye isi ala China Zhou Enlai maka enyemaka n'ikwalite ọgwụgwọ ịba maka ndị agha ya na -agbadata Ho. Chi Minh trail, ebe ọtụtụ gbadatara buru ịba nke na -anaghị anata ọgwụ chloroquine . N'ihi na ịba bụkwa nnukwu ihe na -akpata ọnwụ na mpaghara ndịda China, ọkachasị Guangdong, na Guangxi, Zhou Enlai mere ka Mao Zedong guzobe ọrụ nchọpụta ọgwụ nzuzo nke akpọrọ Project 523 mgbe ụbọchị mmalite ya malitere na abalị iri abụọ na atọ nke Ọnwa Mee n'afọ 1967. [5]

Ná mmalite afọ 1969, a họpụtara Tu ịbụ onye isi otu nyocha Project 523 na ụlọ akwụkwọ ya. Ebu ụzọ ziga Tu na Hainan ebe ọ sị na ndị butere ọrịa na amụ gbasara nje ọrịa a. [6]

Ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị n'ụwa niile enyochala ihe karịrị ogige ebe obibi puku abụọ na iri ano (240,000)ma nke bu nke jiụkwụ kpọrọ n'ihi enweghị ihe ịga nke ọma . N'afọ 1969, Tu, mgbe ahụ dị afọ iri atọ na itoolu, nwere echiche nke inyocha ahịhịa mgbọrọgwụ China. O buru ụzọ nyocha ndị ọkachamara ahụike China na akụkọ ntolite, na -iga eleta ndị na -ahụ maka ọgwụ ọdịnala China na mba ha niile n'onwe ya. Ọ chịkọtara ihe ọ chọpụtara n'ime akwụkwọ akpọrọ A Collection of Single Practical Prescriptions for Anti-Malaria . Akwụkwọ ndetu ya a chịkọtara ndenye ma ọ bụ ka e si enye ọgwụ nke ọnụ ọgụgụ narị isii na iri anọ. Ka ruo n'afọ 1971, ndị òtù ya emela nyocha nke ruru puku abụọ gbasara ụmụ irighiri eji agwakọ ọgwụ omenala ndị China ma site na ntụziaka ha mepụtara habal estrat, site na ụfọdụ hab puku abụọ , nke a nwalere na ụmụ oke. [5]

Otu ogige dị irè, womwudd na -atọ ụtọ ( Artemisia annua ), nke ejiri mee ihe maka '' ahụ ọkụ na -adịte aka, '' bụ usoro ngosi ịba. Dị ka Tu gosipụtara na nzukọ ọmụmụ ihe a, a kọwara nkwadebe ya na ederede gbarala afọ otu puku na narị iri isii(1,600), na uzommeputa akpọrọ, "Ntuziaka mberede ka edobere aka otu onye"(Emergency Prescription Kept Up One's Sleeve). Na mbụ, ọ bụghị ọrụ n'ihi na ha jiri mmiri esiri esi wepụta ya. Tu Youyou chọpụtara na enwere ike iji usoro nke dị ala wee kewapụ ihe na-agwọ ọrịa ịba nke ọma na osisi; [7] Tu na -ekwu na isi mmalite ọgwụ ahịhịa mgbọrọgwụ China , bụ site n'akwụkwọ ntuziaka nke ''Prescription for Emergency Treatments , nke Ge Hong dere na narị atọ na iri anọ, nke na -ekwu na ahịhịa mgbọrọgwụ a kwesịrị itinye n'ime mmiri oyi. [8] Akwụkwọ a nwere ntụzịaka nke imikpu njuaka nke qinghao na nha nke lita mmiri 0.4 ,ma sachapụta mmiri ahịhịa ahụ ma ñụcha ya niile. [1] Mgbe ọ gụzigharịrị uzo esi emebe ogwu ahụ, Tu chọpụtara na mmiri ọkụ emebiwori ihe na -arụ ọrụ n'ime osisi; ya mere, ọ tụpụtara ụzọ iji mmiri nke nwere obere okpomọkụ wepụta arụmọrụ dị mma kama okwu. Nnwale anụmanụ gosiri na ọ na -arụ ọrụ nke ọma na oke na enwe. [5]

