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Ógbè Ebe Ugwu, Naịjirịa

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Northern Nigeria
MottoAiki da Ibada
"Work and Worship"
AnthemNational Anthem of Northern Nigeria
Location nke Ógbè Ebe Ugwu, Naịjirịa
Íshí ocheLokoja
(1897–1903)
Zungeru
(1903–1923)
Kaduna
(1923–1966)
Largest city Kano
Major languages
Government Constitutional Monarchy
(1897–1963)
Federation
(1963–1966)
 -  Governors
 -  Premier of Northern Nigeria Sir Ahmadu Bello
Legislature Northern Regional Legislature
 -  Upper House House of Chiefs[1]
 -  Lower House House of Assembly[2]
Establishment
 -  Proclamation of Protectorate 1897 
 -  Independence 15 March 1953 
 -  Republic declared 1 October 1963 
Area
 -  Total 660,000 km2 
Mmekọ ngosipụta: Akara edemede a na-amaghị "," sq mi 
Population
 -   estimate 9,000,000 Àtụ:Cn 
 -  1950 census census 6,383,682 Àtụ:Cn 

  Ebe ugwu Naịjirịa bụ nkewa na-achị onwe ya n'ime Naịjirị, nke dị iche na mpaghara ndịda nke mba ahụ, nwere omenala onwe ya, mmekọrịta mba ọzọ na usoro nchekwa. N'afọ 1962, ọ nwetara ókèala nke British Northern Cameroons, nke vootu ịghọ mpaghara dị n'ime Northern Nigeria.[3]

N'afọ 1967, e kewara Northern Nigeria na North-Eastern State, North-Western State, Kano State, Kaduna State, Kwara State, na Benue-Plateau State, nke ọ bụla nwere Gọvanọ nke ya.[4]

Akụkọ ihe mere eme[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

 

Tupu akụkọ ihe mere eme[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

 

Mpaghara nke ọdịbendị Nok

Ọdịbendị Nok, ọdịbendị oge ochie na-achịkwa ihe ka ukwuu n'ihe bụzi Northern Nigeria n'oge tupu akụkọ ihe mere eme, a chọtara ihe nketa ya n'ụdị ihe oyiyi na megaliths na Sokoto, Kano, Birinin Kudu, Nok na Zaria. Ụfọdụ ndị na-eche na omenala Kwatarkwashi, ụdị omenala Nok nke dị na Zamfara na mpaghara Sokoto bụ otu ma ọ bụ alaka nke Nok.[5]

Alaeze Iri na Anọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Alaeze iri na anọ ahụ jikọtara ihe ọmụma dị iche iche na ihe nketa dị iche iche nke Northern Nigeria n'ime usoro agbụrụ na akụkọ ihe mere eme. asaa n'ime alaeze ndị a sitere na ihe nketa Kabara nke ndị Hausa. Na narị afọ nke itoolu dị ka ebe azụmahịa dị ike na-asọ mpi na Kanem-Bornu na Mali ji nwayọọ nwayọọ mepụta na Central Sudan, nchịkọta nke alaeze jikọtara - alaeze Hausa ma ọ bụ Hausa Bakwai - na-achịkwa nnukwu ala dị larịị nke Hausaland. Ihe ndị ha na-ebupụ bụ akpụkpọ anụ, ọlaedo, ákwà, nnu, mkpụrụ osisi kola, akpụkpọ anụ na henna.[6]

  • Daura, ? - 1806
  • Kano, 998 - 1807
  • Katsina, c. 1400 - 1805
  • Zazzau (Zaria), c. 1200 - 1808
  • Gobir, ? - 1808
  • Akpịrịkpa
  • Biram, ihe dị ka 1100 - 1805

Uto na mmeri nke ndị Hausa Bakwai dugara na ntọala nke steeti ndị ọzọ na ndị ọchịchị na-achọpụta agbụrụ ha na iko nwanyị nke nna ntọala Hausa, Bayajidda. N'ihi ya, a na-akpọ ha Banza Bakwai, nke pụtara Bastard Seven.[7] Ndị Banza Bakwai nakweere ọtụtụ omenala na ụlọ ọrụ nke ndị Hausa Bakwai mana ndị na-abụghị ndị Hausa weere ha dị ka alaeze na-enweghị ikike ma ọ bụ na-eṅomi. Steeti ndị a gụnyere:

  • Zamfara
  • Kebbi
  • Yauri (nke a na-akpọkwa Yawuri)
  • Gwari (nke a na-akpọkwa Gwariland)
  • Kwararafa (ala Jukun)
  • Nupe karịsịa ebe a na-akpọ Niger State ugbu a (nke ndị Nupe)

Mba ndị Hausa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  N'etiti 500 na 700, ndị Hausa, ndị a na-eche na ha ji nwayọọ nwayọọ si Nubia kwaga ma soro ndị bi n'ebe ugwu na-agwakọta, guzobere ọtụtụ steeti siri ike n'ihe bụzi Northern Nigeria na Eastern Niger. Site na ọdịda nke Nok na Sokoto, ndị na-achịkwa Central na Northern Nigeria n'etiti 800 BC na 200, ndị Hausa nwere ike ịpụta dị ka ike ọhụrụ na mpaghara ahụ. Ha na ndị Kanuri nke Kanem-Bornu (Ọdọ Mmiri Chad), Birom, Gwari, Nupe na Jukun nwere njikọ chiri anya.

Ndị isi nke Hausa, n'okpuru mmetụta nke Alaeze Ukwu Mali nabatara Islam na narị afọ nke iri na otu. Ka ọ na-erule na narị afọ nke iri na abụọ, ndị Hausa na-aghọ otu n'ime ndị isi ike nke Africa. Ihe owuwu nke ndị Hausa bụ ma eleghị anya otu n'ime ndị a na-amaghị nke ọma ma bụrụ ndị mara mma nke oge ochie. Ọtụtụ n'ime ụlọ alakụba na obí eze mbụ ha na-egbuke egbuke ma na-acha odo odo ma na-agụnyekarị ihe osise dị mgbagwoju anya ma ọ bụ akara dị iche iche e mere n'ihu. Ka ọ na-erule afọ 1500, ndị Hausa jiri edemede Arabic gbanwere agbanwe nke a maara dị ka Ajami dekọọ asụsụ nke ha; ndị Hausa chịkọtara ọtụtụ akụkọ ihe mere eme edere, nke kachasị ewu ewu bụ Kano Chronicle.[8]

Alaeze Ukwu Fulani na Alaeze Ukwu Bornu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Usman Dan Fodio, onye na-eme mgbanwe na narị afọ nke iri na asatọ na onye na-agbanwe mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya, okpukpe na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị mechara jikọta steeti asaa nke Hausa na mpaghara ndị ọhụrụ e mepụtara n'ime Caliphate Sokoto. Caliphate nke Sokoto nọ n'okpuru ikike zuru oke nke Commander of the Faithful. N'okpuru Dan Fodio, Alaeze Ukwu ahụ bụ bicephalous ma kewaa ya n'ókèala abụọ nke ọ bụla na-achịkwa site na onye a họpụtara. E kewara nke ọ bụla n'ime ókèala ndị ahụ n'ime Emirates ndị na-achị onwe ha n'okpuru ndị Emirs nke mpaghara. Alaeze Ukwu Bornu malitere ịbanye na Sokoto Caliphate nke Usman dan Fodio, mana ọ gbasara afọ ole na ole ka e mesịrị.[8]

Mpaghara[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Na mbido, itinye aka nke ndị Britain na Northern Nigeria metụtara azụmahịa, ma na-agba gburugburu mgbasawanye nke Royal Niger Company, nke mpaghara ya dị n'ime gbasaa n'ebe ugwu site na ebe Osimiri Niger na Osimiri Benue sonyeere na Lokoja ugwu Ugwu Patti. Ógbè Royal Niger Company egosighi egwu kpọmkwem na Sokoto Caliphate ma ọ bụ ọtụtụ steeti nke Northern Nigeria. Nke a gbanwere, mgbe Frederick Lugard na Taubman Goldie setịpụrụ atụmatụ siri ike iji mee ka udo dị n'ime Niger ma jikọta ya na ndị ọzọ nke Alaeze Ukwu Britain.[9]

