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Alice Dunbar Nelson

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Alice Dunbar Nelson
Mmádu
ụdịekerenwanyị Dezie
mba o sịNjikota Obodo Amerika Dezie
Aha ọmụmụAlice Moore Dezie
Aha enyereAlice, Ruth Dezie
aha ezinụlọ yaMoore, Dunbar, Nelson Dezie
ụbọchị ọmụmụ ya19 Julaị 1875 Dezie
Ebe ọmụmụNew Orleans Dezie
Ụbọchị ọnwụ ya18 Septemba 1935 Dezie
Ebe ọ nwụrụPhiladelphia Dezie
Ebe oliliPhiladelphia Dezie
Dị/nwunyePaul Laurence Dunbar, Henry Arthur Callis, Robert John Nelson Dezie
asụsụ ọ na-asụ, na-ede ma ọ bụ were na-ebinye akaBekee Dezie
Asụsụ ọ na-edeBekee Dezie
ebe agụmakwụkwọStraight University, Cornell University, Dillard University Dezie
agbụrụNdi Afrika nke Amerika Dezie
Ọmụma Mmekọahụbisexuality Dezie
Ọrụ ama amaMine Eyes Have Seen Dezie
Archive naUniversity of Delaware Library Special Collections Dezie
IjeHarlem Renaissance Dezie
Ihe nriteHall of Fame of Delaware Women Dezie

Alice Dunbar Nelson (Julaị 19, 1875 - Septemba 18, 1935) bụ onye Amerika na-ede uri, onye nta akụkọ, na onye ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị. N'etiti ọgbọ mbụ nke Ndị Africa America a mụrụ n'efu na Southern United Steeti mgbe njedebe nke Agha Obodo Amerika gasịrị, ọ bụ otu n'ime ndị Afrịka Amerika ama ama na-etinye aka na ọganihu nka nke Harlem Renaissance. Di mbụ ya bụ onye na-ede uri bụ Paul Laurence Dunbar. Mgbe ọ nwụsịrị, ọ lụrụ dọkịta Henry A. Callis; na, n'ikpeazụ, lụrụ Robert J. Nelson, onye na-ede uri na onye na-akwado ikike obodo. Ọ nwetara aha ya dị ka onye na-ede uri, onye na-ede akụkọ mkpirisi na ihe nkiri, onye na-ede akwụkwọ akụkọ, onye na-akwado ikike ụmụ nwanyị, na onye nchịkọta akụkọ akụkọ abụọ.

Ndụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A mụrụ Alice Ruth Moore na New Orleans na July 19, 1875, nwa nwanyị nke onye na-akwa ákwà n'Afrịka na onye na-arụ ọrụ n'ụgbọ mmiri ọcha.[1] Nne na nna ya, Patricia Wright na Joseph Moore, bụ ndị nọ n'etiti na akụkụ nke obodo Creole nwere ọtụtụ agbụrụ.

Ndụ onwe onye[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Moore gụsịrị akwụkwọ na mmemme nkuzi na Mahadum Straight (nke mechara sonye na Mahadum Dillard) na 1892 ma rụọ ọrụ dị ka onye nkuzi na Usoro ụlọ akwụkwọ ọha na eze nke New Orleans na Old Marigny Elementary . [1] Nelson biri na New Orleans afọ iri abụọ na otu. N'oge a, ọ mụrụ nkà na egwu, na-amụta ịkpọ piano na cello.[2]

