Abubakar Tafawa Balewa

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Abubakar Tafawa Balewa
Balewa.jpg
mádu
Ụdịekerenwoke Dezie
Mba o sịNaijiria Dezie
Aha n'asụsụ obodoAbubakar Tafawa Balewa Dezie
Aha enyereAbubakar Dezie
Ụbọchị ọmụmụ ya1912 Dezie
Ebe ọmụmụBauchi Dezie
Ụbọchị ọnwụ ya15 Jenụwarị 1966 Dezie
Ebe ọ nwụrụLagos Dezie
Ụdị ọnwụỊgbụ mmadụ Dezie
Ebe oliliBauchi Dezie
Asụsụ obodoHausa Dezie
Asụsụ ọ na-asụ, na-ede ma ọ bụ were na-ebinye akaBekee, Hausa, pidgin Naịjirịa Dezie
Ọrụ ọ na-arụOnye ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị, diplomat, Odee akwụkwọ Dezie
Ọkwá o jiPrime Minister of Nigeria Dezie
Ebe agụmakwụkwọUniversity of London, Barewa College Dezie
onye otu ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchịNorthern People's Congress Dezie
Okpukpere chi/echiche ụwaOkpukpere Alakụba Dezie
Ihe nriteKnight Commander of the Order of the British Empire Dezie

Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa KBE PC (December 1912 – 15 Jenụarị 1966) bụ onye ndọrọndọrọ ọchịchị Naijiria bụrụ kwa onye jere ozi dịka onye mbụ na naanị onye Praim Minista ala Naijiria na nnwere onwe. [1]

Mbịdo Ndụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A mụrụ Abubakar Tafawa Balewa na Disemba 1912 na steeti Bauchi nke oge a na Northern Nigeria Protectorate . Nna Balewa, Yakubu Dan Zala, bụ onye agbụrụ Gere, [2] nne ya Fatima Inna bụ onye Gere na agbụrụ Fulani . [2] [3] Nna ya rụrụ ọrụ n'ụlọ onye isi mpaghara Lere, mpaghara dị na Emirate nke Bauchi . [4]

Agụmakwụkwọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Balewa malitere akwukwo n'ulo akwukwo Qur'an di na Bauchi; mgbe ndị ọchịchị ndị ọcha nke ndịda malitere ịkwado maka agụmakwụkwọ na mpaghara ugwu, Balewa so na ụmụaka e zigara na Tafawa Balewa Elementary School, mgbe ụlọ akwụkwọ Qur'an gasịrị. Mgbe nke ahụ gasịrị, ọ gakwara n'ụlọ akwụkwọ Bauchi Provincial School. [4] Dị ka ọtụtụ ndị ha na ya dịkọrọ ndụ, ọ gụrụ akwụkwọ na Barewa College, nke a na-akpọ Katsina College mgbe ahụ, ebe ọ bụ nwata akwụkwọ nke otu narị na iri anọ na ise. Ahmadu Rabah, onye e mechara mara dika Ahmadu Bello, bụ nwa akwụkwọ nke iri asatọ na asaa ma bụrụ afọ abụọ ka o jiri gaa ya, ebe Abubakar Imam jiri nanị otu afọ gaa ya. [5] Kọleji ahụ dị ọtụtụ kilomita site na Bauchi, ọ nọghịkwa nso ọdụ ụgbọ oloko ma ọ bụ ụgbọ njem ọha. N'oge ezumike, nke bụ ugboro abụọ n'afọ, Balewa na-eji ụkwụ laa, njem a karịrị narị kilomita anọ. Ọ na-eji ụkwụ gaa ihe dị ka kilomita iri anọ kwa ụbọchị, tupu ọ chọta ebe izu ike n'otu obodo dị nso. Na mkpokọta, njem ahụ na-ewe ya ụbọchị iri. [4]