N'afọ 1972, ya na ndị ọrụ ibe ya nwetara ihe pụtara ihe wee kpọọ ya qinghaosu (青蒿素), ma ọ bụ artemisinin dị ka amaara ya na Bekee, [7] [9] [10] nke zọpụtara ọtụtụ nde ndụ, ọkachasị na mmepe. ụwa . [11] Tu mụkwara usoro kemịkalụ na ọgwụ nke artemisinin. [7] Ndị otu Tu buru ụzọ chọpụta usoro kemịkalụ nke artemisinin. N'afọ 1973, Tu chọrọ igosipụta otu carbonyl dị na molekul artemisinin, ya mere ọ jiri mezie dihydroartemisinin na mberede.

Ọzọkwa, Tu wepụtara onwe ya ịbụ isiokwu mmadụ mbụ. Ọ sịrị, "Dịka onye isi otu nyocha a, enwere m ọrụ." Ọ nweghị nsogbu, yabụ ọ dụzịrị nwalee ọgwụ a na ahụ mmadụ nwere ọrịa nke ọ wetara ihe ịga nke ọma. E bipụtara ọrụ ya na enweghị aha n'afọ 1977. [5] Na 1981, o mere nchoputa gbasara artemisinin na nzuko ya na World Health Organisation. [12] [13]

Maka ọrụ ya gbasara ịba, e nyere ya Nrite Nobel gbasara Ọgwụ ka ọnwa Ọktoba gbara mkpụrụ ụbọchị ise 2015.

Ọrụ mechara[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

A kwalitere ya ka ọ bụrụ onye nyocha (研究员, Ndị kasị elu na-eme nchọpụta n'usoro na China tinyekwara agụmakwụkwọ n'usoro nke prọfesọ zuru okè ) n'afo 1980 ka oteghi aka emechara mgbanwe akụ China (Chinese economic reforms)malitere na 1978. Na 2001 a kwalitere ya ka ọ bụrụ onye ndụmọdụ agụmakwụkwmaka ndị chọrọ nturugo dọktọral. Ugbu a ọ bụ onye isi ndị sayensị na akademi. [14]

Ka ọ na -erule 2007, ọfịs ya dị n'ụlọ ochie nke dị na Dongcheng District, Beijing. [2]

Tupu afọ 2011, Tu Youyou bụ onye amaghị ama ruo ọtụtụ iri afọ, a kọwara ya dị ka "onye ndị mmadụ chefuru kpamkpam". [15]

A na-ele Tu anya dị ka "onye ọkà mmụta sayensị atọ na-enweghị" [16] -enweghị nzere postgraduate (enweghị agụmakwụkwọ postgraduate mgbe ahụ na China), enweghị ọmụmụ ma ọ bụ ahụmịhe nyocha na mba ofesi, ọ bụghịkwa onye otu n'ime ụlọ akwụkwọ agụmakwụkwọ mba China, ndị China. Ụlọ akwụkwọ sayensị na Ụlọ Akwụkwọ Injinia nke China . [17] A na -ahụta Tu ugbu a dị ka onye nnọchi anya ọgbọ mbụ nke ndị ọrụ ahụike China kemgbe e hiwere Republic of China na 1949. [18]

Ndụ onwe onye[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

TúTu na di ya, Li Tingzhao (李廷钊), onye injinia na -ahụ maka igwe, na bi na Beijing. Li bụ nwa klas Tu na Xiaoshi na ụlọ akwụkwọ nta. Ha mụrụ ụmụ nwanyị abụọ. Nna nna nne Tu,bụ Yao Yongbai (姚 咏 白), bụ onye isi nchịkwa ego mba(National Treasury Administration) mgbe emezigharịchara ya. Nwanne nna ya, Yao Qingsan (姚庆 三), bụ onye ma maka akụ na ụba na onye ọrụ akụ. 