N'afọ 1895, nchịkọta mbụ nke akụkọ na uri Alice Dunbar Nelson, Violets na akụkọ ndị ọzọ, nke Nyochaa kwa ọnwa bipụtara. N'oge a, Moore kwagara Boston na New York City.[3] O guzobere ma kụzie na White Rose Mission (Ụlọ White Rose maka ụmụ agbọghọ) na mpaghara San Juan Hill nke Manhattan, na-amalite akwụkwọ ozi ya na onye na ede uri na onye nta akụkọ Paul Laurence Dunbar.[4] Ọrụ Alice Dunbar Nelson na Nke Nwanyị Era dọtara uche Paul Laurence Dunbar. N'Eprel 17, 1895, Paul Laurence Dunbar zigara Alice akwụkwọ ozi mmeghe, nke bụ nke mbụ n'ime ọtụtụ akwụkwọ ozi ha abụọ gbanwere. N'akwụkwọ ozi ha, Paul jụrụ Alice banyere mmasị ya na ajụjụ agbụrụ ahụ. Ọ zaghachiri na ọ na eche na ihe odide ya dị ka "mmadụ nkịtị", ma kwenyere na ọtụtụ ndị edemede lekwasịrị anya na agbụrụ nke ukwuu. Ọ bụ ezie na ihe odide ya ndị na-elekwasị anya na agbụrụ ga-agbagha eziokwu a, echiche Alice banyere nsogbu agbụrụ ahụ megidere nke Paul Laurence. N'agbanyeghị echiche ndị na-emegiderịta onwe ha banyere nnọchiteanya agbụrụ n'akwụkwọ, ha abụọ nọgidere na ekwurịta okwu ịhụnanya site na akwụkwọ ozi ha.[5]

Alice Dunbar Nelson, n'ihe dị ka 1900

Ozi ha dekọrọ kpughere esemokwu banyere nnwere onwe inwe mmekọahụ nke ndị ikom na ndị inyom. Tupu ha alụọ di na nwunye, Pọl gwara Alice na o mere ka ọ ghara “ịnagide ọnwụnwa,” bụ́ nke na-ekwu banyere mmekọahụ. N’akwụkwọ ozi sitere na March 6, 1896, ọ pụrụ ịbụ na Pọl nwara ịkpali ekworo na Alice site n’ikwu banyere otu nwanyị ọ zutere na Paris. Otú ọ dị, Alice anabataghị mgbalị ndị a ma nọgide na-adị anya n'ebe Pọl nọ. Na 1898, mgbe ọ dechara akwụkwọ ozi ruo afọ ole na ole, Alice kwagara Washington, D.C. iji sonyere Paul Laurence Dunbar ma ha gbapụrụ na nzuzo n'afọ 1898. Alụmdi na nwunye ha gosipụtara na ọgba aghara, nke ahụike Dunbar na-ada ada n'ihi ụkwara nta, Ịṅụbiga mmanya ókè malitere site na ịṅụ whiskey nke dọkịta nyere iwu, na ịda mbà n'obi. Tupu alụmdi na nwunye ha, Paul dinara Alice n'ike, nke o mechara kwuo na ọ bụ ịṅụbiga mmanya ókè. Alice ga-emesị gbaghara ya maka omume a. Paul na-emegbu Alice mgbe niile, nke bụ ihe ọha na eze maara. N'ozi o mechara zigaara onye na-ede akụkọ ndụ Dunbar, Alice kwuru, "Ọ lọtara n'ụlọ n'otu abalị n'ọnọdụ anụ ọhịa. Agara m ya ka o nyere ya aka ihi ụra - ọ mekwara ka onye na-agwa gị okwu, n'ụzọ ihere. "Ọ kwukwara na ọ nọ "na-arịa ọrịa ruo ọtụtụ izu na peritonitis nke ụkwụ ya kpatara". [5] N'afọ 1902, mgbe ọ fọrọ nke nta ka ọ tie ya ihe ruo ọnwụ, ọ hapụrụ ya. A kọrọ na ihe omume ụmụ nwanyị ya na-enye ya nsogbu.[6][7] Ha kewara na 1902 mana ha agbaghị alụkwaghịm tupu ọnwụ Paul Dunbar na 1906. [1][5]

