Hibiscus

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Hibiscus
Orange hibiscus,lateral view.jpg
Scientific classification
KingdomPlantae
OrderMalvales (en) Malvales
FamilyMalvaceae (en) Malvaceae
SubfamilyMalvoideae (en) Malvoideae
genus (en) Tugharia Hibiscus
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Hibiscus
Hibiscus flower TZ.jpg
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Malvales
Family: Malvaceae
Subfamily: Malvoideae
Tribe: Hibisceae
Genus: Hibiscus



L.
Type species
Hibiscus syriacus



L.
Species

See list of Hibiscus species

Synonyms[1]
  • Bombycidendron Zoll. & Moritzi
  • Bombycodendron Hassk.
  • Brockmania W.Fitzg.
  • Pariti Adans.
  • Wilhelminia Hochr.

Hibiscus[2][3] bụ ụdị osisi na-agbasa okooko n'ezinụlọ mallow, Malvaceae. Ụdị ahụ buru ibu, na-agụnye ọtụtụ narị ụdị ndị na-etoputa na mpaghara okpomọkụ, mpaghara okpomanya na mpaghara okirikiri n'ụwa niile. A maara ụdị ndị otu ahụ maka nnukwu okooko osisi ha na-egbuke egbuke ma a na-akpọkarị ụdị ndị ahụ "hibiscus", ma ọ bụ nke a na-amaghị nke ọma dị ka rose mallow. Aha ndị ọzọ e ji mara ya gụnyere hibiscus siri ike, rose nke sharon, na hibiscus nke okpomọkụ.

Ụdị ahụ gụnyere ma osisi na-eto eto na nke na-eto n'afọ, yana obere osisi nwere ụdị dị iche iche. Aha a sitere na aha Grik ἰβίσκος (ibískos) nke Pedanius Dioscorides nyere Althaea officinalis (c. 40 - 90 AD).[4][5]

A na-akụ ọtụtụ ụdị dị iche iche dị ka osisi ịchọ mma, ọkachasị Hibiscus syriacus na Hibiscus rosa-sinensis.[6]

A maara tii e ji okooko osisi hibiscus mee n'ọtụtụ aha gburugburu ụwa ma na-aṅu ya ma mgbe ọ dị ọkụ ma mgbe ọ na-ajụ oyi. A maara ihe ọṅụṅụ ahụ maka ụcha ọbara ọbara ya, ụtọ ọ na-atọ, na vitamin C.

Nkọwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Akwụkwọ ya na-agbanwe agbanwe, ovate na lanceolate, na-enwekarị ezé ma ọ bụ lobed margin (dentate). Okooko osisi ndị ahụ buru ibu, ọ pụtara ìhè, dị ka opi, o nwere mbara fulawa ise ma ọ bụ karịa, o nwere agba sitere na ọcha ruo ọbara ọbara, acha anụnụ anụnụ, piich, edo edo ma ọ bụ purple. O na-enwe sentimita anọ wee ruo sentimita iri na asatọ n'obosara.[7][8]

Ifuru osisi

Agba okooko osisi n'ụdị ụfọdụ, dị ka H. mutabilis na H. tiliaceus, na-agbanwe na afọ.[9] Mkpụrụ osisi ahụ bụ capsule kpọrọ nkụ nke nwere lobes ise, nke nwere ọtụtụ mkpụrụ na lobes ọ bụla, nke a na-ahapụ mgbe capsule dehisces (na-emeghe) mgbe ọ tozuru. Ọ na-acha uhie uhie na ọcha. Ọ bụ ihe atụ nke okooko osisi zuru oke.

Usoro ndụ nke okooko osisi
Oge okooko osisi Hibiscus na-ama abuba

Ụdị dị iche iche[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Mkpụrụ osisi
Ifuru
Hibiscus na-acha edo edo bụ okooko osisi steeti nke Hawaii, ọ bụ ezie na hibiscus a na-ahụkarị na steeti ahụ bụ Hibiscus rosa-sinensis.

