Injera

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Injera
Alicha 1.jpg
subclass nkeflatbread Dezie
mba/obodoEthiopia Dezie
mba osiEthiopia Dezie
Ihe ejị mee yaEragrostis tef, mmiri Dezie
Injera bụ isi na usoro nri, dị ka achịcha ma ọ bụ osikapa n'ebe ọzọ.[1][2]

Ihe ndị e ji mee ya[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Dị ka omenala si dị, a na-eji naanị ihe abụọ eme injera, bụ ntụ ọka na mmiri. A na-egweri ntụ ọka teff site na ọka nke Eragrostis tef, nke a makwaara dị ka teff, ihe ọkụkụ ọka oge ochie sitere na Highlands nke ndị Etiopia.[3] A na-ejedebe mmepụta teff na ụfọdụ ugwu dị n'etiti na mmiri ozuzo zuru oke, na, ebe ọ bụ ihe ọkụkụ na-amị obere, ọ dị oke ọnụ maka ezinụlọ ndị ọrụ ugbo.[4] Ka ọtụtụ ndị ọrụ ugbo nọ n'ugwu ndị Etiopia na-akụ mkpụrụ nke ha, a na-eji ọka wit, ọka bali, ọka, ma ọ bụ ntụ ọka osikapa eme ihe mgbe ụfọdụ iji dochie ụfọdụ ma ọ bụ ihe niile dị na teff. A na-ahazi mkpụrụ Teff dabere na agba, nke a na-eji eme ụdị injera dị iche iche: nech (acha ọcha), igodo ma ọ bụ quey (acha ọbara ọbara), na sergegna (agwakọta).[4] Mgbe teff adịghị, ọ na-abụkarị n'ihi ọnọdụ ma ọ bụ njedebe ego, a na-eme injera site na ịgba mkpụrụ dị iche iche , gụnyere ọka bali, millet, na sorghum.[5] Otú ọ dị, Teff bụ ọkacha mmasị maka ime injera, karịsịa n'ihi àgwà mmetụta ya (acha, ísì, ụtọ).[4] Mkpụrụ ọka teff enweghị gluten.

Nkwadobe[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A na-awụnye batrị ngwa ngwa na gburugburu site n'èzí gaa n'ime. Debre Markos, Ethiopia

Iji mee injera, a na-agwakọta ntụ ọka teff na mmiri. A na-akpali usoro ịgbaze site na ịgbakwunye ersho, mmiri doro anya, nke na-acha odo odo nke na-agbakọta n'elu ntụ ọka teff na agbaze ma na-anakọta ya site na ịgbaze gara aga. Ersho nwere (aerobic) ụdị Bacillus na ọtụtụ ihe iko achịcha (n'usoro nke ọtụtụ): Candida milleri, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Pichia naganishii na Debaromyces hansenii.[6][4] Mgbe ahụ, a na-ahapụ ngwakọta ahụ ka ọ gbasa maka nkezi ụbọchị abụọ ma ọ bụ atọ, na-enye ya ụtọ dịtụ ilu.

Ime ihe[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ụzọ e si eme achịcha[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Usoro isi nri maka injera agbanwebeghị nke nta kemgbe mmalite ya. Dị ka omenala si dị, a na-agwakọta ntụ ọka na mmiri ma mee ka ọ gbasaa. A na-eme ya site na ịwụsa ngwakọta ahụ n'elu nnukwu griddle gburugburu, nke a maara dị ka mitad.

Injera na-esi nri na griddle.

A na-eme injera ka ọ bụrụ nnukwu, dị larịị na nke dị gburugburu. Mmetụta nke ntụ ọka ahụ na-enye ohere ka a wụsa ya n'elu ebe a na-eme achịcha, kama ịpịpụta ya, nke a na-adịghị ahụ maka ihe iko achịcha ma ọ bụ achịcha siri ike.

N'ihe gbasara ọdịdị, injera na-eji ya tụnyere French crêpe na Indian dosa dị ka achịcha dị larịị nke e siri na gburugburu ma jiri ya mee ihe dị ka isi maka nri ndị ọzọ. N'ihe na-atọ ụtọ na ọdịdị, ọ dị ka appam nke Ndịda India. Ala ala nke injera, nke na-emetụ n'elu okpomọkụ, nwere ọdịdị dị nro, ebe elu ya nwere oghere. Ọdịdị a na-eme ka injera dị mma maka ịnakọta ofe na efere.