Alice wee kwaga Wilmington, Delaware, ma kụzie na Ụlọ akwụkwọ sekọndrị Howard ihe karịrị afọ iri. N'oge a, ọ kụzikwaara oge okpomọkụ na Mahadum steeti maka ụmụ akwụkwọ nwere agba (onye bu Delaware State University ụzọ) na Ụlọ ọrụ Hampton. N'afọ 1907, ọ hapụrụ ọrụ nkuzi ya na Wilmington wee banye na Mahadum Cornell, laghachi Wilmington n'afọ 1908. [8] N'afọ 1910, ọ lụrụ Henry A. Callis, onye dọkịta a ma ama na prọfesọ na Mahadum Howard, mana alụmdi na nwunye a kwụsịrị ịgba alụkwaghịm.

N'afọ 1916, ọ lụrụ onye na-ede uri na onye na-ahụ maka ihe ndị ruuru mmadụ Robert J. Nelson nke Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Ya na ya rụkọrọ ọrụ iji bipụta egwuregwu Masterpieces nke Negro Ahụmahụ (1914), nke egosiri naanị otu ugboro na Ụlọ akwụkwọ sekọndrị Howard na Wilmington.[9] Ọ sonyeere ya n'ịrụsi ọrụ ike na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị mpaghara na mpaghara. Ha nọrọ ọnụ ruo ndụ ha niile.

N'oge a, ya na ụmụ nwanyị nwekwara mmekọrịta chiri anya, gụnyere onye isi ụlọ akwụkwọ sekọndrị Howard Edwina Kruse [2] na onye na-eme ngagharị iwe Fay Jackson Robinson . [10] N'afọ 1930, Nelson gara mba ahụ niile na-akụzi ihe, na-agafe ọtụtụ puku kilomita ma na-egosi na ụlọ akwụkwọ iri atọ na asaa. Nelson kwukwara okwu na YWCAs, YMCAs, na ụka, na ugboro ugboro na Wesley Union African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church na Harrisburg. Akwụkwọ akụkọ Kọmitii Ije Ozi Ndị Enyi dere ihe ndị ọ rụzuru.[1][2]

Mgbalị ndị mbụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ihe si na The Woman's Era, akwụkwọ akụkọ nke rụrụ ọrụ dị ka ntọala maka ọrụ ogologo oge Alice dị ka onye nta akụkọ na onye na-eme ihe ike.

Mgbe ọ dị obere, Alice Dunbar Nelson malitere inwe mmasị n'ihe omume ndị ga-eme ka ụmụ nwanyị ojii nwee ike. N'afọ 1894, ọ ghọrọ onye otu iwu nke Phillis Wheatley Klọb na New Orleans, na-enye aka na nkà edemede ya. Iji gbasaa ọhụụ ha, Wheatley Klọb jikọtara aka na Women's Era Club. Ọ rụrụ ọrụ na akwụkwọ akụkọ kwa ọnwa nke Women's Era Club, Oge Nwanyị. N'ileba anya na ụmụ nwanyị gụrụ akwụkwọ, ọ bụ akwụkwọ akụkọ mbụ maka ụmụ nwanyị Afrịka America. Ọrụ Alice na akwụkwọ akụkọ ahụ gosipụtara mmalite nke ọrụ ya dị ka onye nta akụkọ na onye na-eme ihe ike. [5]

