Ọdinani

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Odinani ( Igbo ) mejuputara usoro okpukperechi na nkwenye nke ọdịnala ndị Igbo na ndịda Nigeria . [1] Odinani nwere monotheistic na panentheistic àgwà, na-enwe a otu Chineke dị ka isi iyi nke ihe niile. Agbanyeghị na mmụọ dị adị, mmụọ ndị a pere mpe bụ Odinani na-ahụ anya na-arụ ọrụ dị ka Chukwu (maọbụ Chukwu ), ihe kachasị elu maọbụ chi dị elu. [2] bụ okwu gbara ọkpụrụkpụ nke gụnyere ihe chí bụ onye okike ( ) bụ ngwaa pụtara 'nke' ebe ékè pụtara kee. Chukwu yabụ Onye Okike ma ọ bụ Chukwu Onye kere ihe niile. Echiche nke Chukwu ( 'elu Chi') ahụ n'ụzọ dị ukwuu sitere n'aka ndi Aro-Igbo nke Arọchukwu n'ebe ọwụwa anyanwụ Igboland onye ji ihe ime mmụọ ike n'elu ọwụwa anyanwụ Niger Delta na narị afọ nke 18 maka na ha na-arụ ọrụ nke Ibini Ukpabi.

Ndi mmuo ndi ozo a maara dika áràrà ma obu nnukwu ahihia na- aru oru di elu nke Chukwu ma kewara ya ndi mmadu na uche ya. Ndị mmụọ a nọchiri anya ike ndị sitere n'okike; ike dị ka ike nke Chukwu gosipụtara dị ka alusi dị iche iche n’ala Igbo. Echiche nke ‘anya nke anyanwu maọbụ chi’ ( ányá ánwụ́ ) dịka chi nke anwụ bụtere nsọpụrụ anyanwụ n'etiti ndị Nri-Igbo na ala ugwu Igbo. Alusi bụ ndị dibia na ndị ụkọchukwu ndị ọzọ na-anaghị ebutere onye ukwu dị elu okwu na-agbagha. Site n' áfà, 'igba mmụọ', a na-agwa ndị dị ndụ iwu n'ọchụchọrọ nke alusi. A na-efe Alusi ofufe n'ụlọ arụsị ndi obodo na gburugburu okporo ụzọ na oke ọhịa ebe a na-efe arụsị dị nta n’ụlọ n’ekwentị. Enwere ike ịkpọtụrụ ndị nna nna nwụrụ anwụ bi n´ụwa ndi mmụọ. N’okpuru alusi bu mmuo ohuru na nke ndi ozo a maara dika mmúọ nke akpachapuru anya ha site na mmuta ha nwere. A naghị asọpụrụ mmụọ mmụọ ndị a obere, a na-ewerekwa ha mgbe ụfọdụ dị ka mkpụrụ obi ndị nwụrụ anwụ.

Ọnụọgụgụ nke ndi mmadu na-ekpe okpukpe Igbo belatara nke ukwuu na narị afọ nke 20 n'ihi nnabata nke ndị ozi ala ọzọ nke ndị Kraịst n'okpuru nkwado nke gọọmentị Britain nke Naijiria. N'ọnọdụ ụfọdụ, a gbanwere okpukpe ọdịnala ndị Alakụba na Iso ụzọ Kraịst, mana n'ọtụtụ oge ndị ozi ala ọzọ bụ ndị mmụọ jiri mmụọ ememme obodo amaala ndị kọwapụtara omume ịchụ mmadụ n' ụfọdụ omenala ndị ọzọ megidere iwu n'okpuru ọchịchị ndị gọọmentị. Ndị ozi ala ọzọ bụ ụzọ kpọọ ọtụtụ ihe omume okpukpe obodo ama dị ka juju . Okpukpe ndị Igbo dị ugbu a na mmemme mmemme dị ka mkpụrụ ji ọhụụ (ị ga- anụ mkpọ ) na ọdịnala dị ka mmanwu na Ekpe .

Ihe ncheta ememe okpukperechi ala Igbo gbasaara n'etiti ụmụ Afrịka na Karibbean na North Amerika n'oge ahia ohu Atlantic . E bufere Igbo ọbịà na British Caribbean mbụ na Guyana ka obeah n'ụfọdụ omenala Igbo nke enwere ike inweta n'etiti ndị na-eme ememme ndị Garifuna ndị mmadụ na jonkonnu nke British Karibbean na North Carolina . [3] [4] [5]

Ọmụmụ[mèzi | mèzi mkpụrụ]

Odinani na olumba Igbo bụ olulu nke mkpụrụ okwu ndi gbara mkpi ('emi' ') + n ( ,' n'ime ') + àkụ̀ (otu chi) [nke gụnyere anụ (E nu) n’elu (eluigwe) na Ana, n'okpuru (ụwa)]. [2] [6] [7] diadị olumba ndị ọzọ gụnyere odinala, odinana, omenala, omenaala, na omenani . [8] Okwu odinani na ọdịiche ya na njikọta na omenala ndị Igbo. Ọtụtụ iwu na ọdịnala bụ ndị nwere ihe jikọrọ ya na okpukperechi dịka taboos na iwu gbasara oghere dị ka oke arụsị dị nsọ. Ebe ọ bụ na amatala iwu ọdịnala na Naịjirịa, ọtụtụ ndị obodo Igbo na-ahụ onwe ha ka ha na-ekwupụta nkwenye ndị a na nkwenye n' okpukpe ndị ọzọ.

