Ken Saro-Wiwa

Shí Wikipedia, njikotá édémédé nke onyobulạ
Ken Saro-Wiwa
Mmádu
ụdịekerenwoke Dezie
Akụkụ nkeOgoni Nine Dezie
mba o sịNaijiria Dezie
aha n'asụsụ obodoKen Saro-Wiwa Dezie
Aha enyereKenule, Beeson Dezie
Ụbọchị ọmụmụ ya10 Ọktoba 1941 Dezie
Ebe ọmụmụBori Dezie
Ụbọchị ọnwụ ya10 Novemba 1995 Dezie
Ebe ọ nwụrụUgwu Ọcha Dezie
Ụdị ọnwụcapital punishment Dezie
ihe kpatara ọnwụhanging Dezie
Ebe oliliPort Harcourt Cemetery Dezie
ŃnàJim Wiwa Dezie
nwaKen Wiwa, Noo Saro-Wiwa, Zina Saro-Wiwa Dezie
Asụsụ obodoKhana Dezie
asụsụ ọ na-asụ, na-ede ma ọ bụ were na-ebinye akaBekee, Khana, pidgin Naịjirịa Dezie
Asụsụ ọ na-edeBekee Dezie
onye were ọrụMahadum nke Lagos Dezie
ebe agụmakwụkwọMahadum nke Ibadan, gọọmentị kọleji Umuahia Dezie
agbụrụ Dezie
Ijegburugburu ebe obibi Dezie
ebeUgwu Ọcha Dezie
Onye òtù nkeMovement for the Survival of the Ogoni People Dezie
Ihe nriteBruno Kreisky Award for Services to Human Rights, Goldman Environmental Prize, Right Livelihood Award, Evelyn F. Burkey Award Dezie

Kenule Beeson "Ken" Saro-Wiwa (10 Ọktoba 1941 - 10 Nọvemba 1995) bụ onye edemede Naijiria, onye na-emepụta telivishọn, na onye na-ahụ maka gburugburu ebe obibi. Kenule Beeson Ken Saro-Wiwa onye Naijiria na-ahụ maka gburugburu ebe obibi[1] Ken Saro-Wiwa bụ onye otu ndị Ogoni, ndị agbụrụ pere mpe na Naijiria bụ ndị ala nna ha, Ogoniland, nke dị na Niger Delta, lekwasịrị anya maka nchọpụta mmanụ ala kemgbe afọ 1950 ma nwee nnukwu mmebi gburugburu ebe obibi site na ọtụtụ iri afọ nke ịtụfu ihe mkpofu mmanụ ala. Ndị Ogoni Ogoniland Niger Mmanụ ala Delta emebiwo nke ukwuu na gburugburu ebe obibi[2][3]

Na mbido dị ka ọnụ na-ekwuchitere, ma mesịa bụrụ onye isi oche, nke Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People (MOSOP), Saro-Wiwa duziri mkpọsa na-enweghị ihe ike megide mmebi gburugburu ebe obibi nke ala na mmiri nke Ogoniland site na ọrụ nke ụlọ ọrụ mmanụ mba dị iche iche, ọkachasị ụlọ ọrụ Royal Dutch Shell. Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni Ndị na-eme ihe ike na-eme mkpọsa gburugburu ebe obibi mmebi ụlọ ọrụ mmanụ Royal Dutch Shell[4] Ọ katọrọ gọọmentị Naijiria maka enweghị mmasị itinye iwu gburugburu ebe obibi na ụlọ ọrụ mmanụ ala mba ọzọ na-arụ ọrụ n'ógbè ahụ. Gọọmentị Naijiria[5]

N'oge ọ na-eme mkpọsa na-abụghị nke ime ihe ike, ụlọ ikpe ndị agha pụrụ iche kpere ya ikpe maka ebubo na ọ na-eduzi ogbugbu ndị isi Ogoni na nzukọ na-akwado gọọmentị, ma kwụgbuo ya na 1995 site n'aka ọchịchị aka ike nke General Sani Abacha. Ụlọikpe ndị agha Sani Abacha[6][7] Ogbugbu ya kpasuru iwe mba ụwa ma mee ka a kwụsị Naịjirịa na Commonwealth of Nations ruo ihe karịrị afọ atọ. Commonwealth nke Mba[8][9]