Awards na ukpono[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • 1978, National Science Congress Prize, PR China [19]
  • 1979, Nrite Onye Nchọpụta Mba, PR China
  • 1992, (Otu n'ime ihe iri sayensị na teknụzụ rụpụtara na China, State Science Commission, PR China [19]
  • 1997, (Abụọ n'ime) Nnukwu Ahụike Ọha Ọha iri na New China, PR China [19]
  • Septemba 2011, GlaxoSmithKline Award Achievement Award in Life Science [20]
  • Septemba 2011, Lasker-DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award [21]
  • Nọvemba 2011, Onyinye Pụrụ Iche, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences [22]
  • Febụwarị 2012, (Otu n'ime ụmụ nwanyị iri) ụmụ nwanyị pụrụ iche nke mba, PR China ( March 8th Red Banner Pacesetter ) [23]
  • June 2015, Warren Alpert Foundation Prize (onye na-anata ego) [24]
  • Ọktoba 2015, Nrite Nobel na Physiology ma ọ bụ Medicine 2015 (onye na-anata ya) maka nchọpụta ya gbasara akwụkwọ akụkọ ọhụrụ megide ịba, nyere otu ọkara nke ihe nrite a; na William C. Campbell na Satoshi Ōmura jikọrọ aka wee nye ọkara ọzọ maka nchoputa ha gbasara ọgwụgwọ ọhụrụ megide ọrịa na nje na -efe efe. [25]
  • 2016, Onyinye Sayensị na Nkà na Kasị Elu, China [26] [27]
  • 2019, Order nke Republic, China [28]

Hụkwa[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Chemistryhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Biography

  • Nchọpụta ọgwụ
  • Ịba, quinine na ọgwụ ebe okpomọkụ
  • Ọgwụ ọgwụ mgbochi ọrịa sitere na Project 523 (n'oge na mgbe Mgbanwe Ọdịbendị )
    • Artemisinin (ndị nyere aka: Tu Youyou et al., 1972)
    • Dihydroartemisinin (Tu Youyou et al., 1973)
    • Pyronaridine (1973)
    • Artemether ( Zhou Weishan (周维善), 1975)
    • Lumefantrine (1976)
    • Artesunate (Liu Xu (刘旭), 1977 [29] )
    • Artemether/lumefantrine ( Zhou Yiqing, 1985)
    • Naphthoquinone (1986)
  • Akụkọ sayensị na teknụzụ na Republic of China
    • Njikọ izizi nke insulin ( bovine kristal) (Niu Jingyi et al., 1965)
    • Nchọpụta nke iji arsenic trioxide na tretinoin ịgwọ ọrịa leukemia ( Zhang Tingdong, Wang Zhenyi, Chen Zhu & Chen Saijuan )
    • Dr Tang Feifan, onye chọpụtara Chlamydia trachomatis, tụrụ anya inweta Nrite Nobel mana ọ nwụrụ n'ihi mkpagbu ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị na Beijing, 1958
    • Dr Wu Lien-teh, onye China mbụ họpụtara ka ọ nweta Nrite Nobel na Physiology ma ọ bụ Ọgwụ (nke a họpụtara na 1935)
  • Ndepụta nke ndị nwetara onyinye Nobel na China na ndepụta nke ndị nwetara onyinye Nobel
  • Ndepụta nchọpụta China na Ndepụta ihe ndị China mepụtara
  • Chinese herbology na Traditional Chinese na nkà mmụta ọgwụ
  • Usoro iheomume nke ụmụ nwanyị na sayensị

Ihe edeturu[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tu_Youyou#cite_ref-Medical_School_2https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peking_University_Health_Science_Center1

