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Asụsụ Kru

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Asụsụ Kru
language family
obere ụdị nkeAsụsụ Atlantic-Congo, Volta–Congo Dezie

Ndị Kru na-asụ Asụsụ Kru site na ndịda ọwụwa anyanwụ Liberia ruo n'ebe ọdịda anyanwụ Ivory Coast.

Nchịkọta[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Dị ka Güldemann si kwuo (2018), Kru enweghị ihe yiri ya na aha yiri ya iji mechie mmekọrịta ya na Niger-Congo. Glottolog na-ewere Kru dị ka ezinụlọ asụsụ nwere onwe ya.

Okwu mmalite[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Okwu ahụ bụ "Kru" enweghị mmalite a na-amaghị ama. Dị ka Westermann si kwuo (1952) ndị Europe jiri ya mee ihe iji gosipụta ọtụtụ agbụrụ na-asụ asụsụ ndị yiri ya. [1] (1989) na-ekwu eziokwu ahụ bụ na ọtụtụ n'ime ndị a ka ndị ọrụ ụgbọ mmiri Europe kpọrọ dị ka "ndị ọrụ"; "aha homonymy na ndị ọrụ doro anya, ọ dịkwakarịa ala otu isi iyi nke mgbagwoju anya n'etiti ndị Europe na e nwere agbụrụ Kru / ndị ọrụ".

Akụkọ ihe mere eme[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Andrew Dalby kwuru na akụkọ ihe mere eme dị mkpa nke asụsụ Kru maka ọnọdụ ha na nkuku ụzọ nke mmekọrịta Afrịka na Europe. [2] dere na "Kru na asụsụ ndị metụtara ya so n'ime ndị mbụ ndị njem Europe zutere n'ihe a maara mgbe ahụ dị ka Pepper Coast, ebe mmepụta na mbupụ nke Guinea na melegueta pepper; azụmaahịa ụgbọ mmiri Africa". A maara asụsụ Kru maka ụfọdụ n'ime usoro ụda olu kachasị mgbagwoju anya n'Africa, nke nwere ike ịbụ naanị Asụsụ Omotic.

Ọnọdụ dị ugbu a[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ih[3] odide ndị e dere n'oge na-adịbeghị anya kwuru na "A pụrụ ịchọta ndị Krau ugbu a n'ụsọ oké osimiri nke Monrovia, Liberia ruo Osimiri Bandama na Côte d'Ivoire". [3]"Obodo nta na-anọgide na-enwe njikọ ha dabere na ndị a na-eche na ha bụ otu, nke mgbanwe na onyinye ememe mere ka ọ sikwuo ike". [3] na-ekwu na ndị Kru na asụsụ ha, ọ bụ ezie na ugbu a ọtụtụ na-asụ Bekee (na Liberia) ma ọ bụ French (na Côte d'Ivoire) dị ka asụsụ nke abụọ, "na-achịkwa mpaghara ndịda ọdịda anyanwụ ebe mpaghara ọhịa ahụ ruru ọdọ mmiri ndị dị n'ụsọ oké osimiri". Ndị Kru na-adabere n'oké ọhịa maka ọrụ ugbo, na-agbakwunye site na ịchụ nta maka ndụ ha.

Obere ìgwè na asụsụ ndị metụtara ya[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Asụsụ Kru gụnyere ọtụtụ subgroups dị ka Kuwaa, Grebo, Bassa, Belle, Belleh, Kwaa na ọtụtụ ndị ọzọ. [4] ka Breitbonde si kwuo, nkewa nke obodo ndị dabere na ọdịiche ọdịbendị, akụkọ ihe mere eme ma ọ bụ agbụrụ, na nnwere onwe mmekọrịta na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị "ọ nwere ike iweta ọnụ ọgụgụ dị ukwuu nke asụsụ Kru dị iche iche; "Ọ bụ ezie na ụmụ amaala ahụ yiri n'ọtụtụ ụzọ n'ụdị na agbụrụ, obodo ọ bụla bụ steeti nwere onwe ya; e nwekwara obere nkwurịta okwu". Breitbonde na-ekwu na a na-ekewa ndị Kru dabere na ọdịiche ọdịbendị ha, ọdịiche akụkọ ihe mere eme ma ọ bụ agbụrụ, na nnwere onwe mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị. Nke a bụ ihe nwere ike ịbụ ihe kpatara ọtụtụ subgroups nke asụsụ Kru. [5] ka Fisiak si kwuo, e nwere obere akwụkwọ gbasara asụsụ Kru na asụsụ ndị metụtara ya.