Akụkọ ndụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Oge ọ malitere[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A mụrụ Kenule Saro-Wiwa na Bori, nso Port-Harcourt, Naijiria na 10 Ọktoba 1941. Bori Port-Harcourt, Naịjirịa[1] Ọ bụ nwa Chief Jim Wiwa, onye na-elekọta ọhịa nke nwere utu aha na usoro ndị isi Naijiria, na nwunye ya nke atọ Widu. Jim Wiwa usoro ndị isi Naijiria Ọ gbanwere aha ya ka ọ bụrụ Saro-Wiwa mgbe Agha Obodo Naịjirịa gasịrị. Agha Obodo Naijiria [1] Ọ lụrụ Maria Saro Wiwa.[10] Obodo nna ya bụ obodo Bane, Ogoniland, nke ndị bi na ya na-asụ asụsụ Khana nke asụsụ Ogoni. Asụsụ Bane Ogoniland Khana Asụsụ Ogoni Ọ nọrọ n'ụlọ Anglican mgbe ọ bụ nwata ma mesịa gosipụta onwe ya na ọ bụ nwa akwụkwọ magburu onwe ya. Ọ gụrụ akwụkwọ praịmarị n'ụlọ akwụkwọ Native Authority dị na Bori, [1] wee gaa ụlọ akwụkwọ sekọndrị na Government College Umuahia . [1] Gọọmentị kọleji Umuahia Nwa akwụkwọ a ma ama, ọ bụ onyeisi ndị otu egwuregwu tennis table ma nweta ihe nrite ụlọ akwụkwọ na akụkọ ihe mere eme na Bekee. [14] Mgbe ọ gụsịrị akwụkwọ sekọndrị, ọ nwetara agụmakwụkwọ iji mụọ Bekee na Mahadum Ibadan. Mahadum nke Ibadan Na Ibadan, ọ banyere n'ihe gbasara agụmakwụkwọ na ọdịbendị, ọ meriri ihe nrite ngalaba na 1963 na 1965 ma rụọ ọrụ maka otu ndị na-eme ihe nkiri. Ibadan [1] Ndị na-eme ihe nkiri na-eme njem na Kano, Benin, Ilorin na Lagos ma soro otu ihe nkiri Nottingham Playhouse rụkọọ ọrụ nke gụnyere Judi Dench na-eto eto. Kano Benin Ilorin Lagos Nottingham Playhouse Judi Dench [1] Ọ ghọrọ onye enyemaka nkuzi na Mahadum Lagos ma mesịa na Mahadim Naịjirịa, Nsukka. Mahadum Lagos Mahadum Nigeria, Nsukka Ọ bụ onye nkuzi akwụkwọ Afrịka na Nsukka mgbe agha obodo malitere, ọ kwadoro Gọọmentị etiti ma hapụ mpaghara ahụ gaa n'obodo ya na Bori. Nsukka Na njem ya na Port-Harcourt, ọ hụrụ ọtụtụ ndị gbara ọsọ ndụ na-alaghachi n'Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, ihe ọ kọwara dị ka "ihe na-ewute ịhụ". Ndị gbara ọsọ ndụ na Port-Harcourt [1] Ụbọchị atọ mgbe ọ bịarutere Bonny, ọ dara n'aka ndị agha gọọmentị etiti. Bonny Ya na ezinụlọ ya wee nọrọ na Bonny, ọ laghachiri Lagos wee were ọnọdụ na Mahadum Lagos nke na-adịteghị aka ka a kpọrọ ya na Bonny. Ọdọ Mmiri[11]

Ụfọdụ n'ime ndị ọka iwu ndị a na-ebo ebubo gbara arụkwaghịm iji mee mkpesa megide ebubo ebubo nke ikpe ahụ site n'aka ọchịchị Abacha. Ịgba arụkwaghịm ahụ hapụrụ ndị a na-ebo ebubo n'onwe ha megide ụlọ ikpe ahụ, nke gara n'ihu na-eweta ndị akaebe iji gbaa akaebe megide Saro-Wiwa na ndị ọgbọ ya. Ọtụtụ n'ime ndị akaebe a na-eche na ha mechara kweta na gọọmentị Naijiria nyere ha aka azụ iji kwado ebubo mpụ ahụ. Ọ dịkarịa ala ndị akaebe abụọ gbara akaebe na Saro-Wiwa tinyere aka na ogbugbu nke ndị okenye Ogoni mechara gbanwee, na-ekwu na e ji ego na ọrụ na Shell nyere ha iji nye akaebe ụgha, n'ihu onye ọka iwu Shell.[12]

