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Ịgba ụta

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Egwuregwu ịgba ụta na June 1983 na Mönchengladbach, West Germany
Onye na-agba ụta Rikbaktsa na-asọmpi na egwuregwu ụmụ amaala Brazil
Onye na-agba ụta na Tibet, 1938
Master Heon Kim na-egosi Gungdo, ịgba ụta ọdịnala Korea (Kuk Kung), 2009
Ndị na-agba ụta na East Timor
Onye Japan na-agba ụta
Ịgba ụta na Bhutan
Onye na-agba ụta na Benin

[1]Ịgbakụ ụta bụ egwuregwu, mmega ahụ, ma ọ bụ nkà nke iji ụta gbaa ụta. Okwu [2] sitere na Latịn arcus, nke pụtara ụta. N'akụkọ ihe mere eme, a na-eji ịgba ụta eme ihe maka ịchụ nta na ọgụ. N'oge a, ọ bụ egwuregwu asọmpi na ntụrụndụ. [3] na-akpọkarị 'onye na-agba ụta', onye na-ebu ụta, ma ọ bụ toxophilitis.

Akụkọ ihe mere eme[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

 

Mmalite na ịgba ụta oge ochie[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

[4] [5] kachasị ochie a maara banyere ụta na akụ sitere na ebe ndị dị na South Africa dị ka Sibudu Cave, ebe a chọtara ọkpụkpụ na isi ụta nkume nke dị ihe dị ka afọ 72,000 ruo 60,000 gara aga. [6] [7]Dabere na ihe akaebe na-apụtaghị ìhè, ụta ahụ yiri ka ọ pụtara ma ọ bụ pụta ọzọ na Eurasia, na nso mgbanwe site na Upper Paleolithic gaa na Mesolithic. Ihe nchoputa mbu nke ụta na akụ sitere na Europe bụ iberibe ihe sitere na Germany nke a chọtara na Mannheim-Vogelstang nke e dere na 17,500 ruo 18,000 afọ gara aga, na Stellmoor nke e dere 11,000 afọ garabega. [8] Azilian a chọtara na Grotte du Bichon, Switzerland, n'akụkụ ihe fọdụrụnụ nke anụ ọhịa bea na onye na-achụ nta, na iberibe nkume a chọtara n'ọkpụkpụ azụ nke atọ nke anụ ọhịa bear, na-atụ aro iji akụ mee ihe afọ 13,500 gara aga. -ignore="true" id="mwWg" style="font-size:85%; font-style: normal; "> [nke] ịrịba ama ndị ọzọ nke ojiji ya na Europe sitere na Stellmoor [de] na Ndagwurugwu Ahrensburg [de] n'ebe ugwu Hamburg, Germany ma malite na njedebe Paleolithic, ihe dị ka 10,000-9000 BC. A na-eji osisi eme ụta ndị ahụ ma nwee isi ogwe na ogwe 15–20-20 in) n'ihu ogwe nwere isi flint. Enweghị ụta doro anya n'oge gara aga; a maara ụta ndị dị n'oge na-adịbeghị anya, mana ọ nwere ike ịbụ na Ndị na-atụba ube na-agbapụ ya karịa ụta. Akụ́ ndị kasị ochie a maara ruo ugbu a sitere na Holmegård marsh na Denmark.[9] saịtị Nataruk na Turkana County, Kenya, obsidian bladelets a chọtara n'ime okpokoro isi na n'ime oghere obi nke ọkpụkpụ ọzọ, na-atụ aro iji akụ nwere isi nkume dị ka ngwá agha ihe dị ka afọ 10,000 gara aga. Akụ́ mechara dochie onye na-atụ ube dị ka ụzọ kachasị maka ịtụba mgbọ ogbunigwe, na kọntinent ọ bụla ma e wezụga Australasia, ọ bụ ezie na ndị na-atụba ube nọgidere na-aga n'ihu n'akụkụ ụta n'akụkụ Amerịka, ọkachasị Mexico na n'etiti Ndị Inuit.

