Rosa Parks

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Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (February 4, 1913 - Ọktoba 24, 2005) bụ onye ndọrọndọrọ ọchịchị America na ngagharị ikike obodo kacha mara amara maka ọrụ dị mkpa ya na boycott bọs Montgomery . Ndị otu United States Congress kwanyere ya ugwu dị ka "Nwanyị mbụ nke ikike obodo" na "Nne nke nnwere onwe".

Na Disemba 1, 1955, na Montgomery, Alabama, Parks jụrụ onye ọkwọ ụgbọ ala James F. Blake ka ọ pụọ n'ahịrị oche anọ na ngalaba " acha agba " maka onye njem na-acha ọcha, ozugbo mpaghara "ọcha" jupụtara. . [1] Parks abụghị onye mbụ guzogidere nkewa ụgbọ ala, mana National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) kwenyere na ọ bụ onye kachasị mma maka ịhụ site na ịma aka ụlọ ikpe mgbe ejidere ya maka nnupụisi obodo na imebi iwu nke Alabama, na o nyere aka kpalie ndị isi ojii ịhapụ ụgbọ ala Montgomery ihe karịrị otu afọ. Okwu a gbadara n'ụlọ ikpe steeti, mana ụlọ ọrụ ụgbọ ala Montgomery gọọmentị etiti Browder v. Gayle rụpụtara mkpebi na Nọvemba 1956 na nkewa ụgbọ ala ezighi ezi n'okpuru Usoro Nchekwa nhata nke ndezigharị 14 na iwu US. [2]

Omume mmegide nke Parks na boycott ụgbọ ala Montgomery ghọrọ akara dị mkpa nke mmegharị ahụ. Ọ ghọrọ akara ngosi mba ụwa nke iguzogide ikewa agbụrụ, wee hazie ma soro ndị ndu obodo rụkọọ ọrụ, gụnyere Edgar Nixon na Martin Luther King Jr. N'oge ahụ, a na-arụrụ Parks ọrụ dị ka onye na-akwa akwa na ụlọ ahịa ngalaba mpaghara wee bụrụ odeakwụkwọ Montgomery. isi nke NAACP. Ọ gara ụlọ akwụkwọ Highlander Folk n'oge na-adịbeghị anya, ebe Tennessee maka ndị na-akwado ọzụzụ maka ikike ndị ọrụ na nha anya agbụrụ. Ọ bụ ezie na a kwanyere ya ùgwù nke ukwuu n'afọ ndị sochirinụ, ọ tara ahụhụ n'ihi omume ya; a chụrụ ya n'ọrụ, ma nata egwu ọnwụ ruo ọtụtụ afọ ka e mesịrị. [3] N'oge na-adịghị anya ka boycott ahụ gasịrị, ọ kwagara Detroit, ebe ọ chọtara ọrụ yiri nkenke obere oge. Site na 1965 ruo 1988, ọ jere ozi dị ka odeakwụkwọ na onye na-anabata John Conyers, onye nnọchiteanya US nke Africa-American. Ọ nọkwa na-arụsi ọrụ ike na mmegharị Black Power na nkwado nke ndị mkpọrọ ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị na US.

Mgbe ezumike nká gasịrị, Parks dere akụkọ ndụ ya wee nọgide na-ekwusi ike na e nwere ọtụtụ ọrụ a ga-arụ na mgba maka ikpe ziri ezi. [4] Ogige ntụrụndụ nwetara nkwado mba, gụnyere NAACP's 1979 Spingarn Medal, Onye Nrite Onye isi ala nke nnwere onwe, ihe nrite ọla edo nke Congressional, na ihe oyiyi posthumous na United States Capitol's National Statuary Hall . Mgbe ọ nwụrụ na 2005, ọ bụ nwanyị mbụ ịgha ụgha na nsọpụrụ na Capitol Rotunda . California na Missouri na-echeta ụbọchị Rosa Parks na ụbọchị ọmụmụ ya, Febụwarị 4, ebe Ohio, Oregon, na Texas na-echeta ncheta ụbọchị ejidere ya, Disemba 1. [5]