Ndị otu na-ahụ maka ihe ndị ruuru mmadụ katọrọ ikpe ahụ n'ọtụtụ ebe, ọnwa isii ka e mesịrị, Saro-Wiwa natara Right Livelihood Award maka obi ike ya, yana Goldman Environmental Prize. Ihe nrite Goldman maka gburugburu ebe obibi[13]

N'abalị asatọ n'ọnwa Nọvemba n'afọ 1995, kansụl ndị agha kwadoro ikpe ọnwụ.[14] Gọọmentị ndị agha wee gaa ozugbo iji mezuo ha. A họọrọ ụlọ mkpọrọ dị na Port Harcourt dị ka ebe a ga-egbu ya. Ọdụ Ụgbọ Mmiri Harcourt Ọ bụ ezie na gọọmentị chọrọ imezu ikpe ahụ ozugbo, ọ ga-echere ụbọchị abụọ ka e wuo osisi. N'ime awa ole na ole a kwadoro ikpe ahụ, e bugara igbe ozu itoolu n'ụlọ mkpọrọ, n'echi ya, e si na Sokoto bubata otu ndị na-egbu mmadụ na Port Harcourt. Sokoto[15]

On 10 November 1995, Saro-Wiwa and the rest of the Ogoni Nine were taken from the army base where they were being held to Port Harcourt prison.[16] They were told that they were being moved to Port Harcourt because it was feared that the army base they were being held in might be attacked by Ogoni youths. The prison was heavily guarded by riot police and tanks, and hundreds of people lined the streets in anticipation of the executions. After arriving at Port Harcourt prison, Saro-Wiwa and the others were herded into a single room and their wrists and ankles were shackled. They were then led one by one to the gallows and executed by hanging, with Saro-Wiwa being the first. It took five tries to execute him due to faulty equipment.[17] His last words were: "Lord take my soul, but the struggle continues." After the executions, the bodies were taken to the Port Harcourt Cemetery under armed guard and buried.[18][19] Anticipating disturbances as a result of the executions, the Nigerian government deployed tens of thousands of troops and riot police to two southern provinces and major oil refineries around the country. The Port Harcourt Cemetery was surrounded by soldiers and tanks.[20][17].[21][15]

Mgbukpọ ahụ kpatara iwe nke mba ụwa. Nzukọ Ezumezu nke Mba Ndị Dị n'Otu katọrọ ogbugbu ahụ na mkpebi nke 101 kwadoro na 14 megide na 47 abstentions. Nzukọ Ezumezu nke Mba Ndị Dị n'Otu[22][23] European Union katọrọ ogbugbu ahụ, nke ọ kpọrọ "omume obi ọjọọ na nke obi ọjọọ", ma tinye mmachibido iwu na Naịjirịa. Njikọ Europe[24][25] United States kpọghachiri onye nnọchi anya ya site na Naijiria, tinye mmachibido iwu maka ngwá agha na Naijeria, ma tinye mmachi njem na ndị otu ọchịchị ndị agha Naijiria na ezinụlọ ha.[26] United Kingdom chetara onye isi kọmishọna ya na Naịjirịa, na Praịm Minista Britain John Major kpọrọ ogbugbu ahụ "ogbugbu ikpe". South Africa keere òkè dị mkpa n'ịdute nkatọ mba ụwa, na Onye isi ala Nelson Mandela na-agba ume ka a kwụsị Naịjiria na Commonwealth of Nations. John Major Nelson Mandela Commonwealth of Nations[27] Zimbabwe na Kenya kwadokwara Mandela, na Onye isi ala Kenya Daniel arap Moi na Onye isi oche Zimbabwe Robert Mugabe na-akwado arịrịọ Mandela ka ọ kwụsị ịbụ onye otu Commonwealth nke Nigeria, mana ọtụtụ ndị isi Afrịka ndị ọzọ katọrọ aro ahụ. Daniel arap Moi Robert Mugabe A kwụsịtụrụ ịbụ onye otu Naịjirịa na Commonwealth of Nations, a na-eyi egwu ịchụpụ Naịjirị ma ọ bụrụ na ọ gaghị agafe na ọchịchị onye kwuo uche ya n'ime afọ abụọ. Gọọmentị US na nke Britain kwurịtakwara na enwere ike ịmachibido mmanụ site na mgbochi ụgbọ mmiri nke Naịjirịa.[24][28]