N'ógbè ndị dị jụụ, ma eleghị anya ụdị ihe ịchọ mma a na-ahụkarị bụ Hibiscus syriacus, hibiscus ndị a na-ahụkarị n'ụbị, nke a makwaara n'ebe ụfọdụ dị ka "rose nke Althea" ma ọ bụ "rose nke Sharon" (ma a gaghị ejikọta ya na Hypericum calycinum na-enweghị njikọ, nke a na-akpọkwa "rose nke Sharon"). N'ebe okpomọkụ na mpaghara okpomọkụ, hibiscus nke China (H. rosa-sinensis), ya na ọtụtụ ngwakọta ya, bụ hibiscus kachasị ewu ewu.

A maara ọtụtụ narị ụdị, nke gụnyere:

A na-etinye ya n'oge gara aga na ụdị[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ojiji[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Hibiscus arnottianus na-acha ọcha na Hawaii
(Giant) Hibiscus rosa-sinensis 'Madonna' nke okpomọkụ
Hibiscus hirtus
Hibiscus lobatus
Hibiscus hispidissimus

Ịma Mma Ala[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A na-akụ ọtụtụ ụdị maka okooko osisi ha mara mma ma ọ bụ jiri ya mee ihe dị ka obere osisi, a na-ejikwa ya adọta urukurubụba, aṅụ, na hummingbirds.[23]

Hibiscus bụ osisi siri ike, nke na-arụ ọrụ dị iche iche ma n'ọnọdụ okpomọkụ ọ nwere ike iweputa ima mma nke ogige ọ bụla. N'ịbụ ihe na-arụ ọrụ dị iche iche, ọ na-eme ka onwe ya ọ bụrụ ihe e nwere ike izụlite ogige mbara ụlọ n'ime obodo ndị jupụtara na ya ma nwee ike ịzụlite ya n'ụzọ dị mfe n'ime ite dị ka onye na-agba ọsọ ma ọ bụ ọbụna n'ime arịa kwụ ọtọ. Ọ bụ osisi na-adịgide adịgide ma na-agbasa okooko osisi n'afọ niile. Dị ka ọ na-abịa n'ụdị dịgasị iche iche, ọ bụ osisi nke nwere ike ịgbakwunye ume na ubi ọ bụla.

Nanị ọrịa nke ndị na-elekọta ubi kwesịrị ịkpachara anya bụ ihe a kpọrọ mealybugs. Ọ dị mfe ịhụ ọrịa Mealybug n'ihi na a na-ahụ ha n'ụzọ doro anya dị ka ọrịa cottony na-acha ọcha na buds, akwụkwọ ma ọ bụ ọbụna ogwe osisi. Iji chebe osisi ahụ, ị ga-ewepụ akụkụ ahụ butere ọrịa, jiri mmiri fesa ya, ma tinye ọgwụ ahụhụ kwesịrị ekwesị.

Akwụkwọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Otu ụdị Hibiscus, nke a maara dị ka kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus), a na-eji ya eme akwụkwọ.[Tinye edensibịa]

Ụdọ na owuwu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A na-eji mkpo dị n'ime nke hibiscus oké osimiri (Hibiscus tiliaceus), nke a na-akpọkwa 'hau', eme na Polynesia maka ime eriri, na osisi maka ime ụgbọ mmiri na-ese n'elu mmiri.[Tinye edensibịa] A na-eme eriri dị n'ụgbọ mmiri ozi ala ọzọ Messenger of Peace site na eriri sitere na osisi hibiscus.[24]

Ihe ọṅụṅụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

E ji ọtụtụ aha mara tii e ji calyces nke Hibiscus sabdariffa mee n'ọtụtụ mba gburugburu ụwa ma na-aṅụ ya mgbe ọ dị ọkụ ma ọ bụ mgbe ọ na-ajụ oyi. A maara ihe ọṅụṅụ ahụ nke ọma maka ụcha ọbara ọbara ya, ilu na ụtọ pụrụ iche. Tụkwasị na nke a, ọ na-edozi ahụ nke ukwuu n'ihi vitamin C ya.

A maara ya dị ka bissap na West Africa, "Gul e Khatmi" na Urdu & Persian, agua de jamaica na Mexico na Central America (okooko osisi bụ flor de jamaica) na Orhul na India. Ụfọdụ na-ezo aka na ya dị ka roselle, aha a na-ahụkarị maka okooko osisi hibiscus. Na Jamaica, Trinidad na ọtụtụ agwaetiti ndị ọzọ dị na Caribbean, a maara ihe ọṅụṅụ ahụ dị ka sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa; ka a ghara ịgbagwoju ya anya na Rumex acetosa, ụdị na-ekerịta aha a na-akpọ sorrel). Na Ghana, a maara ihe ọṅụṅụ ahụ dị ka soobolo n'otu n'ime asụsụ obodo.