Kọleji Katsina nwere ndị nkuzi si mba ofesi Briten, ọtụtụ n'ime ha gụrụ akwụkwọ na ụlọ akwụkwọ ndị Briten dị elu nke ukwuu wee gaa Cambridge ma ọ bụ Oxford. A na-akụziri ụmụ akwụkwọ n'asụsụ Bekee, okwu bụkwa akụkụ dị mkpa nke mmụta maka ụmụ akwụkwọ ahụ. Ewezuga ọkaibe n'asụsụ bekee, ụlọ akwụkwọ ahụ bụkwa ebe a na-enye ndị nkuzi nkuzi ka e wee ziga ha n'ụlọ akwụkwọ dị na mpaghara ugwu Naijiria . [4]

Balewa gụchara akwụkwọ afọ ise n'afọ 1933 wee laghachi Bauchi kuzie na Bauchi Middle School. Ọ kuziri ihe n'ụlọ akwụkwọ wee mechaa bụrụ onye isi ụlọ akwụkwọ sekọndrị. Na 1941, ọ matara otu nwa okorobịa aha ya bu Aminu Kano, bụ onye ezigara n'ụlọ akwụkwọ dịka onye nkuzi. Mgbe ọgbaaghara nke ụmụ akwụkwọ gasịrị, nchọpụta maka mkpesa ụmụ akwụkwọ raputara onyeisi ụlọ akwụkwọ ahụ, na 1941, a họpụtara Balewa ka ọ bụrụ onyeisi ụlọ akwụkwọ ọhụrụ. [4] Na 1944, Balewa na ụfọdụ ndị nkuzi gụrụ akwụkwọ na Northern Provinces ka ahọpụtara ka ha gaa mụọ akwụkwọ na mba ofesi na Mahadum London Institute of Education, nke bụ akụkụ nke University College London taa. Mgbe ọ laghachiri na Naijiria, ọ bụrụ onye nnyocha ụlọ akwụkwọ maka ọchịchị ndị ọcha wee mechaa banye na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị. [6]

Ọrụ ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A họpụtara ya na 1946 n'ụlọ omebe iwu Northern House of Assembly, na ndị omebe iwu Council na 1947. Dịka onye omebe iwu, ọ bụ onye na-akwado ikike nke Northern Nigeria . Ọ kwadoro ịla azụ ndị bi n'ugwu ka ha wee nwere onwe ha, nkea gbadoro ukwu na mkpesa na mpaghara ugwu na ndịda anọghị n'otu nha. Na ọgbakọ ndị ugwu, ọ chọrọ ọrụ dị iche iche na nchịkwa obodo maka ndị gụrụ akwụkwọ n'isi obodo ahụ [4]

Ya na Alhaji Sir Ahmadu Bello, onye ji ọkwa nketa nke Sardauna nke Sokoto, tụpụtara atụmatụ ka a gbanwee otu omenala, Jam'iyyar Mutanen Arewa, nke pụtara Northern People's Congress (NPC) na bekee, ka ọ bụrụ ebe ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị ka e jirikwa ya na-eme ihe dị ka mkpọsa n'oge ntuli aka nke 1951. A họpụtara Balewa dịka osote onye isi oche nke pati ọhụrụ ahụ o wee kwusi ọrụ ya dịka onye isi ụlọ akwụkwọ Middle School Bauchi. NPC meriri ọtụtụ votu na ụlọ ọgbakọ omebe iwu mpaghara ahụ na 1951. [7]

Balewa so na ndị omeiwu ọhụrụ na Kaduna. N'okpuru iwu ọhụrụ, nke a kpọrọ Macpherson Constitution nke 1951, e mebere usoro ntuli aka nke mere na a họpụtara ụfọdụ ndị omebe iwu mpaghara na Ụlọ Nzukọ Ndị Nnọchiteanya etiti na Lagos, na n'etiti ndị omebe iwu gọọmenti etiti, ndị otu atọ sitere na mpaghara ọ bụla ka a ga-ahọpụta ka ha bụrụ ndị minista gọọmenti etiti na ndị isi obodo. Balewa so na ndị a họpụtara na Legọs yana Kashim Ibrahim na Muhammadu Ribadu bụ ndị ahọpụtara ka ha bụrụ ndị minista. [8]