Dunbar-Nelson bụ onye na-agba mbọ maka ikike ndị Afrịka Amerịka na ụmụ nwanyị, ọkachasị n'oge 1920s na 1930s. Ka ọ na aga n'ihu na ede akụkọ na uri, ọ ghọrọ onye na-arụsi ọrụ ike na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị na Wilmington, ma na-etinye mgbalị dị ukwuu n'ọrụ mgbasa ozi na isiokwu ndị dị mkpa. N'afọ 1914, o guzobere otu Hahata Suffrage Ụlọ ọgbakọ ọmụmụ, na 1915, ọ bụ onye nhazi mpaghara maka steeti Middle Atlantic maka òtù ụmụ nwanyị. N'afọ 1918, ọ bụ onye nnọchi anya kọmitii ụmụ nwanyị nke Kansụl Nchebe. N'afọ 1924, Dunbar-Nelson mere mkpọsa maka ịgafe Dyer Anti-Lynching Bill, mana Southern Democratic ngọngọ na Congress meriri ya.[8] N'oge a, Dunbar-Nelson rụrụ ọrụ n'ụzọ dị iche iche iji kwalite mgbanwe ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị. A na-ekwu, "Ọ nọgidere na-arụsi ọrụ ike na NAACP; ọ kwadoro ụlọ akwụkwọ mgbanwe dị mkpa na Delaware maka ụmụ agbọghọ ndị Afrịka Amerịka; ọ rụrụ ọrụ maka Kọmitii Udo nke Ndị Enyi America Inter-Racial; ọ kwuru okwu na nzukọ megide amamikpe nke ndị Scottsboro. "[11]

Ọrụ odeakụkọ na ịga n'ihu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Site na 1913 ruo 1914, Dunbar-Nelson bụ onye nchịkọta akụkọ na onye edemede maka A.M.E. Nyochaa Ụka, akwụkwọ ụka nwere mmetụta nke African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME Church) mepụtara. Site na 1920, ọ so dee Wilmington Advocate, akwụkwọ akụkọ ojii na-aga n'ihu. O biputara Onye na-ekwu okwu Dunbar na ihe ntụrụndụ, akwukwo akwukwo maka ndi isi ojii.[8]

Alice Dunbar-Nelson kwadoro Ntinye aka Amerika na Agha Ụwa Mbụ; ọ hụrụ agha ahụ dị ka ụzọ isi kwụsị ime ihe ike agbụrụ na Amerịka. Ọ haziri ihe omume iji gbaa ndị Afrịka Amerịka ndị ọzọ ume ịkwado agha ahụ. O zoro aka n'agha ahụ n'ọtụtụ ọrụ ya. N'abụ uri ya nke 1918 "I Sit and Sew," Nelson dere site n'echiche nke nwanyị na-eche na a machibidoro ya itinye aka na mbọ agha. N'ihi na o nweghị ike ịbanye n'agha n'onwe ya, Nelson dere akwụkwọ mgbasa ozi dịka Mine Eyes Have Seen (1918), egwuregwu nke gbara ndị ikom Afrịka Amerịka ume ịbanye n'usuu ndị agha. Ọrụ ndị a na-egosipụta nkwenye Nelson na enwere ike inweta ịha nhata agbụrụ site na ozi agha na ịchụ onwe onye n'àjà nye mba ha. [12]