Nkwenye[mèzi | mèzi mkpụrụ]

Magic lantern Image of the entrance to the cave of the Ibini Ukpabi oracle at Arochukwu.
Rancezọ abanye n'ọgba nke Ibini Ukpabi oracle na Arochukwu, 1900s.

Odinani inke enwere ịkọwa dịka okwukwe monotheistic na panentheistic dika mmụo nke etititi siri ike ebe ekwenyere n' ihe nile sitere; agbanyeghị, ụdị dị iche iche nke usoro ahụ nwere ike ịgụta echiche ndị na-esite na nkwenye dị iche iche enwere n'ime okpukperechi. [7] [9] [10] [11] [12] [note 1] Chukwu dịka chi kachasinụ n'etiti ndi mmuo, ka ahụrụ dika 'mmadụ n'adịghị ahụ anya', otu mpaghara keaba udi chi nke Nigeria nke gụnyere ala Chineke nwanyị n'ụwa ike, Chi nke bụ 'chi onye', ndichie ndị nna nna, n'ụmụ obere mmuọ. Keaba nke ọzọ gụnyere mmadu, 'mmadụ a na-ahụ anya', nke na-agụnye Anu anụmanụ, ósísí, na nke ikpeazụ uro nke bụ ọcha, ihe nweta n'ihe ndi na-adịghị ndụ. [13] Chukwu dịka onye kere ihe nile a na-ahụ anya na nke a na-adịghị ahụ anya n' ebe a na-ekwukwa banyere ala dị ala bụ Chukwu. Chukwu enweghi okike [14] na enweta ya site na ndi mmuo di iche-iche dika nke di n'okpuru ndi otu mmụọ nke Alusi bu ndi mmadu ibu di elu nke chi di elu; ọ dighi àjà di iche iche enyere chukwu, o dighi ebe ulo anwuru na ebe-ichu-aja enyere ya. Ọ bụrụ na-ekenye mmadụ Arushi, ọ na-aghọ chi, chi na-echekwa onwe ya. Chi ahụ gosipụtara dịka mmuo, mmụọ, ma dịkwa ka mmụọ nke mmadụ mechiri ya, ọ na-ahọrọ inwe mmekọahụ, ụdị, na ndụ ogologo oge tupu mmadụ abịa n'ụwa. [15]

Chi[mèzi | mèzi mkpụrụ]

An interior photograph of a chi shrine with plates inset into the polished mud walls
N'ime ụlọ nke ụlọ chi dị Nkarahia, ndịda ala Igbo, 1900s.

Chi bụ mmụọ nke onye ḿmúọ́, n' omenaala Igbo, ọ bụ mmụọ a na-ekpebi akara aka. N'ihi ya okwu a, onye kwe, Chi ya ekwe ("Ọ bụrụ na mmadụ kwenye n'ihe, mmụọ ya na-ekwenye"). Dika o siri di, ndi mmadu na-ahuta dika ndi okike maọbụ ndi n’echeputa odidi ha. [15] [16] [17] Ume ndu di n’ime obi, obì . [18] [19] [20] Chi na-ezo aka na ìhè na ụbọchị dị iche na ọchịchịrị. Chi zuru ụwa ọnụ na-ahụ maka ihe ọ bụla bụ Chukwu bụ onye kachasị ike nke karịrị njedebe oge na ohere. Aha Chukwu bụ ngwakọta nke okwu chí + úkwú ('nke buru oke ibu, kachasị'). [13] Ekwenyere na Chi bụ njikọ nke mmụọ n'etiti mmadụ na chi dị elu, ọ na - ekwupụta etu njem mmadụ si aga n'ụwa. Chi ọ bụla dịịrị onwe ya ma bụrụkwa nke a na -emekọrịta na iche na chi nke ihe niile. A kwenyere na chi dị elu, Chukwu, nyefere chi tupu oge ọmụmụ. Ọ bụ mmụọ nlekọta na-enye nlekọta, nlekọta, na ichebe ya, na nke a, echiche chi bụ otu ihe kwekọrọ n'echiche mmụọ ozi na- eche nche na Iso Christianityzọ Kraịst, daemon na okpukpe Greek mgbe ochie, na ọkaibe n'okpukpe Roman oge ochie . [21] N'adịghị ka Chukwu bụ nwoke na nwanyị, chi nwere ike bụrụ oke. Aria dibia nwere ike ichoputa igba mmadu site na igbaa ( áfà ) ma nye ndumodu banyere uzo isi kpo ya. Chukwu a na-ezo dị ka Chineke nke bụ a compound okwu Chi Chineke oke ike na Eke okike na-akpata nkewa nwanyị ike. Eke siri n’aka Chi puta ma a na-ewere otu; Chi kere ụwa ebe Eke kesara ya tinye ike na-akpata nkewa nke butere ọnwụ na ahụhụ. [14] Chineke na-tụgharịrị ka Chi ne Ke, 'Chi nke creatrix', na Chi nne Eke, 'Chi okike nne'. Eke bụ mmụọ nlekọta ndị nna nna. Chukwu ma obu Chukwu bulie elu elu na ngbaputa nke ndu mmadu ma ghari ihe omimi nye ndi mmadu. Houselọ na-enwekarị ụlọ chi nwere ike ịdabere na osisi. N’ulo nwunye, nwanyị na-ewere ụlọ arụsị ya na ihe niile o nwere n’ụlọ ebe obibi ya. Na Nkarahia, nke dị na ndịda ala Igbo, enwere ụlọ ịgba mara mma nke a na-eji akwa china dị iche iche mma n'ime ụlọ ụrọ ụlọ chi. ebe ịchụàjà ahụ na-ejide ihe nnọchianya dị nsọ, ebe oche ndị apịtị apịtị na-ejikwa china, iko, manilla na nri. Dika akara nke ogugu ma obu ihe ojoo, ihe oma ma obu nmekpa aru, apuru ịkọwa chi dika ‘okpukperechi nke onwe’.