Na Cambodia, enwere ike ịkwadebe ihe ọṅụṅụ oyi site na itinye petals na mmiri ọkụ ruo mgbe a na-esi na petals gbapụta agba, wee tinye mmiri lime (nke na-agbanwe ihe ọṅụṅụ ahụ site na nchara ma ọ bụ ọbara ọbara gaa na ọbara ọbara), ihe na-atọ ụtọ (shụga/mmanụ aṅụ) na n'ikpeazụ mmiri oyi/kpụrụkpụrụ mmiri.

N'Ijipt na Sudan, a maara tii hibiscus dị ka karkadé (كركیه), a na-aṅụ ya dị ka ihe ọṅụṅụ na-ekpo ọkụ na nke oyi.

Hibiscus (nke a makwaara na Sri Lanka dị ka okooko osisi akpụkpọ ụkwụ, සපත්තු මල, වද මල n'asụsụ Sinhalese) bụ ihe nwere ihe nketa bara ọgaranya nke ndị Lankans na-enye ume ọhụrụ. Mkpụrụ osisi ọhụrụ, ice tii na syrups e ji okooko osisi Hibiscus mee bụ ihe oriri a ma ama n'etiti ndị Sri Lanka.

Nri[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A na-eri hibiscus a mịrị amị, ọ na-abụkarịkwa nri dị ụtọ na Mexico. A pụkwara ime ya ka ọ bụrụ ihe na-atọ ụtọ ma jiri ya mee ihe dị ka ihe ịchọ mma, ọ na-abụkarị maka nri ndị e ji esi nri.[25]

A na-eji roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) eme ihe dị ka akwụkwọ nri. A na-ahụ ụdị Hibiscus suratensis Linn nke ya na Hibiscus aculeatus G. Don na Visayas na Philippines dị ka ihe na-esi ísì ụtọ maka ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ akwụkwọ nri na menus niile dị n'ógbè ahụ. A maara dị ka labog na mpaghara Visayan (ma ọ bụ labuag / sapinit na Tagalog), ụdị ahụ bụ ihe eji esi nri ofe ọkụkọ.

A na-eji ụdị Hibiscus dị ka osisi nri site na igurube nke ụfọdụ ụdị lepidopteran, gụnyere Chionodes hibiscella, Hypercompe hambletoni, nutmeg moth, na turnip moth.

Ọgwụ ọdịnala[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A na-akọwa Hibiscus rosa-sinensis dị ka nke nwere ọtụtụ ọgwụ na Ayurveda India.[26]

Mmetụta a na-ekwu na ọ na-emetụta ọbara mgbali elu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A na-azọrọ na tii na-esi ísì ụtọ sitere na Hibiscus sabdariffa nwere ike belata ọbara mgbali elu.[27][28]

Nlezianya na ihe mgbochi[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ime na inye nwa ara[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ọ bụ ezie na a ghọtachaghị usoro ahụ nke ọma, ọmụmụ anụmanụ gara aga egosila ma mmetụta mgbochi nke H. sabdariffa na ụda uru ahụ na mmetụta mgbochi ọmụmụ nke Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, n'otu n'otu.[8][29] E gosipụtara na ihe a na-ewepụta na H. sabdariffa na-akpali mkpụmkpụ nke ụfụfụ na akpa nwa; ihe a na'ewepụta na-egosi mmetụta mgbochi afọ ime n'ụdị ọrụ estrogen na òké.[8][29] A hụbeghị nchọpụta ndị a n'ime ụmụ mmadụ. A na-eche na Hibiscus rosa-sinensis nwere mmetụta emmenagogue nke nwere ike ịkpali ịhụ nsọ na, n'ime ụmụ nwanyị ụfọdụ, na-akpata ite ime.[30][31][32] N'ihi mmetụta ọjọọ edere na ọmụmụ anụmanụ na ihe ndị a kọrọ na ha nwere ọgwụ, anaghị atụ aro H. sabdariffa na H. rosa-sinensis maka iji ya mee ihe n'oge ime ime.[32]