[6] nke asụsụ Kru nke Marchese (1989) dị ka ndị a: Ọtụtụ n'ime asụsụ ndị a bụ ụyọkọ asụsụ ma na-ewere ya mgbe ụfọdụ karịa otu asụsụ.   Ethnologue na-agbakwunye Neyo, nke nwere ike ịdị nso na Dida ma ọ bụ Godie.

Asụsụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Usoro okwu Kru bụ isi isiokwu-okwu-ihe (SVO), mana ọ pụkwara ịbụ isiokwu-ihe-okwu (SOV). [6]

Okwu ntụnyere[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Nkọwa okwu bụ isi nke asụsụ 12 Kru site na Marchese (1983): [7]

Asụsụ anya ntị imi ezé ire ọnụ ọbara ọkpụkpụ osisi mmiri Iri nri aha
Tepo Nω̂â mɪ̂jã́ Nri Mmanụ ala wũ̂t Ọchịchọ Ihe a na-akpọ N'ihi na ọ bụ n'oge ochie Nịdị iri na otu Ọrịa na-atọ ụtọ
Jrwe ɟró Nω̃̂ã̂ mɪ̃̂ã̂ Ịnọkwa Mmanụ ala Uzo di na-eju anya klώω̂ Ihe a na-akpọ Gị Nnukwu Ọ bụ n'abalị iri Ọ bụ ezie na ọ dịkwuo
Guere ɟrííē Onye a na-akpọ ya mlâ ɲnɪ̃̂ɛ̄̃ Ọdịda Anyanwụ Ịmara ɲmɔ̃ kpâ iri na otu ɲnɪ̃̂
Wobé ɟríɛ́ Onye a na-akpọ ya mlã̂ ɲnə̃̂ M̀̀̀̀ ŋwɔ̄̃ nmɔ̄ kpâ Ọ bụ nwa ọhụrụ ka a na-akpọ Di ɲnẽ̂
Niaboua ɟîrî Lọk Manaa ɲéɲé N'ihi ya, ọ ga-abụrịrị na ọ ga-adị ŋwɔ̄̃ ɲēmō kpá Nịlị Di ɲéɲé
Bété (Daloa) ɟi jûkûlî mlə̂ Glei mɪ́́́́ɔ́ ŋō drú kwâ ɲû ŋʉnɪ̂
Bété (Guibéroua) jiri júkwɨlí N'ihi ya, ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-eme ihe nkiri gʌ̂lʌ̂ mɪ̄ɔ̄ n'ihi ya Ihe siri ike kwá O doro anya ɲú Di ŋʉɲɪ́
Néyo jɪ́ ɲúkwlí mlé Gọọmenti mɪ̄ɔ̄ amụrụ Dọshị feē Sulu ɲú li Ọdịdị
Godié jɨdí ɲūkúlú N'ihi ya, ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-eme ihe nkiri N'oge na-adịghị anya mɪ̄ɔ̄ O nwere ike ịbụ onye drù Fairy ɲú ɗɨ̄ N'oge a, ọ bụ
Koyo jɪjē ɲúkiwí - GLA mɪ̄ɔ̄ O nwere ike ịbụ onye Dolu féjē Sulu ɲú lɨ̄ ŋɨ́nɨ́́́́
Dida Ci ɲúkwlí mné GLA mɪ̄ɔ̄ nɪ̄ dólū kwíjè ɲú ŋlɪ́
Aïzi Cere lωkɔ mωvɔ ɲɪ mọkwa mu ɲre Kra ke nrɪ li -

Ihe atụ ọzọ nke asụsụ Kru 21 sitere na Marchese (1983): [7]