Kọsmọlọgy[mèzi | mèzi mkpụrụ]

A na-akpọ obodo ndị ahụ anya ebe ndi mmadụ na-enwe mmekọrita nakwa kọsmọs dị ka ụ̀wà, nke gụnyere ihe niile dị ndụ íhẹ́ nke ahụ ka ọ na -eme ọgagharị, gụnyere anụmanụ na ahịhịa n' ihe ndị dị n’ime ala nke nwere ikike dị mkpa ma bụrụ ndị a na-ewere dịka ndị na-eso ụzọ ndị mmụọ ụwa a na-adịghị ahụ anya. . [13] Ihe ndị a dị ndụ na njirimara nke ụwa nke ụwa nweziri chi nke nlekọta. Ngosiputa omuma ndi Igbo n’egosiputa ihe di n’etiti ndi nwanyi na ike nwoke, ikekwe, n’inweta mbado nnochite anya ndi nwanyi n’ala Igbo. N’ala Igbo, cosmology kesara ụwa ụzọ anọ dị nkuku site na chi dị elu nke kwekọrọ èké órìè àfọ̀ nlekwọ́ bụ ụbọchị izu ụka na kalịnda ndị Igbo dịka ụbọchị ahịa. [22] A na-ahụta eluigwe na ụwa dị ka oghere nke oghere dị warara na ntọala nwere agba agba agba agba agba agba agba agba agba agbawa agba anọ na mbara igwe . N’otu ihe ngosi nka cosmological nke WRG Morton kọrọ n’aho 1950 site n’aka okenye n’Abagwa Nike n’ebe ugwu ala Igbo, Chukwu hụrụ n' anyanwụ na-aga n’iru ụwa n’ehihie wee kewaa abụọ ka ọnwa na-agafe n’iru. uzo, ya mere uwa kewara uzo ano na ubochi ano. Nkewa nke ụwa na ụbọchị ga - eme ka ọnụ ọgụgụ anọ dị nsọ ( ọsọọ ) nye ndị Igbo. A na- akọwa mbara ka àlàlà n’etiti abụọ: élú ígwé, ‘oke nke mbara igwe’ nke ihe ndị dị n’eluigwe mebere n’okpuru ikike ndị dị ‘anyanwụ’ ọnwa na ‘nwanyị’ ọnwa, na mbara obodo, ala ma ọ bụ ala nwere ihe mejupụtara ihe anọ dị n' ọkụ na ikuku (oke), na ụwa na mmiri (nwanyị).

Picture of figures drawn in chalk on the ground
Ogbo Obodo nke eseere ndi otu nzụzo nke Nkpetime, n'akụkụ Asaba, na1900s.

Uzo nke abuo na ano mebiri ihe Chukwu kere. Daysbọchị a kwekọrịtara n'ihe anọ ọfụma ma aha ya bụ ala Igbo, èké gabas, órìè west, àfọ̀ north, ǹkwọ́ south. [23] Ndị Nri-Igbo na-ekwu na ụbọchị ndị ahịa jiri ọkwa nke chi ha na eze Eri gosipụtara ndị Igbo maka ire ahịa na narị afọ nke 9 mgbe ha nwesịrị ụbọchị dị ka chi. [24] A na-akwanyere ndị alusi ndị a ugwu dị ka ndị bụ isi ma ọ bụ nnukwu chi n'okpuru chi na akụkụ ala Igbo. N'ihe banyere onodu ndi isi, obodo ufodu na-ahuta èké dika onye isi ndi alusi a, ebe ndi ozo na-ebunye ohereè na ǹkwọ́ na mbu mgbe chi di elu. Marketbọchị ahịa nwere ike nwee chi dị iche iche na-anọchite anya mmụọ n'ebe ụfọdụ, n'ọtụtụ obodo ndịda obodo Agwu bụ onye na-elekọta Eke, Ogwugwu onye nchekwa Orie, Amadioha bụ onye nchekwa Afo na Ala maka Nkwo.

Ikpe Ziri Ezi[mèzi | mèzi mkpụrụ]

Ofo na ogu bu iwu ikpe ikpe ikpe azu. Ọ na-agbachitere onye ọ bụla ebubo ebubo mpụ ọ bụrụhaala na "aka ha dị ọcha". Ọ bụ naanị onye nọ n'akụkụ ezi omume nke Ogu-na-Ofo nwere ike ịkpọ aha ya n'ekpere, ma ọ bụghị ya, onye dị otú ahụ ga-eche oke iwe nke Amadioha (chi nke égbè eluigwe na àmụmà). [25] A na-eji Kola nut mee emume n'ememe Chukwu, chi, Arushi na ndi nna nna, a na-ejikwa ya bu uzo ekwuputaghi idi ọcha mgbe ejikọtara ya na ị liụ mmiri. Ndi Igbo na –emere ebe ịchụàjà na ebe arụsị nke chi ha bụ nke oge ụfọdụ bụ anthropomorphic, ihe atụ kachasị ewu ewu bụ ọdụ osisi nke Ikenga. N’ezie, ọ bụ naanị ụmụ nwoke ka a na-ekwe ka ha mee ihe nnọchianya nke ike karịrị nke mmadụ.