Mmekọrịta ọgwụ ọjọọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A na-ekwu na H. sabdariffa na diclofenac, chloroquine na acetaminophen na-emekọrịta ihe site n'ịgbanwe pharmacokinetics. N'ime ndị ọrụ afọ ofufo nwere ahụike, a chọpụtara na ihe H. sabdariffa na-ewepụta na-ebelata nsị nke diclofenac mgbe a na-enye ya.[33] Tụkwasị na nke a, a chọpụtara na nchịkwa nke Karkade (H. sabdariffa), ihe ọṅụṅụ Sudanese a na-ahụkarị, na-ebelata chloroquine bioavailability.[34] Otú ọ dị, ọ dịghị mgbanwe dị ịrịba ama a hụrụ na pharmacokinetics nke acetaminophen mgbe a na-enye ya na ihe ọṅụṅụ Zobo (H. sabdariffa).[35] A chọrọ nyocha ndị ọzọ iji gosipụta mkpa ahụike dị.

Ihe nnọchianya na omenala[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Hibiscus na-acha ọbara ọbara bụ okooko osisi nke chi nwanyị Hindu Kali, ọ na-apụta ugboro ugboro n'ihe ngosi ya na nka nke Bengal, India, mgbe mgbe na chi nwanyị na okooko osisi na-agwakọta n'ụdị. A na-eji hibiscus eme ihe dị ka onyinye nye Kali na chi Ganesha na ofufe Hindu.[36][37]

Na Philippines, ụmụaka na-eji gumamela (aha obodo maka hibiscus) eme ihe dị ka akụkụ nke ihe ntụrụndụ na-eme ka efere. A na-egbutu okooko osisi na akwụkwọ ruo mgbe mmiri na-arapara n'ahụ pụtara. A na-etinyezi ogwe papaya dị n'ime nke a ma jiri ya mee ihe dị ka ahịhịa maka ịfụ ụfụfụ. Tinyere ncha, mmiri hibiscus na-emepụta ọtụtụ efere. A na-akpọkwa ya "Tarukanga" na Waray, ọkachasị na mpaghara Eastern Samar.

Ụmụ agbọghọ Tahiti na Hawaiian na-eyi okooko osisi hibiscus. Ọ bụrụ na a na-eyi okooko osisi ahụ n'azụ ntị aka ekpe, nwanyị ahụ lụrụ di ma ọ bụ nwee enyi nwoke. Ọ bụrụ na a na-eyi okooko osisi ahụ n'aka nri, ọ bụ naanị ya ma ọ bụ n'ihu ọha maka mmekọrịta.[Tinye edensibịa] Hibiscus na-acha odo odo bụ okooko osisi steeti Hawaii.

Onye edemede Naijiria bụ Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie kpọrọ akwụkwọ akụkọ mbụ ya Purple Hibiscus n'aha okooko osisi ahụ.

Akpụkpọ ahụ nke hibiscus nwere eriri bast siri ike nke enwere ike inweta site na ịhapụ akpụkpọ ahụ e wepụrụ n'oké osimiri ka ihe ndị dị ndụ ree.

Dị ka ihe nnọchianya mba na nke steeti[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Hibiscus bụ ihe nnọchianya mba nke Haiti, na okooko osisi mba nke mba dị iche iche nke gụnyere Solomon Islands na Niue.[38][39] Hibiscus syriacus bụ okooko osisi mba nke South Korea, na Hibiscus rosa-sinensis bụ okooko mmiri mba nke Malaysia.[40][39] Hibiscus brackenridgei bụ okooko osisi steeti nke Hawaii.[41]