Ndụ mbido[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

A mụrụ Rosa Parks Rosa Louise McCauley na Tuskegee, Alabama, na February 4, 1913, nye Leona (née Edwards), onye nkuzi, na James McCauley, onye ọkwá nkà . Na mgbakwunye na agbụrụ ndị Africa, otu n'ime nna nna Parks bụ Scots-Irish na otu n'ime nne ochie ya bụ akụkụ- nwa amaala America ohu. [6] [7] [8] [9] Ọ dị obere mgbe ọ bụ nwata ma nwee ahụ ike na-arịa ọrịa tonsillitis na-adịghị ala ala . Mgbe nne na nna ya kewara, ya na nne ya kwagara Pine Level, dị nnọọ na mpụga isi obodo steeti Montgomery . Ya na nne na nna nne ya, nne ya na nwanne ya nwoke Sylvester tolitere n'ugbo. Ha nile bụ ndị otu Ụka Episcopal Methodist nke Africa (AME), otu ọgbakọ ojii nwere onwe ya nke narị afọ nke ndị ojii nweere onwe ha hiwere na Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, na mmalite narị afọ nke iri na itoolu.

McCauley gara ụlọ akwụkwọ ime obodo [10] ruo mgbe ọ dị afọ iri na otu. Tupu mgbe ahụ, nne ya kụziiri ya "ezigbo ihe gbasara ịkwa akwa". Ọ malitere ịkpụ akwa mkpuchi site n'ihe dị ka afọ isii, ka nne ya na nne nne ya na-eme akwa mkpuchi, ọ na-ejikọta akpa akwa mbụ ya n'onwe ya ihe dị ka afọ iri, bụ nke a na-adịghị ahụkebe, n'ihi na ịkwa akwa bụ ihe omume ezinụlọ na-eme mgbe ọ na-enweghị. ọrụ ubi ma ọ bụ ọrụ a ga-arụ. Ọ mụtara ịkwa akwa n'ụlọ akwụkwọ site na afọ iri na otu; ọ dụchara nke ya "uwe mbụ [ọ] nwere ike iyi". [11] Dịka nwa akwụkwọ na ụlọ akwụkwọ mmepụta ihe maka ụmụ agbọghọ dị na Montgomery, ọ gụrụ akwụkwọ agụmakwụkwọ na ọrụ aka. Parks gara n'ụlọ akwụkwọ nyocha nke Alabama State Teachers College for Negroes hibere maka agụmakwụkwọ sekọndrị, mana ọ kwụsịrị iji lekọta nne nne ya na mgbe e mesịrị nne ya, mgbe ha dara ọrịa. [12]

N'ihe dị ka narị afọ nke 20, mba ndị bụbu Confederate nakweere iwu ọhụrụ na iwu nhoputa ndi ochichi nke na-anapụ ndị ntuli aka ojii n'ụzọ dị irè na, na Alabama, ọtụtụ ndị ọcha na-atụ vootu dara ogbenye. N'okpuru iwu Jim Crow na-acha ọcha, gafere mgbe ndị Democrats nwetaghachiri ikike nke ndị omebe iwu ndịda, a na-amanye nkewa agbụrụ na ụlọ ọrụ ọha na eze na ụlọ ahịa ndị na-ere ahịa na South, gụnyere njem njem ọha. Ụlọ ọrụ ụgbọ ala na ụgbọ oloko manyere iwu oche nwere ngalaba dị iche iche maka ndị ojii na ndị ọcha. Ụgbọ njem ụgbọ ala ụlọ akwụkwọ anaghị adị n'ụdị ọ bụla maka ụmụ akwụkwọ ojii nọ na ndịda, a na-enwetakwa ego agụmakwụkwọ ojii mgbe niile.