Ebe a na-eme achịcha[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A na-eme achịcha na griddle gburugburu - ma ọ bụ nnukwu efere ụrọ ojii n'elu ọkụ ma ọ bụ ekwú eletrik pụrụ iche. A mara griddle dị ka mitad (ምጣድ) (n'asụsụ Amharic) ma ọ bụ mogogo (ሞጎጎ) (n"asụsụ Tigrinya). A chọtawo mitads n'ebe ndị e gwupụtara ihe n'ala site na 600 AD.[5] N'oge ndị a, a naghịzi eji ụrọ eme mitads mgbe niile, ọ pụkwara ịbụ eletrik.

Stovu ụrọ ọdịnala nwere ike ghara ịrụ ọrụ nke ọma n'ihi na ha na-eri nnukwu nkụ ma na-emepụta anwụrụ ọkụ, na-emepụta mmetọ ụlọ ma na-eme ka ha dị ize ndụ iji mee ihe n'ebe ụmụaka nọ.[7] N'afọ 2003, otu ìgwè nyocha Eritrea mepụtara stovu maka isi nri injera na nri ndị ọzọ na-eji mmanụ dị mfe, dị ka alaka kama nnukwu alaka, ihe ọkụkụ fọdụrụ na nsị, nke a na-akpọ kubet.[8] A na-eme ọtụtụ akụkụ nke stovu ọhụrụ a n'obodo ndị dị n'etiti Etiopia na Eritrea, ebe ụmụ nwanyị na-eji ụrọ kpụọ akụkụ ndị ọzọ n'ógbè ndị dị n"ógbè ahụ.[8]

Nwanyị na-enyocha ime achịcha nke injera n'ụlọ ya. Gheralta, Etiopia

Ọtụtụ ụmụ nwanyị nọ n'obodo ukwu, ọkachasị ndị bi na mpụta mba Etiopia na Eritrea, na-eji stovu injera eletrik, nke a na-eji nnukwu efere ígwè kpuchie, ma ọ bụ naanị efere na-adịghị agbakọta.

Ojiji na ojiji nke oge a[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Injera na-egosi ọdịdị spongy

N'Etiopia na Eritrea, a na-etinye ụdị stews, salad (n'oge ibu ọnụ Ọtọdọks nke Etiopia, nke ndị kwere ekwe na-ezere ọtụtụ ngwaahịa anụmanụ), na injera (nke a na-akpọ injera firfir) na injera maka ije ozi. Iji aka mmadụ (nke a na-ejikarị eme ihe, ọ bụ naanị aka nri), a na-adọwa obere injera ma jiri ya jide stews na salad maka iri nri.[9][10] Injera n'okpuru stews ndị a na-etinye mmiri na ụtọ nke nri, mgbe stews na salad apụọla, a na-eri achịcha a. N'ihi ya, Injera bụ n'otu oge nri, iri arịa, na efere. Mgbe "ihe ndina" niile nke injera apụọla, nri agwụla.

Na Ethiopia na Eritrea, a na-eri injera kwa ụbọchị n'ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ ezinụlọ ọ bụla. N'èzí mba Etiopia na Eritrea, enwere ike ịchọta injera na ụlọ ahịa nri na ụlọ oriri na ọṅụṅụ na-ahụ maka nri ndị Etiopia na Eritrean.

 

Injera bụ ihe kachasị mkpa nke nri na Etiopia na Eritrea. Ọ na-abụkarị ma efere na arịa maka nri. A na-etinye ofe dị ka <i id="mwqQ">wat</i> n'elu achịcha ahụ, mgbe ahụ, a na-eri nri ahụ site n'ịdọwa iberibe injera ma na-agbanye stew ahụ.[5][11] Ọ bụ ezie na ojiji a na-eji injera eme ihe n'ụzọ nkịtị dị ka isi na isi nri ọ bụla nke ndị Etiopia na Eritrea agbanwebeghị kemgbe e kere ya, uru ihe atụ ya agbanwela. Enwere ike ịchọta ụdị dị iche iche nke injera n'ugwu na ala dị ala nke Etiopia. N'ala ndị dị ala, a na-ejikarị sorghum eme injera ma n'ugwu, a na'ejikarị ọka bali eme ya.[1] N'ụzọ ọ bụla, n'ihi na e ji ihe ọzọ mee ya karịa teff, uru ihe nnọchianya ya di obere ma e jiri ya tụnyere uru ihe nnọchiteanya nke injera e ji teff mee. E nwere ọdịiche dị iche iche nke uru ihe atụ na ụdị teff. Teff na-acha ọcha dị oke ọnụ ịzụta ma si otú a na-egosi ọnọdụ dị elu karịa ibe ya dị ọnụ ala, teff na- ọbara ọbara.[1]

N'èzí Etiopia na Eritrea[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

E nwere ụdị yiri nke injera na mba ndị ọzọ dị n'Afrịka, ya bụ Sudan na Chad. A mara ụdị a na-eri na South Sudan, Sudan na Chad dị ka kisra.[12]

United States[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Otu akpa nke ntụ ọka teff.