Balewa batara na gọọmentị n'afọ 1952 ka ọ bụrụ onye minista na-ahụ maka ọrụ, ma mechaa bụrụ onye minista na-ahụ maka ụgbọ njem n'oge Naijiria na-aga n'ihu inweta ọchịchị onwe ya. N'oge ọ na-arụ ọrụ na mpaghara njem, ma ngalaba mmiri na ụgbọ okporo ígwè gbanwere ka ọ bụrụ ụlọ ọrụ, a tukwara atụmatụ maka àkwà mmiri dị n'elu miri Niger na atụmatụ maka Kainji Dam. [9]

N'afọ 1957, NPC meriri ọtụtụ votu na ụlọ omebe iwu etiti nke mere ka Balewa ghọrọ onye isi ala na Praim Minista a họpụtara. Dịka ụfọdụ n'ime atụmatụ ya iji mee ka obodo ahụ dị n'otu maka njem nnwere onwe n'afọ 1960, o hiwere otu ọchịchị n'etiti NPC na National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons (NCNC), nke Nnamdi Azikiwe na-edu ma kpọkwara otu Action Group (AG). kabinet nke 1957 bụru ụlọ ọrụ kabinet nke pati niile. [10] Agbanyeghị, Awolowo, onye ndu AG na onye isi ala mpaghara odida anyanwu nwere obi abụọ maka atụmatụ a, [11] ndị isi kọmitii nke otu Action Group kwadoro Gọọmenti Mba, ndị otu ahụ họpụtakwara Ayo Rosiji na Samuel Akintola . N'ime oge a, Balewa nwere ezigbo mmekọrịta ya na K.O. Mbadiwe sitere na NCNC na Akintola sitere na AG. [4]

Praim Minista[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Balewa na President Kennedyna White House n'afọ 1961

Balewa jigidere ọkwá ya dika Praim Minista nke Naijiria mgbe Naijiria nwere onwe ha n'afọ 1960, arọputakwara ya ọzọ n'afọ 1964.[12]

Nigerians Hero
Balewa

Tupu Naijiria nweere onwe ya, ọgbakọ gbasara iwu na 1954 wepụtara usoro ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị mpaghara maka obodo ahụ, na-enye mpaghara niile ohere ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị buru ibu. Mpaghara atọ ahụ bụ kwa ndi nwere ọtụtụ omenala dị iche iche. [13] Ndị isi ala na ụfọdụ ndị isi a ma ama na mpaghara ahụ mechara were amụma iduzi mpaghara ha megide mmegide ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị sitere n'aka ndị isi mpaghara ndị ọzọ. Ka e mesịrị, ọnọdụ ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị a metụtara ọchịchị Balewa. Oge ọ nọ n'ọchịchị wee juputa n'ọgbaaghara, ebe ndị otu mpaghara na-eyi ọchịchị ya egwu mgbe niile. [14]

N'agbanyeghị nka, dịka Praim Minista nke Naijiria, ọ rụrụ ọrụ dị mkpa na ọchịchị ụmụafọ kọntinent ahụ. Ọ bụrụ onye ndu dị mkpa na nguzobe nke Òtù Na-ahụ Maka Ịdị n'Otu Africa na ịmepụta mmekọrịta n'etiti mba Africa na-asụ French . O nyekwara aka na mkparita uka n'etiti Moise Tshombe na ndị ọchịchị Kongo n'oge ọgbaaghara Congo nke 1960–1964. [15] O duuru ngagharị iwe megide ogbugbu Sharpeville n'afọ 1960 wee banye na mmekorita ya na ndị minista Commonwealth chọrọ ka South Africa hapụ Commonwealth na 1961. N'agbanyeghị nka, ebubo ịgba ọchịchị mgba okpuru na ikpe ekpere otu n'ime ndị isi mpaghara ọdịda anyanwụ, Obafemi Awolowo, butere mkpesa na nkatọ sitere n'aka ọtụtụ ndị nkwado ya. [16] Ntuli aka nke 1965 na mpaghara ahụ mechara muputa ngagharị iwe. N'oge na-adịghị anya, ọgbaghara na ime ihe ike jikọtara ya na ihe a na-ewere dị ka mmegide ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị na-enweghị isi na nhọpụta nke ndị dị n'ọdịda anyanwụ na-emegide Awolowo. [17]