Parks chetara ịga ụlọ akwụkwọ elementrị na Pine Level, ebe ụgbọ ala ụlọ akwụkwọ na-ebuga ụmụ akwụkwọ ọcha n'ụlọ akwụkwọ ọhụrụ ha na ụmụ akwụkwọ ojii ga-aga nke ha:

M ga-ahụ ngafe ụgbọ ala kwa ụbọchị. . . Ma nye m, nke ahụ bụ ụzọ ndụ; anyị enweghị ihe ọzọ ma ọ bụghị ịnakwere ihe bụ omenala. Ụgbọ ala ahụ so na ụzọ mbụ m si mata na e nwere ụwa ojii na ụwa ndị ọcha. [13]

Ọ bụ ezie na akụkọ ndụ Parks na-akọ akụkọ mmalite nke obiọma nke ndị ọcha ọbịbịa, ọ pụghị ileghara ịkpa ókè agbụrụ nke obodo ya anya. Mgbe Ku Klux Klan gara n'okporo ámá dị n'ihu ụlọ ha, Parks na-echeta nna nna ya ka o ji egbe na-eche ọnụ ụzọ ihu. [14] Ụlọ akwụkwọ ụlọ ọrụ Montgomery, nke ndị ọcha ugwu hiwere ma na-arụ ọrụ maka ụmụaka ojii, bụ ndị ọkụ ọkụ gbara ọkụ ugboro abụọ. Ndị ọcha kpagburu ngalaba ya.

N'ịbụ ndị ụmụaka ndị ọcha na-amaja ugboro ugboro na mpaghara ya, Parks na-alụkarị ọgụ n'anụ ahụ. O mechara kwuo, sị: "Laa azụ dị ka m chetara, enweghị m ike iche echiche banyere ịnakwere mmeso anụ ahụ na-enweghị ụdị mmegwara ma ọ bụrụ na ọ ga-ekwe omume." [15] : 208 

In 1932, Rosa married Raymond Parks, a barber from Montgomery.[15]Àtụ:Rp[16] He was a member of the NAACP,[16] which at the time was collecting money to support the defense of the Scottsboro Boys, a group of black men falsely accused of raping two white women.[17]Àtụ:Rp Rosa took numerous jobs, ranging from domestic worker to hospital aide. At her husband's urging, she finished her high school studies in 1933, at a time when fewer than 7% of African Americans had a high-school diploma.

Na Disemba 1943, Parks ghọrọ onye na-arụsi ọrụ ike na mmegharị ikike obodo, sonye na isi Montgomery nke NAACP, a họpụtara ya ịbụ odeakwụkwọ n'oge a na-ewere nke a dị ka ọrụ nwanyị. O mechara kwuo, sị, "Ọ bụ naanị m bụ nwaanyị nọ ebe ahụ, ha chọkwara odeakwụkwọ, ma m na-atụ ụjọ ịsị mba." [18] Ọ gara n'ihu dị ka odeakwụkwọ ruo 1957. Ọ na-arụ ọrụ maka onye isi NAACP mpaghara Edgar Nixon, ọ bụ ezie na ọ nọgidere na-ekwu na "Ụmụ nwanyị adịghị mkpa ịnọ ebe ọ bụla ma na kichin." [19] Mgbe Parks jụrụ, "Ọfọn, gịnị banyere m?", ọ zara, sị: "Achọrọ m odeakwụkwọ na ị bụ ezigbo onye." [19]

Na 1944, n'ọrụ ya dị ka odeakwụkwọ, ọ nyochara n'ike-ndina nke Recy Taylor, nwanyị ojii si Abbeville, Alabama . Parks na ndị ọzọ na-akwado ikike obodo haziri " Kọmitii maka ikpe ziri ezi maka Mrs. Recy Taylor", na-ebupụta ihe Chicago Defender kpọrọ "mgbasa ozi kachasị ike maka ikpe ziri ezi ka a ga-ahụ n'ime afọ iri." [20] Parks gara n'ihu n'ọrụ ya dị ka onye na-akwado mgbochi mmeko nwoke na nwanyị afọ ise ka e mesịrị mgbe o nyere aka hazie ngagharị iwe iji kwado Gertrude Perkins, nwanyị ojii nke ndị uwe ojii Montgomery ọcha abụọ dinara n'ike. [21]