1927 foto nke Alice Dunbar Nelson nke Laura Wheeler Waring

Site n'ihe dị ka 1920 gaa n'ihu, Dunbar-Nelson bụ onye na-ede akwụkwọ akụkọ na-aga nke ọma, yana akụkọ ya, edemede ya na nyocha ya pụtara n'akwụkwọ akụkọ, akwụkwọ akụkọ, na akwụkwọ akụkọ agụmakwụkwọ..[8] Ọ bụ ọkà okwu na-ewu ewu ma nwee usoro nkuzi na-arụsi ọrụ ike n'ime afọ ndị a. Ọrụ nta akụkọ ya malitere na mbido nkume. N'ọgwụgwụ narị afọ nke 19, ọ bụ ihe a na-adịghị ahụkebe na ụmụ nwanyị na-arụ ọrụ n'èzí ụlọ, ma ya fọdụkwa nwanyị Africa America, na akwụkwọ akụkọ bụ ubi ndị iro, ndị nwoke na-achị. N'akwụkwọ akụkọ ya, o kwuru banyere mkpagbu ndị metụtara ọrụ ahụ: "Damn ọjọọ chioma m nwere na mkpịsị akwụkwọ m. Ụfọdụ akara aka nyere iwu na agaghị m eme ego site na ya "(Diary, 366). Ọ na-ekwu na a napụrụ ya ụgwọ maka akwụkwọ akụkọ ya na nsogbu ndị o nwere na ịnata nkwado kwesịrị ekwesị maka ọrụ ya.[13][14] Na 1920, ewepụrụ Nelson na nkuzi na Howard High School maka ịga Social Justice Day na October 1 megide uche nke Onye isi Ray Wooten. Wooten na-ekwu na ewepụrụ Nelson maka "ọrụ ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị" na enweghị ndakọrịta. N'agbanyeghị nkwado nke Board of Education's Conwell Banton, onye megidere nchụpụ Nelson, Nelson kpebiri na ya agaghị alaghachi na Howard High School..[15] Na 1928, Nelson ghọrọ Secretary Executive nke American Friends Inter-Racial Peace Committee. Na 1928, Nelson kwukwara na American Negro Labour Congress Forum na Philadelphia. Isiokwu Nelson bụ Udo dị n'etiti agbụrụ na mmekọrịta ya na ọrụ. Dunbar-Nelson dekwara akwụkwọ maka Washington Eagle, na-enye aka na kọlụm "Dịka Na-ele Anya" site na 1926 ruo 1930.[15]

Ndụ na ọnwụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ọ si Delaware kwaga Philadelphia na 1932, mgbe di ya sonyeere Pennsylvania Athletic Commission. N'oge a, ahụ ike ya dara. Ọ nwụrụ n'ihi ọrịa obi na September 18, 1935, mgbe ọ dị afọ 60. [8] A kpọrọ ozu ya ọkụ na Philadelphia.[16] E mere ya onye otu nsọpụrụ nke Delta Sigma Theta sorority. Mahadum Delaware chịkọtara akwụkwọ ya.[1][8]

Akwụkwọ akụkọ ya, nke e bipụtara na 1984, kọwapụtara ndụ ya n'ime afọ 1921 na 1926 ruo 1931 wee nye nghọta bara uru banyere ndụ ụmụ nwanyị ojii n'oge a. Ọ "na-achịkọta ọnọdụ ya na oge nke iwu na omenala na-ejedebe ohere, atụmanya, na ohere maka ụmụ nwanyị ojii." Akwụkwọ akụkọ ya kwuru okwu ndị dị ka ezinụlọ, ọbụbụenyi, mmekọahụ, ahụike, nsogbu ndị ọkachamara, njem, na ọtụtụ mgbe nsogbu ego.. [17]

Ihe gbara ya gburugburu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Alice Dunbar Nelson, tupu 1924

Ọrụ ya "na-ekwu maka nsogbu ndị na-eche ndị Africa America na ụmụ nwanyị nke oge ya ihu".[18] N'akwụkwọ edemede ndị dị ka "Negro Women in War Work" (1919), "Politics in Delaware" (1924), "Hysteria", na "Ọ bụ oge ka etinyere kọleji Negro dị na ndịda n'aka ndị nkuzi Negro?" Dunbar-Nelson nyochara ọrụ ụmụ nwanyị ojii na ndị ọrụ, agụmakwụkwọ, na mmegharị antilynching.[1] Ihe atụ ndị a na-egosi ọrụ mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya na ndụ ya. Ihe odide Dunbar-Nelson gosipụtara nkwenye ya banyere ịha nhata n'etiti agbụrụ na n'etiti ụmụ nwoke na ụmụ nwanyị. O kwenyere na ndị Africa America kwesịrị inwe ohere nhata maka agụmakwụkwọ, ọrụ, nlekọta ahụike, njem na ikike ndị ọzọ iwu nyere.[19] Mgbalị ya na nkwado maka ụfọdụ agbụrụ na ihe gbasara ụmụ nwanyị malitere ịpụta na mbido afọ 1900, ebe ọ kwurịtara n'ihu ọha banyere mmegharị ụmụ nwanyị na steeti ndị dị n'etiti America. N'afọ 1918, ọ bụ onye nnọchi anya kọmitii ụmụ nwanyị nke Council nke nchekwa, naanị afọ ole na ole ka ọ lụsịrị Robert J. Nelson onye bụ onye na-ede uri na onye na-ahụ maka mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya. O nyere aka nke ukwuu na ụfọdụ akwụkwọ akụkọ ndị Afrịka Amerịka dịka Wilmington Onye na-akwado na Dunbar Ọkà Okwu na ihe ntụrụndụ . [20]