Ịlọụwa[mèzi | mèzi mkpụrụ]

An Igbo couple standing with the dad holding a what looks to be a girl child in a naming ceremony, a man known as di okpara or the head of the family, standing left, checks the names with the couple looking one. The wear blue lace outfits and the di okpara wears white. The baby wears white, the woman wears a blue head tie and the father a blue cap, the di okpara wears a red cap
Ememe ị jị gụọ nwa aha n'ala Igbo maka nwa si n'ala Igbuzo na Washington, DC Ndị nne na nna na nwa na Diokpa (ọkpara n’ezinụlọ maọbụ ‘onye nlekọta’) [26] na aha nwatakịrị ahụ.

Ndi Igbo kwenyere n' ịlọ ụwa, ilo-uwa . A kwenyere na ndị mmadụ na-abanyeghachi n'ime ezinụlọ ndị ha bụ akụkụ nke ndụ mgbe ha ka dị ndụ. Ndị mmadụ nwere ike ịlọ ụwa ọzọ ugboro asaa, na-enye ohere asaa ịbanye ụwa mmụọ ịga nke ọma dịka nna nna ha. Ha amaghi onu ogugu onye ozo n’uwa. N’adịghị ka okpukpe Hindu, ụmụ mmadụ nwere ike ịlọ ụwa ọzọ dịka mmadụ. Ezinaụlọ na-azụta ndị na-ere ahịa iji gosipụta ụdị nna dị ka nna ochie ha na mbụ ha, a na-akpọ nwa ahụ aha onye mgbe ụfọdụ. Omume nna nna ha adighi ka umu aka ha kama o bu echiche a na-ewulite umu aka na ezigbo nna nna ha. Tupu onye ikwu ahụ anwụọ, a na-ekwu na onye ikwu onye ahụ nwụrụ anwụ na-eme mgbe ụfọdụ na-enye nkọwa banyere onye ha ga-amụ ọzọ dị ka ezinụlọ. Ozugbo amuru nwatakiri, ekwenye na ya ga-enye ihe omuma banyere onye ha sitere. Nke a nwere ike ịbụ site na omume, akparamagwa anụ ahụ na nkwupụta nwa ahụ. Onye mgbaasị nwere ike inye aka chọpụta onye nwatakịrị ahụ si na ya alọta. A na-ewere ya dị ka mkparị ma ọ bụrụ na e kwuru na nwoke alụọla ọzọ. Onye nna nna ochie nwere ike ịlọ ụwa dịka mmadụ abụọ na-emekọrịta nkekọ nke mmadụ; na onwu nke otu mmadu, ekwenyere na ndi ozo nwuru onwu na mberede ma oburu na ha ahuru ozu.

Ọgbanje[mèzi | mèzi mkpụrụ]

Otu ogbanje bụ mmụọ na-emetụta mmụọ nke ga-ama ụma wetara ezinụlọ nsogbu. N’oge akụkọ, nzukọ ogbako ka nne mụrụ ya, n’oge ụfọdụ (ọ na-abụkarị tupu ọkpara ), ga-ama ụma nwụọ ma bịakwa tụgharịa ọzọ, na-akpasu ezinaụlọ iwe. Oge a dịgasị iche n'etiti nkeji, awa, ụbọchị na afọ. Mgbe ụfọdụ, a na-eche na ibi ugwu ụmụ nwanyị wezuga mmụọ ọjọọ ahụ, ebe ịchọta mmụọ mmụọ Iyi-uwa, nke ha gwurula ebe nzuzo, ga-ahụ na ogbunje agaghị ata ndị ezinụlọ ahụhụ ọzọ. Iyi-uwa bụ okwute ahụ ụzọ ogbịje ji lọta ụwa na kwa ụzọ achọta ezinaụlọ ya. Nkume di omimi ma otu aka ghaghi kuru ya. Onye nchụàjà gwuchara iyi-uwa ma mebie ya. Ọzọkwa, nwanyị ogbanje na-anwụ n'oge afọ ime ha na nwa, nwoke ogbanje na-anwụ tupu ọmụmụ nwa nke nwunye ma ọ bụ na nwa ahụ nwụrụ. Emere ka nwa a ghara ibu ogbanje mgbe mbibi nke nkume ma obu mgbe ha amuchara nwa ozo. [27]

Chi dị iche iche[mèzi | mèzi mkpụrụ]

An image of a pottery piece depicting three people seated representing the Igbo deity Ifejioku
Nnọchi anya ịhụ mmụọ nke alusi Ifejioku .