Ọ bụ ezie na ọ bụghị onye òtù Kọmunist, ọ na-eso di ya na-aga nzukọ. Ndị Kọmunist mere ka ikpe Scottsboro a ma ama pụta ìhè. [22]

N'afọ ndị 1940, Parks na di ya bụ ndị òtù League of Women Voters . N'oge na-adịghị anya mgbe 1944 gasịrị, ọ na-arụ ọrụ dị nkenke na Maxwell Air Force Base, nke, n'agbanyeghị ebe ọ dị na Montgomery, Alabama, ekweghị ka agbụrụ agbụrụ n'ihi na ọ bụ ihe onwunwe gọọmenti etiti . Ọ gbagoro n'ụgbọ mmiri agwakọta ya. Mgbe ọ na-agwa onye na-ede akụkọ ndụ ya okwu, Parks kwuru, "Ị nwere ike ịsị Maxwell meghere anya m." Parks rụrụ ọrụ dị ka onye na-elekọta ụlọ na onye na-akwa akwa maka Clifford na Virginia Durr, di na nwunye ọcha. Na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị, ndị Durrs ghọrọ ndị enyi ya. Ha gbara ume-ma mechaa nyere aka nkwado-Parks in the summer of 1955 ịga Highlander Folk School, ebe agụmakwụkwọ maka ịgba ume na ikike ndị ọrụ na nha anya agbụrụ na Monteagle, Tennessee . N'ebe ahụ Parks ka onye nhazi vetiran soja bụ Septima Clark . [15] N'afọ 1945, n'agbanyeghị iwu Jim Crow na ịkpa ókè nke ndị na-edeba aha na-eme, o nwere ihe ịga nke ọma n'ịdebanye aha na votu na mgbalị nke atọ ya. [17] : 690 

N'August 1955, Emmett Till dị afọ iri na ụma egburu onye isi ojii n'ụzọ obi ọjọọ mgbe a kọrọ na ya na otu nwa agbọghọ bụ onye ọcha na-akpa mgbe ọ na-eleta ndị ikwu na Mississippi . [23] Na Nọvemba 27, 1955, ụbọchị anọ tupu ya emee ka ọ guzoro na bọs, Rosa Parks gara otu nnukwu nzukọ na Dexter Avenue Baptist Church na Montgomery nke kwuru okwu a, yana igbu ọchụ nke ndị na-akwado George W. Lee na nso nso a. Lamar Smith . Ọkà okwu egosipụtara bụ TRM Howard, onye ndu ndị isi ojii sitere na Mississippi bụ onye isi mpaghara Council of Negro Leadership . [24] Howard wetara akụkọ gbasara ntọhapụ na nso nso a nke ndị nwoke abụọ ahụ gburu Till. Parks nwere nnukwu mwute na iwe na akụkọ ahụ, karịsịa n'ihi na ikpe Till dọtara uche karịa nke ọ bụla n'ime ikpe ya na Montgomery NAACP rụrụ ọrụ na-ma ma, ndị ikom abụọ ahụ ka na-eje ije n'efu. [25]

Njide ogige na mgbochi ụgbọ ala[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Nhazi oche na ụgbọ ala ebe Parks nọdụrụ, Disemba 1, 1955

Ụgbọ ala Montgomery: iwu na omenala ndị na-emeri emeri[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Na 1900, Montgomery agafeela iwu obodo iji kewaa ndị njem ụgbọ ala site n'agbụrụ. Enyere ndị nduzi ikike ikenye oche iji nweta ebumnobi ahụ. Dị ka iwu si kwuo, ọ dịghị onye njem a ga-achọ ịkwaga ma ọ bụ hapụ oche ya guzoro ma ọ bụrụ na ụgbọ ala jupụtara na ya na enweghị oche ọzọ. Otú ọ dị, ka oge na-aga na site n'ọdịnala, ndị ọkwọ ụgbọ ala Montgomery nakweere omume nke ịchọ ndị na-agba ojii ka ha kwagharịa mgbe enweghị oche ọ bụla fọdụrụ. [26]