N'ịgbaso ọrụ ndu ya na Kọmitii Nwanyị nwanyị, Alice ghọrọ odeakwụkwọ ukwu nke kọmitii udo dị n'etiti agbụrụ ndị enyi America, bụ nke bụ ihe pụtara ìhè n'ime ndụ ya. O mebere nke ọma akwụkwọ akụkọ na-edezi ọrụ ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị / nwanyị na-edezi akwụkwọ akụkọ na edemede ndị lekwasịrị anya n'okwu gbasara mmekọrịta ọha na eze nke ndị pere mpe na ụmụ nwanyị na-agbasi ike na America site na 1920s, ọ na-enwekwa mmetụta kpọmkwem n'ihi uru ọ nwetara ndị na-akwado mba ụwa nke o jiri mee ihe. ikwupụta echiche ya. [21]Ọtụtụ n'ime ederede Dunbar-Nelson bụ maka ahịrị agba - ma ahịrị agba ọcha na ojii. N'ime akwụkwọ akụkọ ihe mere eme, "Brass Ankles Speaks", ọ na-atụle ihe isi ike ndị ọ chere na-etolite n'ọsọ agbụrụ na Louisiana. Ọ na-echeta ikewapụ na mmetụta nke ịbụ onye ma ọ bụ ịbụ onye agbụrụ ọ bụla nabatara ya. O kwuru na mgbe ọ bụ nwata, a na-akpọ ya "half white nigger" na ebe ndị okenye anaghị akpọ aha ha asị, ha anaghịkwa anabata ya. Ma ndị isi ojii na ndị ọcha jụrụ ya maka na ọ "dị oke ọcha." Ndị na-arụkọ ọrụ na-acha ọcha echeghị na ọ bụ agbụrụ zuru oke, ndị ọrụ ojii na-arụkọ ọrụ echeghịkwa na ọ gbara ọchịchịrị nke na ya na ndị nke ya na-arụkọ ọrụ..[18] O dere na ịbụ agbụrụ dị iche iche siri ike n'ihi na 'ndị eze na-agba ọsọ,' 'Brass Ankles' ga-eburu ịkpọasị nke ha na ajọ mbunobi nke agbụrụ ọcha" ("Brass Anks Speaks"). A jụrụ ọtụtụ n'ime ihe odide Dunbar-Nelson n'ihi na o dere banyere akara agba, mmegbu, na isiokwu nke ịkpa ókè agbụrụ. Akwụkwọ ole na ole ga-ebipụta ihe odide ya n'ihi na ha ekwenyeghị na ọ bụ ahịa. Otú ọ dị, o nwere ike bipụta ihe odide ya mgbe isiokwu nke ịkpa ókè agbụrụ na mmegbu dị mgbagwoju anya.[22]