Ndi mmadu nke Chukwu n' uwa nile ( ụ̀wà ) bụ ndi Alusi, ike ndi n’echebe ndu mmadu. N'ebe ndịda ọwụwa anyanwụ ala Igbo, mkpụrụ osisi bụ mkpụrụ maka ndị agha a. A na-ele alusi anya dika uzo di na Chukwu. Alusi ahụ, ndị a makwaara dị ka arushi, anusi, maọbụ arusi na olumba dịgasị iche na-esite na Ala ụwa nke mejupụtara ọrụ ụwa. E nwere alusi dị ala na Odinani, nke ọ bụla dịịrị ọrụ maka otu akụkụ nke okike ma ọ bụ echiche na-adịghị adị. Dika nkwenye ndi Igbo si di, ndi ala ndi ozo dika Chukwu, nwere ebum n’uche ha. [28] Alusi gosipụtara n' ihe ndị sitere n'okike na ebe arụsị ha na-abụkarị n'ime ọhịa ebe ha dabere na osisi ndị akọwapụtara. N'ebe arụsị dị iche iche, íhú mmúọ́, a na- edobe ihe dị ka akwa eyịride ma ọ bụ otu ihe a kpụrụ akpụ n’ebe ndị osisi alusi nọ iji lekwasị anya n’ofufe. A kọwapụtara chi dị iche iche dị ka 'ihe dị ọkụ' ma na-ejikarịkwa ọnụnọ nke na ọtụtụ n'ime ụzọ ọha mmadụ si arụ ọrụ nlezianya ma na-adụ ọdụ ka ha zere ha mgbe mgbe, enyere ndị ụkọchukwu ọrụ ka ha na-elekọta ọtụtụ ụlọ arụsị. [14] Ọtụtụ n'ime ụlọ arụsị ndị a dị n'okporo ụzọ dị n'ime ime obodo. Anụ nkwụ na-anọchi anya ike nke mmụọ ma bụrụ ihe achụrụ aja, a na-eji arụsị arụ arụsị site na omu iji mee ka ọha na eze mara banyere ọnụnọ nke chi dị iche iche. [29] Ihe atụ nke ụrọ ka sọpụrụ maka alusi dịkwa na oke ọhịa na osimiri. Enwere ike ịchọta ihe oyiyi alusi ndị ọzọ na ụlọ ndị mmadụ na gburugburu ụlọ nke dibia, ọtụtụ n'ime ihe ndị a metụtara chi mmadụ, nnọkọ oriri, na ofufe nke ndị nna ochie.

Ala[mèzi | mèzi mkpụrụ]

Àtụ:External media Ala (nke pụtara ‘ ala ’ na ‘ala’ n’ala Igbo, maọbụ Ájá-ànà ) bụ mmụọ nke ụwa nke bụ ọrụ maka omume, ọmụmụ na ndị nna ochie nwụrụ anwụ nke echekwara n’ime ụwa n’ime afọ ya. Ala bụ onye isi ndị pantheon Igbo, na-edobe iwu na ime ihe ziri ezi megide ndị ajọ omume. Ala bụ onye ama ama ma ama nke alusi, ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ obodo nta Igbo niile nwere ụlọ arụsị a raara nye ya akpọrọ íhú Ala ebe a na-eme mkpebi ndị dị mkpa. A kwenyere na Ala na-etinye aka na akụkụ niile nke ụmụ mmadụ gụnyere ememme na onyinye. Ala anọchi ọmụmụ na ihe na n'ịwa ndụ gụnyere mmiri, nkume na osisi na ahịhịa, na agba (àgwà), mma (Mma) nke na-ejikọrọ na ịdị mma na Igbo na otu, na ịpụ iche (áfà). Ọ bụ akara ngosi nke ụkpụrụ omume nke gbasoro omenala ndị Igbo, nke na-akwado omume ndị a na omume ọma n'obodo ndị Igbo. Ala bụ ala n'onwe ya, na maka nke a, a na-akpọ taboos na mpụ a na-akpọ kasọ́ Ala ('desecration of Ala'), ala niile dị nsọ dịka nnweta Ala na-eme ya onye isi ikike ịkwadoro iwu. Mkpesa gụnyere igbu ọchụ, igbu onwe ya, izu ohi, mmekọ nwoke na nwoke na ụmụ nwanyị dị ka ọtụtụ ebe ọmụmụ ejima na igbu na iri anụ nke anụmanụ dị ime, ọ bụrụ na a hụrụ anụmanụ e gburu egbu dị ka àjà dị ime nye Ala ma nwa ebu n’afọ bụ liri ya. Achọghị ndị mmadụ igbu onwe ha ma ọ bụ nye ha olili kama ha na-achụpụ ha ka ha wee ghara imejọ mmadụ ọzọ ma merụọ ya, ya mere, a na-ewepụ ikike ha nwere ịbụ nna ochie. Mgbe mmadu nwuru 'onwu ojoo' n'obodo, dika site na nnuputa ikpe nke Chineke ma obu mebi ihe, ekwesighi ha n’uwa, kama ka atufue ya n’ime ohia ka ha ghara kpasuo Ala. Dị ka ọ dị n'ihe banyere ọtụtụ alusi, Ala nwere ikike nke ime ihe ọjọọ ma ọ bụrụ na a chọpụta na ọ na-ewe iwe ma nwee ike imerụ ndị na-akpasu ya iwe.

An up-close photograph of a royal python which is a messenger of Ala
A na-asọpụrụ Eke dịka onye nnọchi anya Ala.

N'ime oghere ụwa, n'echiche nke mmụọ, ka akpọpụtara 'ihe ọfụma ' dị n'ime, ímé àlà, ntọala ụwa na-emeghe ma ọ bụ 'ọnụ' n'ebe kachasị elu ya, ọ sisị àlà . Ihe mejuputara nkea bu oke osimiri miri juputara ( ohimiri ). [30] A na-ewere Ime ala dị ka ala. [13] Ala na mgbakwunye na ọdịdị ekpuchita, bụ ebe ihe nkiri mara mma nke mbara igwe, ígwé, zuru ike. Dịka ntọala nke ịdị adị niile, a na-echekwa ụdọ ụmụaka na a ga-eliwe ya n’okpuru osisi iji gosi akara ụmụ izizi ala ndị ezinụlọ nwetara; Osisi a nwere ike ịbụ nkwụ mmanụ, osisi na-amị ogbe achịcha, nkwụ, ma ọ bụ osisi nwere osisi na-adabere na mpaghara ọdịbendị. N'ebe ụfọdụ, dịka Nri, a na-ewere eze dị egwu, éké, ka ọ bụrụ ihe dị nsọ ma bụrụ onye nnọchianya Ala na onye nwere ezigbo ego mgbe achọtara ya n'ụlọ. A na-akpọ Python dị ka nne 'nne' na ebe a na-asọpụrụ Python, ọ bụ akara nke ịma mma nwanyị na ịdị nro. Amachibidoro igbu eke a ka amachibidoro n'ebe ndị a, a na-amakwa onye na-egbu ya ego maka ili mmadụ dị oke ọnụ nke enyere ndị nwụrụ anwụ. [31] [32] [33]