Edensibia[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. "Genus: Hibiscus L". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2007-10-05. Archived from the original on 2010-05-28. Retrieved 2010-02-16.
  2. Oxford English Dictionary
  3. Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
  4. Lawton (2004). Hibiscus: Hardy and Tropical Plants for the Garden. Timber Press. ISBN 978-0-88192-6545. 
  5. Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, ἰβίσκος
  6. (2008) in Brickell: The Royal Horticultural Society A-Z Encyclopedia of Garden Plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 9781405332965. 
  7. Hibiscus (National Gardening Association). Retrieved on 26 October 2016.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Fouda (2007). "Inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa on contractility of the rat bladder and uterus". Can J Physiol Pharmacol 85 (10): 1020–31. DOI:10.1139/y07-093. PMID 18066103.  Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; name "ref1" defined multiple times with different content
  9. Lee (2007). Nature's Palette: the Science of Plant Color. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-47052-8. 
  10. Hibiscus abelmoschus L. — The Plant List.
  11. Hibiscus abelmoschus var. betulifolius Mast. — The Plant List.
  12. Hibiscus abelmoschus var. genuinus Hochr. — The Plant List.
  13. Hibiscus abutiloides Willd. — The Plant List.
  14. Hibiscus abyssinicus Steud. — The Plant List.
  15. Hibiscus acapulcensis Fryxell — The Plant List.
  16. Hibiscus acerifolius Salisb. — The Plant List.
  17. Hibiscus acerifolius DC. — The Plant List.
  18. Hibiscus acetosaefolius DC. — The Plant List.
  19. Hibiscus acetosella Welw. ex Hiern — The Plant List.
  20. (2006) "Plant use of the Maasai of Sekenani Valley, Maasai Mara, Kenya". Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2: 22. DOI:10.1186/1746-4269-2-22. PMID 16674830. 
  21. Hibiscus taiwanensis
  22. GRIN Species Records of Hibiscus. Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture.
  23. Floridata Master Plant List. Retrieved on 26 October 2016.
  24. (26 January 1937) "Missionary Ships". Shipping Wonders of the World (Part 51). Retrieved on 24 March 2019. 
  25. Error on call to Template:cite web: Parameters url and title must be specified. Retrieved on 26 October 2016.
  26. Plants for a Future: Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. (accessed 07/05/2009)
  27. Haji Faraji (1999). "The effect of sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa) on essential hypertension". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 65 (3): 231–236. DOI:10.1016/S0378-8741(98)00157-3. PMID 10404421. 
  28. Da-Costa-Rocha (2014). "Hibiscus sabdariffa L. – A phytochemical and pharmacological review". Food Chemistry 165: 424–443. DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.05.002. PMID 25038696. 
  29. 29.0 29.1 Vasudeva (2008). "Post-Coital Antifertility Activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. roots". Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 5 (1): 91–94. DOI:10.1093/ecam/nem003. PMID 18317554. 
  30. de Boer (2014). "Medicinal plants for women's healthcare in Southeast Asia: a meta-analysis of their traditional use, chemical constituents, and pharmacology". J Ethnopharmacol 151 (2): 747–767. DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2013.11.030. PMID 24269772. 
  31. Ali (2005). "Phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological aspects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L.: a review". Phytother Res 19 (5): 369–375. DOI:10.1002/ptr.1628. PMID 16106391. 
  32. 32.0 32.1 Ernst (2002). "Herbal medicinal products during pregnancy: are they safe?". Br J Obstet Gynaecol 109 (3): 227–235. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-0528.2002.t01-1-01009.x. PMID 11950176. 
  33. Fakeye (2007). "Effects of Water Extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa, Linn (Malvaceae) 'Roselle' on Excretion of a Diclofenac Formulation". Phytotherapy Research 21 (1): 96–98. DOI:10.1002/ptr.2019. PMID 17094172. 
  34. Mahmoud (1994). "Significant reduction in chloroquine bioavailability following coadministration with the Sudanese beverages Aradaib, Karkadi and Lemon". Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 33 (5): 1005–9. DOI:10.1093/jac/33.5.1005. PMID 8089046. 
  35. Kolawole (2004). "Effect of Zobo drink (Hibiscus sabdariffa water extract) on the pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen in human volunteers". Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 29 (1): 25–29. DOI:10.1007/BF03190570. PMID 15151167. 
  36. Kali Puja 2018: Date, Puja time, Significance And Foods to Celebrate the Festival. NDTV.com. Retrieved on 2020-08-28.
  37. Ganesh Chaturthi 2020: Quotes, wishes and messages which you can send to your family and friends on Vinayaka Chaturthi (en). The Times of India. Retrieved on 2020-08-28.
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  40. Korean Culture and Information Service (KOCIS). What you didn't know about Korea's national flower. Korea.net.
  41. Hawaii State Flower - Yellow Hibiscus. statesymbolsusa.org.

Njikọ mpụga[dezie | dezie ebe o si]