Akụkụ Nchịkọta[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

"M Nọdụ ala na ịkwa akwa" nke Alice Dunbar-Nelson dere bụ abụ stanza atọ e dere na 1918. N'okwu nke mbụ, ọkà okwu na-ekwu maka ọrụ na-adịghị agwụ agwụ nke ịnọdụ ọdụ na ịkwa ákwà dị iche iche n'ime ihe omume na-enyere ndị agha aka n'agha. N'ime nke a, ọkà okwu na-ekwu okwu banyere ụkpụrụ ọha na eze na atụmanya nke ụmụ nwanyị dị ka ndị ohu ụlọ. Ka uri ahụ na-aga n'ihu n'ime stanza abụọ, ọkà okwu na-aga n'ihu na-egosipụta ọchịchọ nke ime ihe karịrị njedebe nke ọha mmadụ site n'ịkwalite ihe oyiyi nke agha na-emegide ọrụ ụlọ, ma ọkà okwu na-edozi nke abụọ stanza na nkwụsị nke mbụ, " M ga-anọdụ ala na ịkwa akwa." Site n'ime nke a, ọkà okwu na-eme ka njide dị n'ezie nke ọrụ ụlọ nke ekwuru na nwanyị na 1900s. N'okwu nke atọ na nke ikpeazụ, ọkà okwu na-eme ka ọchịchọ na mmasị dịkwuo elu site n'ikwu ma ndị dị ndụ ma ndị nwụrụ anwụ na-akpọ maka enyemaka m. Ọkà okwu na-agwụ site n'ịjụ Chineke, "m ga-anọdụ ala na ịkwa akwa?" N'ime nke a, ọkà okwu na-arịọ arịrịọ nke eluigwe ka ọ gbasaa ozi dị n'ime uri ahụ

Ọrụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Violets and Other Tales E debere Wayback Machine, Boston: Monthly Review, 1895. Akụkọ dị mkpirikpi na uri, gụnyere "Titée", "A Carnival Jangle", na "Little Miss Sophie". Digital Schomburg ("Nwanyị" bipụtara na Margaret Busby (ed.), Daughters of Africa, 1992, peeji nke 161-163. )  
  • The Goodness of St. Rocque and Other Stories E debere na July 22, 2017, na Wayback Machine, 1899, gụnyere "Titée" (revised), "Little Miss Sophie", na "A Carnival Jangle".
  • "Wordsworth's Use of Milton's Description of the Building of Pandemonium", 1909, na Modern Language Notes.
  • (Dị ka onye nchịkọta akụkọ) Masterpieces of Negro Eloquence: Okwu Kasị Mma nke Negro nyere site n'oge ịgba ohu ruo n'oge a, 1914.
  • "Ndị na-acha uhie uhie na Louisiana", 1917, na Journal of Negro History.
  • Mine Eyes Have Seen, 1918, otu ihe nkiri, na The Crisis, akwụkwọ akụkọ nke National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).
  • (Dị ka onye nchịkọta akụkọ) The Dunbar Speaker and Entertainer: Nwere Best Prose and Poetic Selections by and About the Negro Race, with Programs Arranged for Special Entertainments, 1920.
  • "The Colored United States", 1924, The Messenger, akwụkwọ akụkọ na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị na NY
  • "From a Woman's Point of View" ("Une Femme Dit"), 1926, kọlụm maka Pittsburgh Courier.
  • "I Sit and I Sew", "Snow in October", na "Sonnet", na Countee Cullen (ed.), Caroling Dusk: An Anthology of Verse by Negro Poets, 1927.
  • "Dị ka ọ dị na enyo anya", 1926-1930, kọlụm maka akwụkwọ akụkọ Washington Eagle.
  • "Ya mere ọ dị ka Alice Dunbar-Nelson", 1930, kọlụm maka Pittsburgh Courier.
  • Abụ dị iche iche e bipụtara na akwụkwọ akụkọ NAACP The Crisis, na Ebony na Topaz: A Collectanea (nke Charles S. Johnson dezigharịrị), [23] na Opportunity, akwụkwọ akụkọ nke Urban League.
  • Nye Anyị Kwa Ụbọchị: Diary nke Alice Dunbar-Nelson, ed. [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji]
  • "Nkwupụta, Citizenship, Alice Dunbar-Nelson". [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] 36, mbipụta. 2, (2019): 241–244.