E guzobere ntọala Ken Saro-Wiwa na 2017 iji rụọ ọrụ iji meziwanye ohere ịnweta ihe ndị dị mkpa dịka ọkụ eletrik na Ịntanetị maka ndị ọchụnta ego na Port Harcourt. ndị ọchụnta ego Port Harcourt[29] Njikọ ahụ guzobere Ken Junior Award, nke akpọrọ aha nwa Saro-Wiwa Ken Wiwa, onye nwụrụ n'ọnwa Ọktoba 2016. Ken Wiwa[30] A na-enye ụlọ ọrụ teknụzụ na-amalite ọhụrụ na Port Harcourt onyinye ahụ. Ọdụ Ụgbọ Mmiri Harcourt[29]

Ikpe ezinụlọ megide Royal Dutch Shell[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  Malite na 1996, Center for Constitutional Rights (CCR), Earth Rights International (ERI), Paul Hoffman nke Schonbrun, DeSimone, Seplow, Harris & Hoffman na ndị ọka iwu ndị ọzọ na-ahụ maka ihe ndị ruuru mmadụ wetara usoro ikpe iji mee ka Shell bụrụ onye na-aza ajụjụ maka mmebi ikike mmadụ na Naịjirịa, gụnyere igbu ọchụ, mpụ megide mmadụ, ịta ahụhụ, mmeso obi ọjọọ na njide na njide. Center for Constitutional Rights attorneys mkpirikpi mkpirikpa mkpirikpu mkpirik[31] A na-ebo Royal Dutch Shell na Brian Anderson, onye isi ọrụ ya na Naijiria, ebubo.[32]

E webatara ikpe ndị ahụ n'okpuru Iwu Mgbukpọ nke Abịgara Ala Ọzọ, iwu 1789 nke na-enye ụmụ amaala na-abụghị ndị US ikike itinye akwụkwọ n'ụlọ ikpe US maka mmebi ikike mmadụ nke mba ụwa, na Iwu Nchedo Mgbukgba, nke na-eme ka ndị mmadụ nwee ike ịchọ mmebi na US maka ịta ahụhụ ma ọ bụ igbu ọchụ na-abụghị nke ikpe, n'agbanyeghị ebe mmebi iwu ahụ na-ewere ọnọdụ. Iwu Mmetụta Ndị Ala Ọzọ Iwu Mmetọ Ndị E Ji Egwu na-ahụ Maka Nchebe Iwu[33]

United States Court District Court for the Southern District of New York wepụtara ụbọchị ikpe nke June 2009. Na 9 June 2009 Shell kwetara na mkpezi n’ụlọ ikpe nke US $15.5 nde maka ezinụlọ ndị ihe metụtara.  .  Agbanyeghị, ụlọ ọrụ ahụ gọnarịrị ụgwọ ọ bụla maka ọnwụ ndị ahụ, na-ekwupụta na ịkwụ ụgwọ ahụ bụ akụkụ nke usoro ngbanwe.[57].  N'okwu e nyere mgbe nkesa ahụ gasịrị, Shell tụrụ aro ka a na-enye ndị ikwu Saro-Wiwa na mmadụ asatọ ndị ọzọ metụtara ego ahụ, iji kpuchie ụgwọ iwu nke ikpe ahụ yana kwa iji kwado ihe ndị mere na mpaghara ahụ.  [58]  A na-atụkwa anya na a ga-eji ụfọdụ n'ime ego ahụ wepụta ntụkwasị obi mmepe maka ndị Ndị Ogoni, bụ ndị bi na  Niger Delta mpaghara Nigeria.[59]  Emere mmezi ahụ ụbọchị ole na ole tupu ikpe a, nke nwa Saro-Wiwa wetara, ga-amalite na New York.[58].[34]