Asụsụ anya ntị imi ezé ire ọnụ ọbara ọkpụkpụ mmiri Iri nri aha
Aïzi Cere lωkɔ mωvɔ ɲɪ mọkwa mu ɲre Kra nrɪ li
Vata Ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-akpọ ɲêflú Mênê GLA Meɔ̄ nɪ̄ dūlū Ọrịa ɲú
Dida Ci ɲúkwlí mné GLA mɪ̄ɔ̄ nɪ̄ Dọshị kwíjè ɲú ŋlɪ́
Koyo jíjē ɲúkwlí N'oge a, ọ bụ GLA mɪ̄ɔ̄ O nwere ike ịbụ onye Dolu féjē ɲú lɨ̄ ŋɨ́nɨ́́́́
Godié ɲūkúlú N'ihi ya, N'ihi ya, ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-eme ya mɪ̄ɔ̄ O nwere ike ịbụ onye ebe Fairy ɲú ɗɨ̄ N'oge a, ọ bụ
Néyo jɪ́ ɲúkwlí mlé Gọọmenti mɪ̄ɔ̄ amụrụ Dọshị feē ɲú li Ọdịdị
Bété (Guibéroua) jiři júkwɨlí N'ihi ya, gʌlâ mɪ̄ɔ̄ n'ihi ya O yighị ka ọ ga-eme kwá ɲú li N'ihi ya, ọ bụ
Bété (Daloa) ɟi jûkûlî mlə̂ Glei mɪ́́́́ɔ́ ŋō dřú kwâ ɲú N'nɪ̂
Niaboua Lọk N'oge a ɲéné N'ihi ya, ọ ga-abụrịrị na ọ ga-adị ŋwɔ̃̄ ɲēmō kpá Nịlị Di ɲéné
Wobé ɟríɛ́ Onye a na-akpọ ya mlã̂ ɲnẽ̂ Mgbakwunye na nke ọzọ ŋwɔ̃̄ nmɔ̄ kpâ Ọ bụ nwa ọhụrụ ka a na-akpọ Di ɲnẽ̂
Ọgwụgwọ ɟrííē Onye a na-akpọ ya mlâ ɲnɪ̃̂̄ mẽ̄õ̀ Ịhụnanya ɲmɔ̃̄ kpâ Oge m ɲnɪ̃̂
Konobo jidɔ Na-enweghị mlan Mọ Ebe obibi kla Fisi di Isi iyi
Ubi jīrō nōā Ọmụmụ N'ihi ya, ọ bụ n'oge ọzọ ka a na-eme ihe n'oge a Ọ bụ ebe a na-akpọ kala Nri Obere Ọdịdị nke afọ
Bakwe ɲʉ ɲákúlú N'ihi ya, ọ bụ glɛ̀ MMA mʌ́ Tuzi kɔ̄ō ɟɨ nrɪ
Tépo Nω̂â mɪ̂jã́ Nri Mmanụ ala Ọchịchọ Ihe a na-akpọ Nịdị iri na otu Ọrịa na-atọ ụtọ
Grebo j agafe Meá MMA N'oge a na-eme ya ɲénɔ́ klã́ Ọ bụ nwa ọhụrụ ka a na-akpọ di ɲéné
Klao ɟí N'ihi ya, ọ bụ MNA MMA Iwe ɲnɔ̄ kpã́ Ọ bụ nwa ọhụrụ ka a na-akpọ Di __ibo____ibo____ibo__ Ọdịdị
Bassa ɟélé Manaa mɔ́tɔ Iwe N'ebe a na-akpọ Nork kpá anyị Obi adịghị ya mma ɲeni
Dewoin Gbanwee Malan Mgbasa ozi Ingi ɲimo gba gba gba gba Uche ŋɛ́lɛ́
Kuwaa Ọ bụ ya mere e ji ebi ya nɔi ɲũ M̀wũ Iwe ya bụ Ya na ya kwa Nimi ɟì ɲɛlɛ̃
Sɛmɛ Ụdị tasjẽ Oké Osimiri ɲen ee Ọ bụ N'ebe ahụ kpar ọhụrụ di

Ọnụ ọgụgụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ntụnyere nke ọnụọgụ n'asụsụ ọ bụla: [8]