Amadiọha[mèzi | mèzi mkpụrụ]

Amadioha (site n' ijedí + ọ̀hà, 'nnwere onwe nke ndị mmadụ' na ala Igbo) bụ Alusi nke ikpe ikpe, égbè eluigwe, àmụmà na mbara igwe. A na-akpọ ya Amadioha na ndịda Igboland, Kamalu, Kamanu, Kalu n'etiti ndị Aro na ndị ọzọ Cross River ndị Igbo, Igwe n'etiti ndị Isuama Igbo na northwest Igboland, na Ofufe n'akụkụ ụfọdụ nke Igboland. [34] [35] [36] [37] [38] Wa ọ na-achị bụ Sun. [39] Agba ya na-acha ọbara ọbara, akara ya bụkwa ebule ọcha. [40] Metaphysically, Amadioha na-anọchite anya mkpokọta uche ndị mmadụ ma ọ na-ejikọkarị Anyanwu. [41] Ọ bụ ya bụ ngosipụta nke ikpe ziri ezi nke Chineke na ọnụma megide arụrụ arụ na mpụ; eji iyi heụọ iyi ji ọ strikesụ iyi na tibịa ndị na-eji égbè eluigwe na àmụmà asị. Rinlọ arụsị amadioha dị gburugburu ala Igbo, ebe a na-efe ya bụ okirikiri dị na Ozuzu nke mmiri dị n'akụkụ ugwu na mpaghara ugwu Rivers steeti . Agbanyeghị na Anyanwu bụ onye ama ama na Northlandland, Amadioha bụ onye ama ama na ndịda. Ubochi ya bu Afo, nke bu ubochi ahia nke abuo. [42] N'ụlọ mbari, a na-egosi Amadioha n'akụkụ Ala dịka onye na-akpọrọ ya. [43]

Ikenga[mèzi | mèzi mkpụrụ]

An image of a carved deity named Ikenga, the grey wooden piece has legs, a stylised but simple body, a trinagular head and shallow facial features and two horns around 1/3 its size
Mpempe Ikenga apiaraapia.

Ikenga (nke amaara dika 'ebe ike') bụ alusi na njiri mara nke aka nri na ọganiihu a na-ahụ n’etiti ndị ala ndịda nke ndi Igbo. Ọ bụ akara ngosi nke ntụgharị uche nke naanị ndị ikom na ndị nwere ihe ọkpụkpụ na-arara ma na-ezo aka na ya dị ka 'aka nri ha' nke a na-ewere dị ka ihe dị mkpa maka ike na ihe ịga nke ọma. [44] [45] Ikenga bụ isi mmalite nke ihe ọmụma ezochiri site na ụkpụrụ omume. Onyinyo nke Ikenga nwere chi nke ('chi nke onwe'), ndichie (nna nna), aka Ikenga (aka nri), ike (ike) yana igba ime mmụọ site na ekpere na aja. Ọdịnala ndị Igbo bara uru maka ịkpa ihe na ịkpa ike na ọha na eze na-eji echiche nke Ikenga dozie mmekọrịta dị n'etiti onye ọ bụla na mmekọrịta ezinụlọ na ọrụ yana nnwere onwe na ịrụsi ọrụ ike na akara aka kpebiri mmadụ. Ikenga na-arụ ọrụ dị ka ihe na-ahụ maka anụ ahụ ma na-emesi ike mmadụ n'otu n'otu site na ntụgharị uche. [15] Ihe ịga nke ọma na-akwado Ikenga ma ọ bụ ihe ọkpụkpụ na-arụ ọrụ dị ka ihe nnọchianya nke mmadụ na-aga nke ọma, ndị mmadụ na-enye onyinye iji nye ekele nke Ikenga mgbe ha nyechara ume iji merie nhọrọ ndụ ọ bụla na-achọghị. Nhọrọ ndị a dị n'aka ndị mmadụ nwere mmụọ nsọ, mmuo, onye na-ahọrọ mmekọahụ, ụdị, na ndụ ọhụụ tupu incarnation. Ikenga nke gara nke ọma metụtara okwu nke ịdị mma 'íkéǹgàm kubị ọ itọju ta' nke pụtara na 'Ikenga kwụ ọtọ taa'. N'oge ememme Ogbalido ma ọ bụ olili Ikenga ('oriri nke Ikenga') nwere ike igosi ya gburugburu otu obodo ma ọ bụ gosipụta ya na etiti obodo ma ọ bụrụ na ọ bụ ihe ncheta. Mgbe mmad not ad notgh become enwe successfulghar withr with site n '] l hard ike, ndken Okenga adabawo' wee hụ ya d signka ihe ah nke d danger egwù,] b ifr med na ntughari na itughari anya na Ikenga adaa, “throwntultul sct sc” ma tufue whichghar which nke na-egbu ndken nke Ikenga; a wapụtara ihe ọhụrụ iji dochie ya.