Akụ́ na akụ anọwo na omenala Nubian ndị gbara ya gburugburu kemgbe mmalite predynastic na Pre-Kerma. Na Levant, a maara ihe ndị nwere ike ịbụ ndị na-eme ka ụta dị mma site na ọdịbendị Natufian, (ihe dị ka 10,800-8,300 BC) gaa n'ihu. Isi nke Khiamian na PPN A nwere ubu nwere ike ịbụ isi akụ́.

Mmepeanya Ihe ochie, ọkachasị Ndị Asiria, Ndị Gris, Ndị Armenia, Ndị Peshia, Ndị Parthian, Ndị Rom, Ndị India, Ndị Korea, Ndị China, na Ndị Japan nwere ọnụ ọgụgụ buru ibu nke ndị na-agba ụta n'ime ndị agha ha. [10]Ndị Akkadian bụ ndị mbụ jiri ụta mee ihe n'agha dịka stele mmeri nke Naram-Sin nke Akkad si kwuo. [11] Ijipt kpọrọ Nubia "Ta-Seti," ma ọ bụ "Ala nke Akụ́," ebe ọ bụ na a maara ndị Nubian dị ka ndị ọkachamara na-agba ụta, na site na narị afọ nke iri na isii BC, ndị Ijipt na-eji ụta eme ihe n'agha. Ọdịbendị Aegean nke oge ọla nchara nwere ike itinye ọtụtụ ndị [12]-eme ụta pụrụ iche nke gọọmentị maka agha na ebumnuche ịchụ nta site na narị afọ nke 15 BC. [13]Ogologo ụta Welsh gosipụtara uru ya na nke mbụ ya n'agha Continental na Agha nke Crécy . [1] [14] Amerịka, ịgba ụta zuru ebe niile na kọntaktị ndị Europe.

Ịgba ụta mepụtara nke ọma n'Eshia. Okwu Sanskrit maka ịgba ụta, dhanurvidya, bịara na-ezo aka na nkà ọgụ n'ozuzu. [15]'Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ Eshia, Goguryeo, otu n'ime alaeze atọ nke Korea bụ nke a maara nke ọma maka ndị na-agba ụta nwere nkà pụrụ iche.

Ịgba ụta n'oge ochie[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Akpụkpọ ụta nke oge ochie yiri nke oge ochie, na-enwe ihe dị ka 91 . Ọ bụ ngwá agha kachasị n'ọgbọ agha site na mmalite oge ochie. N'ihe dị ka narị afọ nke iri, e webatara ụta na Europe. Crossbows n'ozuzu ha nwere ogologo oge, izi ezi dị ukwuu na ịbanye karịa shortbow, mana ha tara ahụhụ site na ọsọ ọkụ dị ala. [16] na-eji ụta ihe na mmalite nke Agha Ntụte, na ụdị nwere ihe dị ka 270 cm (110 in) ma nwee ike ịbanye n'ime ihe agha ma ọ bụ gbuo ịnyịnya.

N'oge ngwụcha oge etiti oge, ndị agha England na-adabere na ndị na-agba ụta na-eji ụta ogologo. Ndị agha France dabere [17] ụta. Dị ka ndị bu ha ụzọ, ndị na-agba ụta nwere ike ịbụ ndị ọrụ ugbo ma ọ bụ ndị ọrụ karịa ndị ikom na-eji ngwá agha. Ogologo ụta ahụ nwere ihe ruru 270 . Otú ọ dị, enweghị izi ezi ya n'ebe dị anya mere ka ọ bụrụ ngwá agha buru ibu karịa nke onwe. Mmeri n[18] dị ịrịba ama a na-ekwu maka ogologo ụta, dị ka Agha nke Crecy [1] na Agha nke Agincourt mere ka Ogologo ụta nke Bekee bụrụ akụkụ nke akụkọ agha.