Akụkọ ihe mere eme nke Protectorate nke Northern Nigeria[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Map nke Naijiria, 1909

  Frederick Lugard kwupụtara na ọ bụ Northern Nigeria na Ida na Jenụwarị 1, 1897. Ntọala nke nchebe ahụ bụ Nkwekọrịta Berlin nke 1885 nke nyere Northern Nigeria n'ozuzu ya na mpaghara mmetụta nke Britain, na ndabere nke nchebe ha dị na Southern Nigeria. Esemokwu na ndị dị ike nke Sokoto Caliphate sochiri n'oge na-adịghị anya. Emirates nke Kotogora na Ilorin bụ ndị mbụ ndị Britain meriri. N'ọnwa Febụwarị 1903, e weghaara nnukwu ebe e wusiri ike nke Kano, oche nke Kano Emirate, Sokoto na ọtụtụ n'ime ndị ọzọ nọ na Caliphate ya n'oge na-adịghị anya.[10]

Na 13 Machị 1903, Grand Shura nke Caliphate mechara kweta na ihe Lugard chọrọ ma kwupụta Queen Victoria dị ka onye na-achị Caliphate na ala ya niile.[9]

Gọvanọ Lugard, nke nwere obere ihe onwunwe, na-achịkwa mpaghara ahụ site na nkwenye nke ndị ọchịchị mpaghara site na iwu nke ọchịchị na-apụtaghị ìhè, nke ọ mepụtara ka ọ bụrụ echiche ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị dị mgbagwoju anya. Mpaghara ala nke dị na Northern Nigeria Protectorate gụnyere ala Okun-Yoruba nke Kabba, Ogidi, Ijumu, Gbede, Yagba, yana, ala Ebira, ala Igala jikọtara ọnụ n'okpuru Kabba Province. Ebe Ifelodun, Offa, Omuaran, Ifelodun na Irepodun, bụkwa ndị Yoruba, ghọrọ mpaghara Ilorin. Lugard hapụrụ protectorate mgbe afọ ole na ole gasịrị, na-eje ozi na Hong Kong, mana emesịrị laghachi ọrụ na Naịjirịa, ebe na 1914 ọ chọrọ njikọta nke Northern Nigeria Protectorate na Southern Nigeria, na-emepụta Colony na Protectorate nke Naịjiria.[9]

Agha maka nnwere onwe site na Southern Protectorate dị iche iche, Otú ọ dị, dugara na nkewa dị egwu na 1940s. Iwu Richards mara ọkwa na 1945, nyere ikike nnwere onwe dị ukwuu na North, gụnyere n'ikpeazụ na mpaghara mmekọrịta mba ọzọ na iwu omenala.[11]

Nnwere Onwe[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Northern Nigeria nwetara ọchịchị onwe onye na 15 Machị 1957 na Sir Ahmadu Bello dị ka onye isi ala mbụ ya. Northern Peoples Congress n'okpuru Bello na-achịkwa ndị omeiwu ebe Northern Elements Progressive Union ghọrọ isi otu mmegide.[12]

N'afọ 1967, e wepụrụ Northern Nigeria site na nkewa.

Gọọmentị na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Gọọmentị nke Northern Nigeria e mere ka ọ dị ka usoro Westminster. Onye isi ala rụrụ ọrụ dị ka onye isi gọọmentị ma na-eduzi omume kwa ụbọchị nke gọọmentị, ebe Gọvanọ nke Northern Nigeria rụrụ ọrụ dị iche ka onye nnọchi anya eze na dịka onye isi ndị uwe ojii.