Edensibia[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Nagel (2014). Race and Culture in New Orleans Stories: Kate Chopin, Grace King, Alice Dunbar-Nelson, and George Washington Cable. University of Alabama Press, 20–. ISBN 978-0-8173-1338-8. Retrieved on April 22, 2018. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Hull (1987). Color, Sex, & Poetry: three women writes of the Harlem Renaissance. Indiana University Press. 
  3. Culp (1902). Twentieth century Negro literature; or, A cyclopedia of thought on the vital topics relating to the American Negro. Atlanta: J. L. Nichols & Co.. 
  4. May, Vanessa H., Unprotected Labor: Household Workers, Politics, and Middle-class Reform in New York, 1870–1940, University of North Carolina Press, pp. 90–91.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Green (2010). "Not Just Paul's Wife: Alice Dunbar's Literature and Activism". The Langston Hughes Review 24: 125–137. ISSN 0737-0555. 
  6. Salam. "How Queer Women Powered the Suffrage Movement", The New York Times, 2020-08-14. Retrieved on 2022-03-22. (in en-US)
  7. Faderman, Lillian, Odd Girls and Twilight Lovers: A History of Lesbian Life in Twentieth-Century America, Penguin Books, 1991, p. 98.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 Guide to the Alice Dunbar-Nelson papers, Special Collections, University of Delaware Library, Newark, Delaware. Retrieved May 17, 2020.
  9. Tylee (January 1, 1997). "Womanist propaganda, African-American Great War experience, and cultural strategies of the Harlem Renaissance: Plays by Alice Dunbar-Nelson and Mary P. Burrill" (in en). Women's Studies International Forum 20 (1): 153–163. DOI:10.1016/S0277-5395(96)00100-8. ISSN 0277-5395. 
  10. Bendix. "Queer Women History Forgot: Alice Dunbar-Nelson", MODERN SPIN MEDIA, LLC., March 22, 2017. Retrieved on April 4, 2018.
  11. "Connecting From Off Campus - UF Libraries" (2). DOI:10.5250/legacy.36.2.0241. Retrieved on November 3, 2020. 
  12. Davis (2008). "Not Only War Is Hell: World War I and African American Lynching Narratives". African American Review 42 (3/4): 477–491. ISSN 1062-4783. 
  13. (December 31, 2013) "African American literature", The Virgil Encyclopedia. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 35–36. DOI:10.1002/9781118351352.wbve0071. ISBN 9781118351352. 
  14. Glenn (2003). "Our Documents: 100 Milestone Documents from American History.". Reference Reviews 17 (4): 57–58. DOI:10.1108/09504120310473777. ISSN 0950-4125. 
  15. 15.0 15.1 Dunbar-Nelson (1984). Give us each day: the diary of Alice Dunbar-Nelson. New York: New York: W.W Norton. 
  16. Alexander, Eleanor. Lyrics of Sunshine and Shadow: The Tragic Courtship and Marriage of Paul Laurence Dunbar and Alice Ruth Moore: a History of Love and Violence Among the African American Elite. New York: New York University Press, 2001, p. 175.
  17. Perry (1986). "Review of Give Us Each Day: The Diary of". Signs 12 (1): 174–176. DOI:10.1086/494309. ISSN 0097-9740. 
  18. 18.0 18.1 "About Alice Dunbar-Nelson", Department of English, College of LAS, University of Illinois, 1988.
  19. Alice Dunbar-Nelson. University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. Archived from the original on July 1, 2017. Retrieved on April 22, 2018.
  20. Maglott (2017). Alice Dunbar-Nelson. The Ubuntu Biography Project. Archived from the original on February 17, 2018.
  21. Johnson (2007). Alice Ruth Moore Dunbar. Black Past.
  22. "Essays by Alice Dunbar-Nelson", Modern American Poetry, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign.
  23. Ebony and topaz : a collectanea. WorldCat. OCLC 1177914. 

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