Ntụaka[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

 5

Ịgụ n'ihu[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Njikọ mpụga[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Tu Youyou on Nobelprize.org
  1. 1.0 1.1 Miller (2011). "Artemisinin: Discovery from the Chinese herbal garden". Cell 146 (6): 855–858. DOI:10.1016/j.cell.2011.08.024. PMID 21907397. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 Magic Drug Saved Half Billion People (zh). Phoenix Television News (16 March 2007). Retrieved on 13 September 2011.
  3. Youyou Tu – Biographical. www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved on 2018-04-22.
  4. Tu. Tu Youyou Biographical. NobelPrize.org. Retrieved on 10 October 2020.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 "The modest woman who beat malaria for China", by Phil McKenna, New Scientist, 15 November 2011
  6. Tom Phillips (6 October 2015). Tu Youyou: how Mao's challenge to malaria pioneer led to Nobel prize. The Guardian.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Strauss (September 2011). Award Description. Lasker–DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award. Lasker Foundation.
  8. Lasker Award Rekindles Debate Over Artemisinin's Discovery. News.sciencemag.org (29 September 2011). Retrieved on 7 January 2014.
  9. Brown (2010). Special Issue Artemisinin (Qinghaosu): Commemorative Issue in Honor of Professor Youyou Tu on the Occasion of her 80th Anniversary. Molecules. Retrieved on 14 September 2011.
  10. Tu. Acceptance remarks by Tu Youyou. Lasker–DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award. Lasker Foundation. “Equipped with a sound knowledge in both traditional Chinese medicine and modern pharmaceutical sciences, my team inherited and developed the essence of traditional Chinese medicine using modern science and technology and eventually, we successfully accomplished the discovery and development of qinghaosu from qinghao (Artemisia annua L).”
  11. Weise (12 September 2011). 'America's Nobel' awarded to Chinese scientist. USA Today. Retrieved on 12 September 2011.
  12. Guo (6 October 2015). How a secret Chinese military drug based on an ancient herb won the Nobel Prize. The Washington Post.
  13. Tu (11 October 2011). "The discovery of artemisinin (qinghaosu) and gifts from Chinese medicine". Nature Medicine 17 (10): 1217–1220. DOI:10.1038/nm.2471. PMID 21989013. 
  14. Official Biography (zh). China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences. Archived from the original on 6 September 2011. Retrieved on 14 September 2011.
  15. Error on call to Template:cite web: Parameters url and title must be specified (zh). Wen Wei Po. Retrieved on 13 September 2011.
  16. Zou (6 October 2015). Chinese Scientist Wins Nobel Prize in Medicine; China Hails the Laureate with Reflection. People's Daily.
  17. Error on call to Template:cite web: Parameters url and title must be specified (zh). Sohu News (13 September 2011). Retrieved on 13 September 2011.
  18. Error on call to Template:cite web: Parameters url and title must be specified (zh). Sohu News (29 September 2009). Retrieved on 13 September 2011.
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 Tu Youyou 屠呦呦. China Vitae. Retrieved on 7 March 2012.
  20. Chen Zhili Congratulates Lasker Award Winner Tu Youyou. Women of China (22 September 2011). Archived from the original on 6 October 2015. Retrieved on 7 March 2012.
  21. Tu Youyou. Lasker Foundation (12 September 2011). Retrieved on 12 September 2011.
  22. Tu is awarded Outstanding Contribution Award by CACMR (zh). Xinhua News Agency (15 November 2011). Retrieved on 10 February 2012.
  23. Error on call to Template:cite web: Parameters url and title must be specified (zh). Sina.com News (28 February 2012). Retrieved on 7 March 2012.
  24. Alpert Prize Recognizes Malaria Breakthroughs. Warren Alpert Foundation (4 June 2015). Retrieved on 14 June 2015.
  25. Nobel Prize announcement. NobelPrize.org. Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet. Retrieved on 5 October 2015.
  26. Nobel Laureate Tu Youyou Becomes First Female to Win China's Top Science Award. Caixin Global (10 January 2017). Retrieved on 20 January 2017.
  27. 屠呦呦、赵忠贤获2016年度国家最高科学技术奖 习近平颁奖 (zh). guancha.cn (9 January 2017). Retrieved on 9 January 2017.
  28. 袁隆平、屠呦呦等被授予"共和国勋章"(全名单) (zh). sina.com.cn (17 September 2019).
  29. 国家知识产权局专利检索及分析. www.pss-system.gov.cn. Retrieved on 2019-02-14.