Ahịrị anọ mbụ nke oche na ụgbọ ala Montgomery ọ bụla ka edobere maka ndị ọcha. Ụgbọ ala nwere ngalaba "agba" maka ndị isi ojii n'ozuzu n'azụ ụgbọ ala ahụ, n'agbanyeghị na ndị ojii nwere ihe karịrị 75% nke ndị na-agba. Edozighị akụkụ ndị a mana ekpebie ya site na ntinye akara mbugharị. Ndị ojii nwere ike ịnọdụ ala n'ahịrị etiti ruo mgbe akụkụ ọcha jupụtara; ọ bụrụ na ndị ọcha chọkwuru oche, ndị ojii ga-akwaga n'oche n'azụ, guzoro, ma ọ bụ, ọ bụrụ na enweghị ọnụ ụlọ, pụọ na bọs. Ndị isi ojii enweghị ike ịnọdụ ala n'ofe wara wara otu ahịrị ndị ọcha. Onye ọkwọ ụgbọ ala nwere ike ibugharị akara ngalaba "acha anụnụ anụnụ", ma ọ bụ wepụ ya kpamkpam. Ọ bụrụ na ndị ọcha na-anọdụ ala n'ihu, ndị isi ojii ga-abanye n'ihu iji kwụọ ụgwọ ụgbọ mmiri, wee si n'ụgbọ mmiri pụta ma si n'azụ ụzọ banyeghachi.

Ruo ọtụtụ afọ, ndị isi ojii na-eme mkpesa na ọnọdụ ahụ ezighị ezi. Parks kwuru, "Iguzogide mmeso ọjọọ m na bọs esiteghị na njide ahụ malitere. Emere m ọtụtụ njem na Montgomery." [10]

Otu ụbọchị na 1943, Parks banyere ụgbọ ala ma kwụọ ụgwọ ụgbọ. Ọ kwagara n'oche, mana onye ọkwọ ụgbọ ala James F. Blake gwara ya ka ọ gbasoo iwu obodo wee si n'ọnụ ụzọ azụ banye ụgbọ ala ọzọ. Mgbe Parks siri n'ụgbọala ahụ, Blake gawara na-enweghị ya. [27] Ogige ntụrụndụ chere ụgbọ ala na-esote, kpebisiri ike na ha agaghị eso Blake gakwara ọzọ. [28]

Ọjụjụ ịkwaga[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Mgbe ọ rụsịrị ọrụ ụbọchị niile, Parks banyere ụgbọ ala Cleveland Avenue, ụgbọ ala General Motors Old Look nke Montgomery City Lines, gburugburu 6 pm, Tọzdee, Disemba 1, 1955, na ogbe ndịda Montgomery. Ọ kwụrụ ụgwọ ụgbọ ya wee nọdụ n'oche efu na ahịrị mbụ nke oche azụ echere maka ndị ojii na ngalaba "acha agba". N'akụkụ etiti ụgbọ ala ahụ, ahịrị ya nọ kpọmkwem n'azụ oche iri e debere maka ndị ọcha. Ná mmalite, ọ chọpụtaghị na onye na-anya bọs bụ otu nwoke aha ya bụ James F. Blake, bụ́ onye hapụrụ ya n’oge mmiri ozuzo na 1943. Ka ụgbọ ala ahụ na-aga n'ụzọ ọ na-agakarị, oche niile na-acha ọcha naanị na bọs ahụ jupụtara. Ụgbọ ala ahụ rutere nkwụsị nke atọ n'ihu Ụlọ ihe nkiri Empire, na ọtụtụ ndị njem ọcha banyere. Blake kwuru na ndị njem abụọ ma ọ bụ atọ bụ ndị ọcha guzoro n'ihu ụgbọ ala ahụ jupụtara n'ike. Ọ kwagara akara ngalaba "acha anụnụ anụnụ" n'azụ Parks ma rịọ ka ndị ojii anọ hapụ oche ha n'etiti etiti ka ndị njem ọcha nwee ike ịnọdụ ala. Ọtụtụ afọ ka e mesịrị, n'icheta ihe ndị mere n'ụbọchị ahụ, Parks kwuru, sị, "Mgbe onye ọkwọ ụgbọ ala ọcha ahụ laghachiri n'ebe anyị nọ, mgbe o fepụrụ aka ya ma nye anyị iwu ka anyị gbagote ma si n'oche anyị pụta, enwere m mmetụta nke mkpebi siri ike kpuchie ahụ m dị ka ihe mkpuchi mkpuchi. abalị oyi." [29]