Ihe onyonyo Ikenga bu uzo ihe omuma nke ndi mmadu juputara na isii n’ime isii rue isii n’ogologo ma di elu mmadu. [15] [44] Onwere ihe nkpuchi anakpo, agha, na ihe ndi ozo Ikega sere. Ikenga bụ akara nke ihe ịga nke ọma na mmezu nke onwe ya. Ndị mmadụ na-ejikarị Ikenga, nwee ma ọ bụ nwee ya ma mgbe ụfọdụ ụmụ nwanyị nwere aha ọma na ntụkwasị obi n'obodo. N’ebe a na-eli ozu, a na-ekeji nwoke nwoke Ikenga ụzọ abụọ ejiri otu lie ya ebe nke ọzọ bibie ya.

Ekwensu[mèzi | mèzi mkpụrụ]

Alusi a zuru oke na ahia, wee kpee ekpere ka onye gwara ya n’ekwe nkwa mmeri na mkparita uka. Dịka ike nke mgbanwe na ọgba aghara, egbe gosipụtakwara mmụọ nke agha n'etiti ndị Igbo, kpọbatara n’oge esemokwu ma chụpụ ya n’oge udo iji zere mmetụta ya na-akpata ịwụfu ọbara n’obodo, ndị dike guzobere ebe ofufe ga-enyere ndị agha ọgụ. [31] Nke a dabere na ịchọta ụlọ arụsị ochie a raara nye na mmụọ nke mmụọ [46] yana ịkọ akụkọ ochie nke na-egosi agwa ndị ọgbakọ. Nwanne bụ onye na-eweta ihe ike ma nweekwa ndị mmadụ iwe. [34] Nwa nwoke nwere ihe ojoo iji weta ihe ojoo, a na-ewere ya dika mmuo ojoo n’uche a. N'ime Christian Igbo egwuregwu bụ onye nnọchi anya Setan ma a na-ahụ ya anya dị ka ike nke na-etinye onwe ya na nke Chukwu. A na-eme ememme ndị nwanyị n’obodo ụfọdụ ndị Igbo ebe a na-eme ndị agha mmeri ma na-egosipụta akụnụba.

Mmuo na ndi agha pere mpe[mèzi | mèzi mkpụrụ]

Mmuo is a broad class of minor spirits or divinities manifesting in natural elements under the class of elder divinities with major cults. Feminine mmuo inhabit earth and water and masculine mmuo inhabit fire and air.[13] This class can be broken down by the alusi, serviceable mmuo, agwu are related to unusual and deranged human behaviours, these spirits interact with human in a capricious nature that often makes them dangerous.[47] Other cult deities exist around Igboland such as Njoku Ji, yam and fire deity overseeing agriculture, Idemili, 'the pillar of water', the female alusi based in Idemili North and South who holds up the waters, and Mkpataku the 'bringer of wealth' or 'coming in of wealth'.[14][20] In addition to minor spirits there are evil wondering spirits of wrong doers called ogbonuke.[24]

Hụ kwa[mèzi | mèzi mkpụrụ]

Ihe edeturu[mèzi | mèzi mkpụrụ]