Injera ghọrọ ihe a na-ahụkarị na United States n'oge mmụba nke ndị Etiopia na-akwaga mba ọzọ n'afọ ndị afọ 1980 na 1990, n'ụzọ dị ukwuu n'ihi Iwu Ndị Gbara Ọsọ Ndụ nke e mere na afọ 1980.[13][14] A na-emepụta ntụ ọka teff ugbu a na United Steeti site na Teff Company na Idaho, na-eme ka ndị Etiopia si mba ọzọ nwee ike ịnweta teff.[15]

Hụkwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Ndepụta nri na nri ndị Etiopia
  • Nri Eritrea
  • Kisra
  • Baghrir
  • Lahoh
  • Appam
  • Dosa
  • Nri ndị Sudan
  • Ndepụta nri ndị Afrịka

Ihe odide[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Lyons (September 2003). "Griddles, Ovens, and Agricultural Origins: An Ethnoarchaeological Study of Bread Baking in Highland Ethiopia". American Anthropologist 105 (3): 515–530. DOI:10.1525/aa.2003.105.3.515. 
  2. Mekonnen (29 January 2013). Ethiopia: the Land, Its People, History and Culture. Yohannes Mekonnen. ISBN 978-1-4823-1117-4. 
  3. Jones (2010). "A Taste of Ethiopian Cuisine". Computers & Applied Sciences Complete: 55–56. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Bart (19 July 2018). The economics of teff: Exploring Ethiopia's biggest cash crop (in en). Intl Food Policy Res Inst. ISBN 9780896292833. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Kloman (2010). Mesob Across America: Ethiopian Food in the U.S.A.. New York: IUniverse. 
  6. Ashenafi (1994). "Microbial flora and some chemical properties of ersho, a starter for teff (Eragrostis tef) fermentation". World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology 10 (1): 69–73. DOI:10.1007/BF00357567. PMID 24420890. 
  7. Diehl (4 May 2017). "The Development of an Energy Efficient Electric Mitad for Baking Injeras in Ethiopia", 2017 International Conference on the Domestic Use of Energy (DUE), 75–82. DOI:10.23919/DUE.2017.7931827. ISBN 978-0-9946759-2-7. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 Ashden awards: REC (formerly ERTC), Eritrea – Local construction of efficient stoves. Ashden (2003). Retrieved on 17 October 2017.
  9. Bhandari. "How to Eat: Ethiopian cuisine is hands-on", Toronto Star, 15 March 2017. Retrieved on 29 March 2017.
  10. McManus (2004). Right Hand, Left Hand: The Origins of Asymmetry in Brains, Bodies, Atoms and Cultures. Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674016132. “Other Bantu languages mostly talked about the 'eating hand' and, [...]” 
  11. Sokolov (1993). "The Teff Also Rises". Natural History 102 (3). 
  12. Burdett (2012). Delicatessen Cookbook – Burdett's Delicatessen Recipes: How to make and sell Continental & World Cuisine foods. Springwood emedia. ISBN 9781476144627. 
  13. Yearbook of Immigration Statistics 2008. Department of Homeland Security (4 May 2016). Retrieved on 11 August 2019.
  14. Chacko (2003). "Identity and Assimilation among Young Ethiopian Immigrants in Metropolitan Washington". Geographical Review 93 (4): 491–506. DOI:10.1111/j.1931-0846.2003.tb00044.x. 
  15. Weil. "To Ethiopians in America, Bread is a Taste of Home", The New York Times, 1 August 2007. Retrieved on 8 May 2018.

Ịgụ ihe ọzọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • The Deep Dish on Chicago Ethiopian Companion website to Kloman's book Mesob Across America
  • Nri Injera nke ọdịnala nke Etiopia
  • N'ebe a, Eat This: A Beginner's Guide to Ethiopian Food A Houston Press isiokwu nke na-akọwa ihe niile dị mkpa maka nri ndị Etiopia
  • Crang (1996). "The World on a Plate: Culinary Culture, Displacement and Geographical Knowledges". Journal of Material Culture 1 (2): 131–156. DOI:10.1177/135918359600100201. 
  • nke Solier, Isabelle. Nri na Onwe: Nri, Mmepụta, na Omenala Ihe. Bloomsbury Academic 2013

Njikọ mpụga[dezie | dezie ebe o si]