Ụlọ omebe iwu dị ala, nke a na-akpọ Ụlọ Nzukọ, nwere ndị nnọchi anya a họpụtara ahọpụta site na mpaghara dị iche iche nke mba ahụ. Ụlọ elu nke ndị omeiwu, nke a na-akpọ Ụlọ ndị isi, yiri Ụlọ ndị isi nke Britain, nke ndị eze a na-ahọpụtaghị ahọpụta nke ndị Native Authority Councils dị iche iche nke mpaghara mba ahụ mejupụtara.[13]

N'afọ 1967, Gọọmentị Ndị Agha nke General Yakubu Gowon kewara mpaghara anọ ahụ bụ ndị mejupụtara Federation of Nigeria, na-emepụta steeti iri na abụọ ọhụrụ. E kewara Northern Nigeria na North-Eastern State, North-Western State, Kano State, Kaduna State, Kwara State, na Benue-Plateau State, nke ọ bụla nwere Gọvanọ na gọọmentị nke ya.[14]

Gọvanọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Onye Kọmishọna Ukwu ma ọ bụ Gọvanọ nke Northern Nigeria, nke bụbu Onye Kọmishịn Ukwu nke Northern Nigeria Protectorate, mgbe 1914 gasịrị Lieutenant Governor, Chief Commissioner, ma ọ bụ Governor-General nke Northern Provinces of Nigeria, bụ n'ụzọ dị irè onye nnọchi anya Northern Nigeria, na-arụ ọrụ British suzerainty dị ka onye nnọchianya nke Crown.

E guzobere ọfịs nke Kọmishọna Ukwu na 1 Jenụwarị 1897, site na akwụkwọ ikike sitere n'aka Queen Victoria. Mgbe ọpụpụ nke ndị Britain na 1960, a nọgidere na-ahọpụta Gọvanọ ruo 1967 dị ka onye nnọchi anya nchịkwa ọhụrụ na Lagos.

Gọvanọ ahụ na-eduzi ọrụ niile ma họpụta ndị otu ụlọ omebe iwu dị elu nke mba ahụ, Ụlọ Ndị isi nke Northern Nigeria.

Onye isi oche nke Ụlọ Ndị Isi[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ndị ọkà okwu nke Ụlọ Nzukọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Richard Dohew, 1954 - ?
  • Alhajia' Umarure Gwandupe [afọ

Ọdịdị ala[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ebe kachasị elu na Northern Nigeria bụ Chappal Waddi na 2,419 m (7,936 ft). nke dị na gasha gumti Taraba steeti, Osimiri ndị bụ isi bụ Niger na Osimiri Benue nke na-agbakọta na mpaghara Kabba site n'ebe ọ na-aga n'ebe ndịda wee banye n'Oké Osimiri Atlantic.

Ndagwurugwu ndị sara mbara nke ndagwurugwu Niger na Benue River na-achịkwa mpaghara ndịda nke mpaghara ahụ. N'ebe ndịda ọwụwa anyanwụ nke osimiri Benue, ugwu na ugwu ndị mejupụtara Mambilla Plateau na-emepụta ala dị larịị kachasị elu na Northern Nigeria na 1350 n'elu oke osimiri. Ala dị larịị a gbatịrị ruo n'ókè ya na Cameroon, ala ugwu bụ akụkụ nke Bamenda Highlands na Cameroon.[13]

Nnukwu belt savanna nke Great Plains nke Hausaland na-achịkwa ọtụtụ n'ime mpaghara ndị ọzọ. mpaghara a na-enwe mmiri ozuzo n'etiti 20 na 60 sentimita (508 na 1,524 mm) kwa afọ. Ụdị atọ nke mpaghara savanna bụ Guinea forest-savanna mosaic, Sudan savanna, na Sahel savanna.[15] Ọhịa Savanna mosaic nke Guinea bụ ala dị larịị nke ahịhịa dị elu nke osisi na-akpaghasị. Ọzara Sudan yiri ya mana o nwere ahịhịa dị mkpirikpi na osisi dị mkpirisi. Sahel savanna nwere ahịhịa na ájá, nke a na-ahụ n'ebe ugwu ọwụwa anyanwụ. Na mpaghara Sahel, mmiri ozuzo na-erughị sentimita iri abụọ (508 mm) kwa afọ na Ọzara Sahara na-abanye. N'akụkụ ala kpọrọ nkụ n'ebe ugwu ọwụwa anyanwụ nke mba ahụ bụ Ọdọ Mmiri Chad, nke Northern Nigeria na Niger, Chad na Cameroon na-ekerịta.[16]