Site na akaụntụ Parks, Blake kwuru, "Ọ ga-aka mma mee ka ọ dịkwuo ọkụ n'onwe gị ma hapụ m ka m nweta oche ndị ahụ." Atọ n'ime ha kwetara. Parks kwuru, "Onye ọkwọ ụgbọ ala chọrọ ka anyị bilie, anyị anọ. Anyị agagharịghị ná mmalite, ma ọ sịrị, 'Ka m nweta oche ndị a.' Ma mmadụ atọ ndị ọzọ kwagara, ma emeghị m ya.” [30] Nwoke ojii nọ ọdụ n'akụkụ ya hapụrụ oche ya. [31]

Ogige ntụrụndụ kwagara, mana n'akụkụ oche windo; o bilieghị ịkwaga na ngalaba agba agbagharịrị edegharị. [31] Parks mechara kwuo banyere a gwara m ka ọ kwaga n'azụ ụgbọ ala ahụ, "Echere m Emmett Till - onye Amerịka dị afọ 14 nke egburu na Mississippi na 1955, mgbe e boro ya ebubo na ọ kpasuru otu nwanyị ọcha na ụlọ nri ezinụlọ ya. ụlọ ahịa, onye a nwara ma tọhapụ ndị gburu ya - na enweghị m ike ịlaghachi." [32] Blake kwuru, "Gịnị kpatara na ị naghị ebili?" Parks zara, "Echeghị m na m ga-ebili ọtọ." Blake kpọrọ ndị uwe ojii ka ha jide Parks. Mgbe ọ na-echeta ihe merenụ maka Anya na Nrite, usoro telivishọn ọha na eze na 1987 na Civil Rights Movement, Parks kwuru, sị, "Mgbe ọ hụrụ ka m nọ ọdụ, ọ jụrụ ma m ga-ebili ọtọ, m wee sị, 'Ee e, m 'M bụghị.' O wee sị, 'Ọfọn, ọ bụrụ na i guzoghị ọtọ, a ga m akpọ ndị uwe ojii ma jide gị.' M sịrị, 'Ị nwere ike ime nke ahụ.'" [33]

N'ime mkparịta ụka redio 1956 na Sydney Rogers na West Oakland ọtụtụ ọnwa ka e jidere ya, Parks kwuru na ya ekpebiela, "M ga-amarịrị otu oge na ihe niile ikike m nwere dị ka mmadụ na nwa amaala." [34]

Na akụkọ ndụ ya, My Story, o kwuru:

Mgbe Parks jụrụ inyefe oche ya, onye uwe ojii jidere ya. Ka onye uwe ojii na-akpọpụ ya, ọ chetara na ọ jụrụ, sị, "Gịnị mere i ji na-akwagharị anyị?" O chetara na ọ sịrị, "Amaghị m, mana iwu bụ iwu, ma a na-ejide gị." [35] O mechara kwuo, sị, “Ọ bụ naanị na m maara na, ka a na-ejide m, na ọ bụ oge ikpeazụ m ga-eji ụdị ihere a ga-eji gbaa ịnyịnya ígwè. . . . " [30]

Eboro Parks ebubo imebi nke isi nke 6, ngalaba 11 iwu nkewa nke koodu Montgomery City, [36] n'agbanyeghị na teknụzụ ọ wereghị oche naanị ọcha; ọ nọbu na ngalaba nwere agba. [37] Edgar Nixon, onyeisi oche nke Montgomery isi nke NAACP na onye ndu nke Pullman Porters Union, na enyi ya Clifford Durr gbapụta Parks n'ụlọ nga na mgbede ahụ. [38] [39]

Ogige ntụrụndụ esiteghị n'echiche nke iji ọdụ ụgbọ ala mee ngagharị iwe. Ndị bu ya ụzọ gụnyere Bayard Rustin na 1942, [40] Irene Morgan na 1946, Lillie Mae Bradford na 1951, [41] Sarah Louise Keys na 1952, yana ndị otu Browder v. Gayle 1956 ikpe ( Claudette Colvin, Aurelia Browder, Susie McDonald, na Mary Louise Smith ) bụ ndị e jidere na Montgomery maka ịghara ịhapụ oche ụgbọ ala ha ọnwa ole na ole tupu Parks.