  1. Paterson Encyclopaedia of Archery p. 17
  2. Charlton T. Lewis (1879). Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary, arcus. Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary. Oxford. Clarendon Press. Retrieved on 23 September 2020.
  3. The noun "toxophilite", meaning "a lover or devotee of archery, an archer" derives from Toxophilus by Roger Ascham —"imaginary proper name invented by Ascham, and hence title of his book (1545), intended to mean 'lover of the bow'." "toxophilite, n." Oxford English Dictionary. Second edition, 1989; online version November 2010. <http://www.oed.com:80/Entry/204131>; accessed 10 March 2011. Earlier version first published in New English Dictionary, 1913.
  4. (2011) "Quartz-tipped arrows older than 60 ka: further use-trace evidence from Sibudu, Kwa-Zulu-Natal, South Africa". Journal of Archaeological Science 38 (8): 1918–1930. DOI:10.1016/j.jas.2011.04.001. 
  5. (2010) "Indications of bow and stone-tipped arrow use 64,000 years ago in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa". Antiquity 84 (325): 635–648. DOI:10.1017/S0003598X00100134. 
  6. (2020) "The tip cross-sectional areas of poisoned bone arrowheads from southern Africa". Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 33. DOI:10.1016/j.jasrep.2020.102477. 
  7. Wadley (2008). "The Howieson's Poort industry of Sibudu Cave". South African Archaeological Society Goodwin Series 10. 
  8. « La grotte du Bichon, un site préhistorique des montagnes neuchâteloises  », Archéologie neuchâteloise 42, 2009.
  9. Lahr (2016). "Inter-group violence among early Holocene hunter-gatherers of West Turkana, Kenya". Nature 529 (7586): 394–398. DOI:10.1038/nature16477. PMID 26791728. 
  10. Zutterman (2003). "The bow in the Ancient Near East. A re-evaluation of archery from the late 2nd Millennium to the end of the Achaemenid empire". Iranica Antiqua XXXVIII. 
  11. Mc Leod (Jan 1962). "Egyptian Composite Bows in New York". American Journal of Archaeology 66 (1). 
  12. Bakas (2016). "Composite Bows in Minoan And Mycenaean Warfare". Syndesmoi 4. 
  13. Bow Evolution. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved on 12 December 2016.
  14. Zimmerman. 1985 Peoples of Prehistoric South Dakota. Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press. 
  15. Book of the Later Han "句驪一名貊耳有別種依小水為居因名曰小水貊出好弓所謂貊弓是也"
  16. The Bow In Medieval Warfare.
  17. People of the Hundred Years' War. Royal Armouries Collections (24 May 2018). Archived from the original on 29 September 2022. Retrieved on 17 April 2022.
  18. Rhoten (9 January 2006). Trebuchet Energy Efficiency – Experimental Results. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. DOI:10.2514/6.2006-775. ISBN 978-1624100390. 
A na-ewere ịchụ nta maka nnụnụ na-efe efe site n'azụ ịnyịnya na-agba ọsọ dị ka ụdị kachasị elu nke ịgba ụta. Ihe ntụrụndụ kachasị amasị Prince Maximilian, nke Dürer sere