  1. Afulezy, Uju "On Odinani, the Igbo Religion", Niger Delta Congress, Nigeria, April 03, 2010
  2. 2.0 2.1 M. O. Ené "The fundamentals of Odinani", KWENU: Our Culture, Our Future, April 03, 2010.
  3. Chambers, Douglas B. (2009). Murder at Montpelier: Igbo Africans in Virginia. Univ. Press of Mississippi, 14, 36. ISBN 1-60473-246-6. 
  4. Rucker, Walter C. (2006). The river flows on: Black resistance, culture, and identity formation in early America. LSU Press. ISBN 0-8071-3109-1. 
  5. Eltis, David (1997). Routes to slavery: direction, ethnicity, and mortality in the transatlantic slave trade. Routledge. ISBN 0-7146-4820-5. 
  6. Ogbuene, Chigekwu G. (1999). The concept of man in Igbo myths. Peter Lang. ISBN 0820447048. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 Echema, Austin (2010). Igbo Funeral Rites Today: Anthropological and Theological Perspectives. LIT Verlag Münster. ISBN 3643104197.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "echema2010" defined multiple times with different content
  8. Okwunodu Ogbechie, Sylvester (2008). Ben Enwonwu: the making of an African modernist. University Rochester Press. ISBN 1580462359. 
  9. (1972) Ikenga International Journal of African Studies. Institute of African Studies, University of Nigeria.. 
  10. Uzor, Peter Chiehiụra (2004). The traditional African concept of God and the Christian concept of God: Chukwu bụ ndụ-- God is life, the Igbo perspective. Peter Lang. ISBN 3631521456. 
  11. Obiego, Cosmas Okechukwu (1984). African Image of the Ultimate Reality: An Analysis of Igbo Ideas of Life and Death in Relation to Chukwu-God. Peter Lang. ISBN 3820474609. 
  12. Ebelebe, Charles A. (2009). Africa and the New Face of Mission: A Critical Assessment of the Legacy of the Irish Spiritans Among the Igbo of Southeastern Nigeria. Univiversity Press of America. ISBN 0761845968. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 Agbasiere, Joseph Thérèse (2000). Women in Igbo Life and Thought. Psychology Press, 48–64. ISBN 0415227038.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "agbadiere" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "agbadiere" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "agbadiere" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "agbadiere" defined multiple times with different content
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 Cole, Herbert M. (1982). Mbari: Art and the Life Among the Owerri Igbo. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0253303974.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "cole1982" defined multiple times with different content
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 Wiredu, Kwesi (2008). A Companion to African Philosophy. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0470997370.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "wiredu" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "wiredu" defined multiple times with different content
  16. Asante, Molefi K. (2007). Spear Masters: An Introduction to African Religion. University Press of America. ISBN 0761835741. 
  17. Okoh, Michael (2012). Fostering Christian Faith in Schools and Christian Communities Through Igbo Traditional Values: Towards a Holistic Approach to Christian Religious Education and Catechesis in Igboland (Nigeria). LIT Verlag Münster. ISBN 3643901682. 
  18. Udeani, Chibueze C. (2007). Inculturation as Dialogue: Igbo Culture and the Message of Christ. Rodopi. ISBN 9042022299. 
  19. Ndukaihe, Vernantius Emeka (2006). Achievement as Value in the Igbo/African Identity: The Ethics. LIT Verlag Münster. ISBN 3825899292. 
  20. 20.0 20.1 Uzukwu, Elochukwu Eugene (2012). God, Spirit, and Human Wholeness: Appropriating Faith and Culture in West African Style. Wipf and Stock. ISBN 1610971906.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "uzukwu2012" defined multiple times with different content
  21. Opata, Damian Ugwutikiri (1998). Essays on Igbo World View. AP Express Publishers. ISBN 9782001155. 
  22. Anyahuru, Israel (2009). Musical Sense and Musical Meaning: An Indigenous African Perception. Rozenberg Publishers. 
  23. Isichei, Elizabeth Allo (1997). A History of African Societies to 1870. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-45599-5. 
  24. 24.0 24.1 Chigere (2001). Foreign Missionary Background and Indigenous Evangelization in Igboland. LIT Verlag Münster. ISBN 3825849643.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "chigere2001" defined multiple times with different content
  25. Ejizu, Christopher I. (1986). Ofo: Igbo Ritual Symbol. Fourth Dimension Publishers. ISBN 9781562684. 
  26. (1978) Urbanization and Social Change in West Africa. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521291186. 
  27. Nnam, Nkuzi Michael (2007). Colonial Mentality in Africa. Hamilton Books, 69–70. ISBN 1461626307. 
  28. Ilogu, Edmund (1974). Christianity and Ibo culture. Brill, 34–36. ISBN 90-04-04021-8. 
  29. Olupona, Jacob K. (1993). Religious Plurality in Africa: Essays in Honour of John S. Mbiti. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3110850079. 
  30. Ogbaa, Kalu (1995). Igbo. The Rosen Publishing Group, 14–15. ISBN 0823919773. 
  31. 31.0 31.1 Udoye, Edwin Anaegboka (2011). Resolving the Prevailing Conflicts Between Christianity and African (Igbo) Traditional Religion Through Inculturation. LIT Verlag Münster, 45–53, 104. ISBN 364390116X. 
  32. Hodder, Ian (1987). The Archaeology of Contextual Meanings. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521329248. 
  33. Ilogu, Edmund (1974). Christianity and Ibo Culture. Brill Archive, 23–24. ISBN 9004040218. 
  34. 34.0 34.1 Onunwa, Udobata R. (2010). A Handbook of African Religion and Culture. Dorrance Publishing, 18, 40. ISBN 1434953963. 
  35. Jones, G. I. (2000). The Trading States of the Oil Rivers: A Study of Political Development in Eastern Nigeria. James Currey Publishers. ISBN 0852559186. 
  36. McCall, John. Dancing Histories: Heuristic Ethnography with the Ohafia Igbo. Page 123
  37. Oriji, John. Sacred Authority in Igbo Society. Page 115
  38. Diala, Isidore. Ritual and Mythological Recuperation in the Drama of Esiaba Irobi. Page 101
  39. Uchendu, Victor C. The Igbo of Southeast Nigeria. Page 96
  40. Diala, Isidore. Ritual and Mythological Recuperation in the Drama of Esiaba Irobi. Page 104
  41. Iwu, Maurice. Handbook of African medicinal plants. Page 320.
  42. Patrick, Iroegbu. Igbo-Okija Oracles and Shrines, Development and Cultural Justice
  43. Kleiner, Fred (2009). Gardner's Art through the Ages: Non-Western Perspectives. Cengage Learning. ISBN 0495573671. 
  44. 44.0 44.1 Basden, G. T.. Among the Ibos of Nigeria: 1912. Routledge.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "ibos1912" defined multiple times with different content
  45. Cole, Herbert M.. Igbo Art in Social Context. University of Iowa Museum of Art.
  46. Agozino, Emmanuel. ‘Ekwensu:God of victory not devil’, Nigerian Compass, Nsukka, April 03, 2010
  47. Nwaorgu, Andrew E.. Cultural symbols: the Christian perspective. T' Afrique International Association. 

Ṅrụtụaka[mèzi | mèzi mkpụrụ]

Gụkwụọ akwụkwọ[mèzi | mèzi mkpụrụ]

  • Umeh, John Anenechukwu (2007). After God is Dibia: Igbo cosmology, divination & sacred science in Nigeria. Karnak House. ISBN 1872596096. 
  • Agbasiere, Joseph Thérèse (2000). Women in Igbo Life and Thought. Psychology Press. ISBN 0415227038. 

Njikọ ndi ọzọ[mèzi | mèzi mkpụrụ]


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