Ihe Nketa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ọnwụ ya kpaliri iwe mba ụwa na nkwụsịtụ ozugbo nke Naịjirịa na Commonwealth of Nations, yana ịkpọghachi ọtụtụ ndị nnọchi anya mba ọzọ maka ndụmọdụ. Ndị nnọchi anya mba Commonwealth[35] United States na mba ndị ọzọ tụlere itinye mmachibido iwu akụ na ụba. ntaramahụhụ akụ na ụba[36][37][38]

Ogbugbu nke Saro-Wiwa gosipụtara mmalite nke azụmahịa na ikike mmadụ nke mba ụwa (BHR). azụmahịa na ikike mmadụ[39]

Ụtụ Isi[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ụtụ isi Ken Saro-Wiwa gụnyere: Ụtụ isi

Ihe osise na ihe ncheta[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • E kpughere ihe ncheta Saro-Wiwa na London na 10 Nọvemba 2006 site na nzukọ London Platform. Ebe a na-anọ eme ihe na London[40] O nwere ihe a tụrụ atụ n'ụdị bọs ma onye na-ese ihe na Naijiria bụ Sokari Douglas Camp kere ya. Ihe a tụrụ atụ Sokari Douglas Camp Ọ gara UK n'afọ sochirinụ.[41]

Onyinye[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Association of Nigerian Authors bụ onye na-akwado Ken Saro-Wiwa Prize for Prose. Njikọ nke Ndị Naijiria Naijiria[42]
  • A na-akpọ Saro-Wiwa onye edemede site na The My Hero Project. Ọrụ Onye dike m[43]
  • Akwụkwọ akụkọ America Foreign Policy depụtara Ken Saro-Wiwa n'akụkụ Mahatma Gandhi, Eleanor Roosevelt, Corazon Aquino na Václav Havel dị ka ndị "na-enwetụbeghị ihe nrite Nobel Peace Prize, mana ha kwesịrị". Iwu Mba Ọzọ Mahatma Gandhi Eleanor Roosevelt Corazon Aquino Václav Havel Nobel Peace Prize[44]

Akwụkwọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • A na-ehota ogbugbu ya ma jiri ya mee ihe dị ka ihe mkpali maka akwụkwọ akụkọ Beverley Naidoo The Other Side of Truth (2000). Beverley Naidoo Akụkụ nke Ọzọ nke Eziokwu[45]
  • Richard North Patterson bipụtara akwụkwọ akụkọ, Eclipse (2009), dabere na ndụ Saro-Wiwa. Richard North Patterson Eclipse[46]

Kenule Beeson Saro-Wiwa Polytechnic[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Gọvanọ nke Rivers State, Ezenwo Nyesom Wike, gbanwere aha Rivers State Polytechnic mgbe Saro-Wiwa. Gọvanọ nke Rivers State Ezenwo Nyesom Wike[47]

Mahadum Maynooth[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Nwanne nwanyị Majella McCarron nyere mkpokọta akwụkwọ ozi ejiri aka dee nke Saro-Wiwa na Mahadum Maynooth.  Nchịkọta ahụ gụnyere abụ iri abụọ na asaa, ndekọ nke nleta na nzukọ ndị ezinụlọ na ndị enyi mgbe Saro-Wiwa nwụsịrị, nchịkọta foto na akwụkwọ ndị ọzọ.  Akwụkwọ ozi ndị a dị ugbu a na Digital Repository of Ireland (DRI).[48]

Ken Saro-Wiwa Archive dị na Special Collections na Mahadum Maynooth.[49]

Egwú[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Ndị otu egwu Itali bụ Il Teatro degli Orrori raara abụ ha "A sangue freddo" ("N'ọbara oyi" - bụkwa aha egwu nke abọm nke abụọ ha) nye Saro-Wiwa. Il Teatro degli Orrori[50]
  • Ndị otu Finland Ultra Bra raara abụ ha "Ken Saro-Wiwa on__ilo____ilo____ilo__" ("Ken Saro -Wiwa anwụọla") nye Saro-Viwa. Ultra Bra nke Finland[51]
  • Ogbugbu Saro-Wiwa kpaliri egwu "Rational" nke otu egwu Canada bụ King Cobb Steelie. Eze Cobb Steelie[52]
  • Onye na-agụ egwu Naijiria Nneka na-ezo aka na Saro-Wiwa n'abụ ya "Soul is Heavy". Nneka[53][54]