Akụkụ ndịda ọdịda anyanwụ nke mpaghara ahụ gụnyere Ogidi, Iyamoye, Iyara nke nwere oké ọhịa miri emi nke na-ekewa mpaghara savannah nke Guinea (ma na-ejikọta mpaghara ọhịa nke ndịda na-echebe ma dị ka ndị dị otú ahụ na-ekerịta ụdị mmiri ozuzo yiri ya ma nye ya ịkọ ihe ọkụkụ ego dịka kọfị na koko).[17]

Nkewa dị iche iche[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

E kewara Northern Nigeria na mpaghara iri na atọ:   Kano, nke kachasị n'ime mpaghara ndị ahụ n'ihe gbasara ọnụ ọgụgụ mmadụ na akụ na ụba, dị na mpaghara North-Central nke mba ahụ. Kano Native Authority, nke sitere na fula Kano Emirate, ketara ụlọ ọrụ azụmaahịa oge ochie nke kwadoro azụmahịa trans-Saharan na North Africa.

Ógbè Zaria bụ ebe obibi nke Obodo Kaduna, isi obodo nwere onwe ya nke na-eje ozi dị ka isi obodo mba ahụ na ebe obibi nke ụlọ ọrụ mba ya.[18]

Ọnọdụ akụ na ụba[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ụlọ ọrụ na-emepụta ihe ọkụkụ na ogho na mpaghara Kano nyere isi ihe na-eweta ego maka Northern Nigeria. Ịchụpụta tin na Province of Plateau, Ịchụpụ Steel na Province nke Benue, na ụlọ ọrụ ndị ọzọ na-emepụta ígwè na Province de Sokoto, wuru ụlọ ọrụ dị iche iche na-egwupụta ihe n'ógbè ahụ.[19]

Ụlọ ọrụ simenti na Sokoto na Bauchi na Ashaka simenti na ụlọ ọrụ nhazi akpụkpọ anụ Gombe na Kano mejupụtara isi ụlọ ọrụ mmepụta ihe. Na ụlọ ọrụ ịgba mmiri na kowa Dam Gombe State

Ọnụ ọgụgụ mmadụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ebe ugwu Naịjirịa ọ bụ ezie na ọ bụ mpaghara dị iche iche n'agbụrụ na okpukpe, bụ mpaghara ndị Alakụba. Ndị Hausa, Fulani na Kanuri na-achịkwa ọtụtụ akụkụ nke North Western na Eastern nke mba ahụ ebe ndị Yoruba, Nupe, Tiv, Igala na Idoma na-achịkarị na North Central. Ndị Hausa, Fulani, Nupe na ndị Kanuri bụ ndị Alakụba.

Obere akụkụ nke ndị Hausa na-agbaso okpukpe oge ochie nke Hausa Animism.[20]

Ọnụ ọgụgụ buru ibu nke Ndị Kraịst dịkwa n'ebe ugwu, ọkachasị na North Central, a tọghatara ha ka ha bụrụ Ndị Kraịst mgbe ndị Britain weghaara mba ahụ.

Nchegbu banyere ihe ndị ruuru mmadụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Mwakpo nke ndị na-azụ atụrụ Fulani na obodo nta ndị dị n'ebe ugwu emeela ka ọnwụ nke mmadụ 6,000 kemgbe 2015, dị ka Barnabas Fund si kwuo.[21] Ndị agbụrụ Fulani aghaghịkwa ịtachi obi na ogbugbu na-enweghị obi ebere nke ndị ọrụ ugbo Ndị Kraịst. E nwere ndị mwakpo n'akụkụ abụọ nke esemokwu ndị a.[22]

Eziokwu ụfọdụ dị mkpa banyere Northern Nigeria[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Ebe ugwu mejupụtara ihe dị ka 80% nke ala Naịjirịa
  • Ụfọdụ n'ime steeti ndị dị ugbu a n'ebe ugwu Nigeria dị ka alaeze dịka Kano, Katsina na Zazzau
  • Otu n'ime obodo kachasị ukwuu n'Africa dị na Northern Nigeria nke bụ steeti Kano[23]

Hụkwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Steeti nke Naịjirịa
  • Omenala nke Northern Nigeria
  • Ebe etiti

Ihe odide[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. https://ir.nilds.gov.ng/bitstream/handle/123456789/621/Northern%20Regional%20Nig%20Joint%20Sittings%20of%20House%20of%20Assembly%20%26%20House%20of%20Chiefs.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
  2. https://ir.nilds.gov.ng/bitstream/handle/123456789/621/Northern%20Regional%20Nig%20Joint%20Sittings%20of%20House%20of%20Assembly%20%26%20House%20of%20Chiefs.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
  3. Northern States – Arewa House (en-US). Archived from the original on 2022-02-17. Retrieved on 2021-05-19.
  4. Northern Region, Nigeria (1960 - 1967). www.crwflags.com. Retrieved on 2021-05-19.
  5. IPROJECT. LITERATURE IN NORTHERN NIGERIA: LANGUAGE AND POPULAR CULTURE English L... (en). iproject.com.ng. Retrieved on 2022-09-28.
  6. Ibrahim Ado-Kurawa. Brief History of Kano 999 to 2003. Kano State Government. Archived from the original on 2010-05-01. Retrieved on 2010-09-12.
  7. Hausa | Encyclopedia.com. www.encyclopedia.com. Retrieved on 2021-05-19.
  8. 8.0 8.1 "Kano Chronicle," ed. Palmer, pp. 70-72.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Arewa Center for Regional Development (ACRD). www.arewaonline-ng.com. Retrieved on 2021-05-19.
  10. IPROJECTMASTER. LITERATURE IN NORTHERN NIGERIA: LANGUAGE AND POPULAR CULTURE. www.iprojectmaster.com. Retrieved on 2021-05-19.
  11. IPROJECT. LITERATURE IN NORTHERN NIGERIA: LANGUAGE AND POPULAR CULTURE English L... (en). iproject.com.ng. Retrieved on 2021-05-19.
  12. Alhaji Sir Ahmadu Bello. biography.yourdictionary.com. Retrieved on 2021-05-19.
  13. 13.0 13.1 Northern Region, Nigeria | What is it | Encyclopedia (en). Blog. Archived from the original on 2021-05-19. Retrieved on 2021-05-19.
  14. Yakubu Gowon | head of state of Nigeria (en). Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved on 2021-05-19.
  15. Alhassan (2021). "Economic Analysis of the Characteristics Of Extensive System Of Poultry Farming Interprises In Northwestern Nigeria". International Journal of Agricultural Research and Review 9 (3): 017-025. ISSN 2360-7971. 
  16. 4G Africa – Imagine Africa, Connected! » Nigeria (en-US). Archived from the original on 2021-05-19. Retrieved on 2021-05-19.
  17. What is it Northern Region, Nigeria. Encyclopedia (en). en.what-this.com. Archived from the original on 2021-05-19. Retrieved on 2021-05-19.
  18. Northern Region, Nigeria | What is it | Encyclopedia (en). Blog. Archived from the original on 2021-05-19. Retrieved on 2021-05-19.
  19. Alhassan (2021). "Assessment of the Role of Bio-Based Fertilizers in Promoting Organic Farming in Northwestern Nigeria". Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development 9 (3): 40-46. ISSN 2360-798X. 
  20. nationsonline.org. Islamic world, countries with a cultural Islamic population - Nations Online Project (en-us). www.nationsonline.org. Retrieved on 2021-05-19.
  21. Baroness Cox fact-finding mission to Nigeria reveals mass killing of Christians by extremists. Barnabas Fund.
  22. Nigeria to launch major security operation after wave of violence between Muslim herders and Christian farmers. The Telegraph.
  23. Oyewole (2023-06-27). Mind Blowing Facts About The Northern Nigeria (en-US). rnn.ng. Retrieved on 2023-09-17.

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