Ndị agbụrụ nke Central Asia (mgbe a zụchara ịnyịnya) na ndị American Plains Indians (mgbe ndị Europe nwetasịrị ohere ịnyịnya) ghọrọ ndị maara nke ọma n'ịgba ụta n'elu ịnyịnya. Ndị na-agba ụta na-ebughị ibu, mana ndị na-agba ọsọ na-agagharị agagharị dị mma maka agha na steppes nke Central Asia, ha guzobere akụkụ dị ukwuu nke ndị agha na-emeri ọtụtụ mpaghara Eurasia ugboro ugboro. ndị dị mkpirikpi dị mma iji mee ihe n'elu ịnyịnya, na ụta ahụ na-eme ka ndị na-agba ụta nwee ike iji ngwá agha dị ike. Ndị Seljuk Turks jiri ndị na-agba ụta na-agba ịnyịnya megide Agha Ntụte Mbụ nke Europe, karịsịa na Agha nke Dorylaeum (1097) . Atụmatụ ha bụ ịgba ndị agha ndị iro égbè, ma jiri ikike ha dị elu gbochie ndị iro ịbịaru ha nso. Alaeze Ukwu 'ime ala Eurasia na-ejikọkarị ndị "barbarian" ha na ojiji nke ụta na ụta, ruo n'ókè ebe mba ndị dị ike dị ka usoro ndị eze Han na-ezo aka na ndị agbata obi ha, ndị Xiong-nu, dị ka "Ndị Na-adọta ụta". [1] [1] ọmụmaatụ, ndị na-agba ụta na Xiong-nu mere ka ha bụrụ ihe karịrị ọgụ maka ndị agha Han, egwu ha bụkwa ma ọ dịkarịa ala akụkụ nke mgbasawanye China n'ime mpaghara Ordos, iji mepụta mpaghara mgbochi siri ike, dị ike megide ha. O kwere omume na ndị "barbarian" bụ ndị na maka iwebata ịgba ụta ma ọ bụ ụdị ụta ụfọdụ na ndị ibe ha "mepere emepe" - ndị Xiong-nu na ndị Han bụ otu ihe atụ.   'otu aka ahụ, o yiri ka ndị otu ndị dị n'ebe ugwu ọwụwa anyanwụ Eshia webatara ụta dị mkpirikpi na Japan.

Mbelata nke ịgba ụta[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Mmepe nke égbè mere ka ụta na ụta ghara ịdị irè n'agha, ọ bụ ezie na a na-eme mgbalị mgbe ụfọdụ iji chekwaa omume ịgba ụta. Na England na Wales, dịka ọmụmaatụ, gọọmentị gbalịrị ịmanye omume na ogologo ụta ruo na ngwụcha narị afọ nke iri na isii. Nke a bụ n'ihi na a ghọtara na ụta ahụ nyere aka n'inwe ihe ịga nke ọma n'agha n'oge Agha Otu Narị Afọ. N'agbanyeghị ọnọdụ dị elu nke mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya, uru na-aga n'ihu, na obi ụtọ zuru oke nke ịgba ụta na Armenia, China, Egypt, England na Wales, Amerịka, India, Japan, Korea, Turkey na ebe ndị ọzọ, ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ omenala ọ bụla nwetara ohere ọbụna égbè mbụ jiri ha mee ihe n'ọtụtụ ebe, na ileghara ịgba ụta anya. Ngwá agha ndị mbụ dị ala na ọnụego égbè, ma na-emetụta ihu igwe mmiri nke ukwuu. Otú dị, ha nwere ogologo oge dị irè ma dị elu karịa n'ọnọdụ ndị agha na-agba ibe ha égbè site n'azụ ihe mgbochi. Ha chọkwara obere ọzụzụ iji jiri ya mee ihe n'ụzọ kwesịrị ekwesị, ọkachasị ihe agha ígwè na-abanye n'ime ya n'enweghị mkpa ọ bụla iji zụlite uru ahụ pụrụ iche. Ndị agha nwere égbè nwere ike inye ike égbè dị elu, ndị na-agba ụta a zụrụ nke ọma ghọkwara ndị na-adịghịzi adị n'ọgbọ agha. [2] [3] dị, ụta na akụ ka bụ ngwá agha dị irè, ndị na-agba ụta ahụla ọrụ agha na narị afọ nke 21. A ka na-eji ịgba ụta ọdịnala eme ihe maka egwuregwu, na maka ịchụ nta n'ọtụtụ ebe.

Ihe odide[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named ChinaEnemies
  2. Peace and Poison Arrows in Kenya. By Alexis Okeowo/Nairobi Friday, 29 February 2008. accessed 21at July 2012
  3. Bows and arrows: deadly weapons of rural Kenya's war. Njoro, Kenya (AFP) 2 February 2008 http://www.spacewar.com/reports/Bows_and_arrows_deadly_weapons_of_rural_Kenyas_war_999.html accessed 21 July 2012

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