Dị ka Praim Minista nke Nigeria site na 1960 rue na 1961, Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa rụkwara ọrụ dị ka onye na-ahu maka ihe gbasara mmekọrịta mba ofesi na Naijiria. N'afọ 1961, gọọmentị Balewa wepụtara ọkwa minista na-ahụ maka mba ofesi na mmekọrịta mba ụwa nke ọ bu Jaja Wachuku nọro n'ọkwa a site na 1961 ruo 1965, ọ bụ onye mbụ bụ onye minista Naijiria na-ahụ maka mmekọrịta mba ofesi na Naịjirịa, nke e mechara kpọọ Mpụga. [18]

Nkwatu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Nigerian Public Domain 405.jpg

A kwaturu ya ma gbuo ya na mbuso agha nke ndị agha na 15 Jenụarị 1966, dịka ọtụtụ ndị isi ndị ọzọ, nke gụnyere ibe ya ochie, Sir Ahmadu Bello . Ọnọdụ ọnwụ ya ka bu ihe edozibeghị. Achọtara ozu ya n'akụkụ okporo ụzọ dị nso na Legọs ụbọchị isii ka a chụrụ ya n'ọrụ. E liri Balewa na Bauchi . Akụkọ banyere ogbugbu ya kpalitere ọgbaghara dị egwu na Mpaghara ùgwù nke Naijiria nke butere nkwatu mkwafu n'ọbara nke Julaị 1966 . [5]

Taa, ihe onyonyo ya chọrọ naira ise mma. Akpọrọ aha Mahadum Abubakar Tafawa Balewa dị na Bauchi n'aha ya iji kwanyere ya ugwu.

Balewa's Shaihu Umar[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Na 1934, Balewa dere Shaihu Umar, akwụkwọ akụkọ banyere onye Alakụba na nzaghachi nke Rupert East, onye isi ụlọ ọrụ nsụgharị nke ọchịchị ndị ọcha onye rịọrọ ka ọ kwalite akwụkwọ ndị Hausa . [19] Edere ya na usoro akụkọ [5] [19] onye na-eme ihe nkiri, Shaihu Umar, na-akọ ihe omume ya na akụkọ ndụ ya. Ihe omume na isiokwu dị n'ime akwụkwọ akụkọ ahụ metụtara ahia ohu, mmekọrịta ezinụlọ na isiokwu Islam nke nrubeisi n'uche Chineke. [19]

E mere Shaihu Umar dịka egwuregwu n'afọ 1970. [19]

E bipụtara Shaihu Umar na mbụ na 1955.

Nkwanye ugwu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ihe onyinyo Tafawa Balewa na Owerri Imo Steeti

Na Jenụwarị 1960, Eze Nwanyị Elizabeth nke Abụọ chiri Abubakar Tafawa Balewa dịka onye ọchịagha Knight nke usoro nke Alaeze Ukwu Britain . [20] Enyere ya nzere doctorate site na Mahadum Sheffield na Mee 1960. [2] E nyekwara ya nzere doctorate nke iwu sitere na Mahadum New York na Julaị 1961. [21]

Ndụ onwe onye[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A kọwara Balewa dika onye omume ya kwu ọtọ.[22] Ihe ọ nwere tụtụ ọ nwụọ gụnyere ụlọ ya dị na Bauchi na ụgbọ ya ebe ọ n'aha ezumike. Ugbo ahụ bu nke dị na I na-aga obodo Tafawa Balewa n'ihe dika mailu itoolu ma I gafesia Bauchi; ọtụtụ mkpebi o mere n'oge ọ nọ n'ọchịchị bu nke o mere n'ugbo ahu. Balewa luru ụmụ nwanyị anọ ndị mụtara ya ụmụ iri na itoolu.[23]

Hụkwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Nigerian First Republic
  • Cabinet of Abubakar Tafawa Balewa

Edensibia[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa | prime minister of Nigeria (en). Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved on 2021-05-26.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Kperogi (22 January 2016). Gere: Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa's Real Ethnic Group. Daily Trust. Archived from the original on 24 September 2016. Retrieved on 5 September 2016.
  3. Omotola (10 November 2017). BIOGRAPHY OF SIR ABUBAKAR TAFAWA BALEWA, KBE (en). Diamond Boat Consult. Retrieved on 9 February 2020.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 Nigeria (1982). Nigerian heroes. (in en). Lagos: Federal Dept. of Information. OCLC 18561384. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Sani. (2006). Islam and colonialism : intellectual responses of Muslims of Northern Nigeria to British colonial rule. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 900413946X. OCLC 62554253. 
  6. smile (2020-06-30). SIR ABUBAKAR TAFAWA BALEWA (en-US). Glimpse Nigeria. Retrieved on 2021-05-26.
  7. achievements of sir ahmadu bello. leonardschrader.com. Retrieved on 2021-05-26.
  8. is tafawa balewa a fulani man. clearstoryusa.com. Retrieved on 2021-05-26.
  9. admin. Tag: Tafawa Balewa (en-US). Political Zone Nigeria. Retrieved on 2021-05-26.
  10. abubakar tafawa balewa spouse. susanneo.com. Retrieved on 2021-05-26.
  11. A. (6 February 2014). Democracy and prebendal politics in Nigeria : the rise and fall of the Second Republic, 34. ISBN 9781107633537. OCLC 864086426. 
  12. Umar. "Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa" (in en). 
  13. NIGERIA (CONSTITUTIONAL CONFERENCE) (Hansard, 10 February 1954). api.parliament.uk. Retrieved on 2021-05-26.
  14. 54 Years After The Death Of Tafawa Balewa, See How His Grave Site Looks Like Now - Opera News. ng.opera.news. Retrieved on 2021-05-26.
  15. Abubakar Tafawa Balewa (en). Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on 24 May 2017. Retrieved on 2021-05-26.
  16. Sharpeville massacre | Summary, Significance, & Facts (en). Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved on 2021-05-26.
  17. Citizens react as Desmond Eliot is wrongly identified as founder of Nigeria's Independence - Opera News. ng.opera.news. Retrieved on 2021-05-26.
  18. MFA Nigeria. www.nigeria-consulate-frankfurt.de. Retrieved on 2021-05-26.
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 Бессмертная. "A Hausa Author's Idea of Literature as an" about-face" response to the British literary challenge" (in en). Multiculturalism & Hybridity in African …. 
  20. Faal (2009-05-09). Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa (1912-1966) • (en-US). Retrieved on 2021-05-26.
  21. How The Son of A Slave Became Nigeria's Prime Minister - Opera News. ng.opera.news. Retrieved on 2021-05-26.
  22. See Nigeria's ex-leader Buhari is being compared with – Daily Advent Nigeria (en-US). Archived from the original on 19 January 2019. Retrieved on 17 January 2019.
  23. See Stunning Images of The Tomb of Sir Tafawa Balewa in Bauchi State - Opera News. ng.opera.news. Retrieved on 2021-05-26.
  • Kalu Ezera;, Mmepe n'usoro iwu na Naijiria: Nnyocha nyocha nke mmepe iwu nke Naijiria na-emepe emepe na akụkọ ihe mere eme na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị nke metụrụ mgbanwe n'usoro iwu iwu, 1960.
  • James S. Olson, Robert S. Shadle; Akwụkwọ ọkọwa okwu akụkọ ihe mere eme nke Alaeze Ukwu Britain, Greenwood Press, 1996
  • BIC Ijomah, The Enigma of Nigerian Nationalism, Edo State University Publishing House, 1996, 
  • Alh. Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa nleta ọrụ na USA na 25–28 Julaị 1961, YouTube.