Ụgbọ ala Montgomery kwụsịrị[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Parks nyere aka dị mkpa na mkpọsa mbụ maka Congress site n'aka John Conyers . O mere ka Martin Luther King (bụ onye na-adịghị achọkarị ịkwado ndị na-aga ime obodo) ka ha na Conyers pụta, si otú ahụ na-akwalite profaịlụ nke onye novice. [42] Mgbe a họpụtara Conyers, ọ goro ya ka ọ bụrụ odeakwụkwọ na onye na-anabata ndị ọrụ ọgbakọ ọgbakọ ya na Detroit. Ọ nọrọ n'ọkwa a ruo mgbe ọ lara ezumike nká na 1988. [10] N'ajụjụ ọnụ ekwentị ya na CNN na October 24, 2005, Conyers chetara, "Ị mesoro ya nkwanye ùgwù n'ihi na ọ dị jụụ, dị jụụ - naanị onye pụrụ iche. . . . Enwere naanị otu ogige Rosa." [43] N'ịrụ ọtụtụ ọrụ kwa ụbọchị maka Conyers, Parks na-elekwasịkarị anya n'okwu metụtara mmekọrịta ọha na eze gụnyere ọdịmma, agụmakwụkwọ, ịkpa oke ọrụ, na ụlọ dị ọnụ ala. Ọ gara ụlọ akwụkwọ, ụlọ ọgwụ, ụlọ ọrụ ndị agadi, na nzukọ obodo ndị ọzọ wee mee ka Conyers guzosie ike na nchegbu obodo na mmemme. [42]

Dị ka ọtụtụ ndị isi ojii Detroit, Parks nọgidere na-enwe nchegbu karịsịa maka okwu ụlọ. Ya onwe ya bi na agbataobi, Virginia Park, nke iwu okporo ụzọ na mmeghari ohuru nke obodo mebiri emebi. Ka ọ na-erule 1962, atumatu ndị a ebibila ụlọ 10,000 na Detroit, na-achụpụ mmadụ 43,096, pasent 70 n'ime ha bụ African-American. Ogige ntụrụndụ bi nanị kilomita site n'etiti ọgba aghara ahụ weere ọnọdụ na Detroit na 1967, o weere ịkpa ókè ụlọ anya dị ka isi ihe kpalitere ọgba aghara ahụ. [42]

N'ikpeazụ, Parks jikọrọ aka na ndị otu Njikọ nke Ndị Ọrụ Black Revolutionary na Republic of New Afrika n'ịkwalite mmata maka mmegbu ndị uwe ojii n'oge esemokwu ahụ. Ọ jere ozi na "ụlọikpe ndị mmadụ" n'August 30, 1967, na-enyocha ogbugbu nke ndị uwe ojii gburu ụmụ okorobịa atọ n'oge ọgba aghara Detroit 1967, na ihe a bịara mara dị ka ihe omume Algiers Motel . [44] O nyekwara aka guzobe kansụl district nke Virginia Park iji nyere aka wughachi mpaghara ahụ. Kansụl ahụ mere ka owuwu nke naanị otu ụlọ ahịa ndị ojii nwere na mba ahụ. [42] Parks so na ngagharị ike ojii, na-aga ogbako Black Power Philadelphia na Mgbakọ Ọchịchị ojii na Gary, Indiana. Ọ kwadokwara wee gaa ụlọ akwụkwọ Black Panther dị na Oakland. [45] [46] [47]

Ntụaka[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

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