Okporo ámá[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Amsterdam kpọrọ otu okporo ámá aha Saro-Wiwa, Ken Saro-Viwastraat. Amsterdam Ken Saro-Wiwastraat[55]

Ihe nkiri[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A na-agbasa ihe ngosi BBC World Service Radio, "Silence Would Be Treason", na Jenụwarị 2022. BBC World Ọ bụ nwa ya nwanyị Noo Saro-Wiwa na-egosi ya ma Ben Arogundade na-ekwupụta ya. Noo Saro-Wiwa[56]

Ndụ onwe onye[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ya na nwunye ya Maria nwere ụmụ ise, ndị ha na nne ha tolitere na United Kingdom mgbe nna ha nọgidere na Nigeria.  Ha na-agụnye:  Saro-Wiwa nwere ụmụ nwanyị abụọ (Singto na Adele) na nwanyị ọzọ.[83]  Ọ mụtakwara nwa nwoke ọzọ, Kwame Saro-Wiwa, bụ́ onye dị nanị otu afọ mgbe e gburu nna ya.[85].[57]

Akụkọ ndụ ya[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Onye edemede Canada bụ J. Timothy Hunt's The Politics of Bones (September 2005), nke e bipụtara obere oge tupu ncheta afọ 10 nke ogbugbu Saro-Wiwa, dekọrọ ọpụpụ nke nwanne Saro-Viwa Owens Wiwa, mgbe ogbugbu nwanne ya nwoke na njide ya na-abịanụ, gaa London wee gaa Canada, ebe ọ bụ nwa amaala ugbu a ma na-aga n'ihu na ọgụ nwanne ya nwoke maka ndị Ogoni. J. Timothy Hunt The Politics of Bones Owens Wiwa Ọzọkwa, ọ bụkwa akụkọ banyere agha onwe onye Owens na gọọmentị Naijiria iji chọta ozu nwanne ya nwoke mgbe e liri ha n'ili a na-amaghị aha ya.[58]
  • Ogoni's Agonies: Ken Saro Wiwa and the Crisis in Nigeria (1998), nke Abdul Rasheed Naʾallah dezigharịrị, na-enye ozi ndị ọzọ gbasara ọgụ nke ndị Ogoni'Sagoni: Ken Sara Wiwa and The Crisis in Abdul Nigeria Rasheed Naʿallah[59]
  • Akwụkwọ Onookome Okome, Before I Am Hanged: Ken Saro-Wiwa - Literature, Politics, and Dissent (1999) bụ nchịkọta nke edemede banyere Wiwa Before I Am hanged: Ken Daro-Wuwa - Literature.[60]
  • In the Shadow of a Saint: A Son's Journey to Understanding His Father's Legacy (2000), bụ nwa ya nwoke Ken Wiwa dere ya. N'okpuru onyinyo nke Onye Nsọ: Njem Nwa Iji ghọta Ihe Nketa Nna Ya Ken Wiwa
  • E bipụtara akwụkwọ akụkọ nke Saro-Wiwa, A Month and a Day: A Detention Diary, na Jenụwarị 1995, ọnwa abụọ ka e gbusịrị ya. Otu ọnwa na Otu Ụbọchị: Akwụkwọ Nchịkọta
  • Na Looking for Transwonderland - Travels in Nigeria, nwa ya nwanyị Noo Saro-Wiwa na-akọ akụkọ banyere nloghachi ya na Naịjirịa ọtụtụ afọ mgbe e gbusịrị nna ya. Ịchọta Transwonderland - Njem na Naịjirịa Noo Saro-Wiwa

Akwụkwọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Hụkwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Akụkọ ihe mere eme nke Naịjirịa
  • Isaac Adaka Boro
  • Ndepụta nke ndị si Rivers State
  • Ụlọ ọrụ mmanụ na Naịjirịa

Edensibia[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

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