Nchịkọta Asụsụ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Kuwaa Kuwaa (Belleh) dee sɔ̃r Ọ ga-abụ na ọ ga-abụ ɲìjɛ̀hɛ wàyɔɔɔɔ Iorfɔlɛ́ (5 + 1) N'ihi ya (5 + 2) Katanã̀ (5 + 3) N'ihi ya, ọ ga-abụrịrị na ọ bụ n'ihi na ọ ga-adị n'oge a. kowaa
Mkpụrụ osisi Seme (Siamou) (1) site n'aka Nnukwu tyáār yūr kwɛ̃̄l kpã̄â Kị kprɛ̄n̂ Mkpụrụ osisi
Mkpụrụ osisi Seme (Siamou) (2) dyuɔ̃15 15 N'ihi ya t t t tr15 yur3 kwɛ̃l3 k͡pa4a34 kyi4ĩ34 k͡prɛ4ɛ̃34 kal3 fu1
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Bakwe Baku ɗôː sɔ̂ː tʌ̄ː mɾɔ̄ː ɡ͡bə̀ə̄ ŋǔːɗō (5 + 1) ŋǔːsɔ̄ (5 + 2) ŋǔːtʌ̄ (5 + 3) ŋǔːmɾɔ̄ (5 + 4) Pʊ̀
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Bakwe Wané ime 3 / ime 3 sɔ2 ta3 ihɪɛ̃4 ŋwũ42 ŋwũ42 kloː24 (5 + 1) ŋwũ42 sɔ2 (5 + 2) ŋwũ42 ta3 (5 + 3) ŋwũ42 ihɪɛ̃4 (5 + 4) ŋwũ42 bu4 ma ọ bụ bu4
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Bete Daloa Bété ɓlʊ̄ Ọrịa na-atọ ụtọ mʊ̄wana ŋ́ɡ͡bɨ́ ŋ́ɡ͡bʊplʊ (5 + 1) ŋ́ɡ͡bisɔ́ (5 + 2) ɡ͡bʊ̀wata (5 + 3) ŋ́ɡ͡bimʊwana (5 + 4) kʊ́ɡ͡ba
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Bete Guiberoua Bété ɓlʊ̄ Ọrịa na-atọ ụtọ mʊ̄wana ŋ́ɡ͡bɨ́ ŋ́ɡ͡bʊplʊ (5 + 1) ŋ́ɡ͡bisɔ́ (5 + 2) ɡ͡bʊ̀wata (5 + 3) ŋ́ɡ͡bimʊwana (5 + 4) kʊ́ɡ͡ba
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Bete Godié ɓlóō Saịdoro tāā ŋ́mɔ́ɔnā́ ŋ̀ɡ͡bɨ́ ŋ̀ɡ͡bóplóo (5 + 1) ŋ̀ɡ͡bɔ́ɔ́sɔ́ (5 + 2) ŋ̀ɡ͡bàátā (5 + 3) ŋ̀vɔ́ɔnā́ kʊ́ɡ͡bá
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Bete, Ebe Ọwụ Gagnoa Bété Akara na-eme Ọrịa na-atọ ụtọ Juy Ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-akpọ mɔ́tɔ ŋ͡m̩̄.ɡ͡bú ɡ͡be.pó̯ó (5 + 1) ɡ͡bɔ́ɔ́.sɔ̋ (5 + 2) ɡ͡bɔ̋ɔ́.tā (5 + 3) Fụụụụ. ko.ɡ͡bɔ́
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Bete, Ebe Ọwụ Guébie Bété ɡ͡bɔlɔ2.³ so4 ta31 mɔna1.³¹ mŋɡ͡be2 mŋɡ͡beɡ͡bɔlɔ². ².³ (5 + 1) mŋɡ͡boso3.⁴ (5 + 2) mŋɡ͡bata3.³¹ (5 + 3) mŋɡ͡bɔfɛna3.¹.³¹ (5 + 4) kɔɡ͡ba2.³
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Bete, Ebe Ọwụ Kouya ɓlò Ahịa Mnùà ɡ͡bu ɡ͡beliɓlò (5 + 1) ɡ͡besɔ́ (5 + 2) ɡ͡betā (5 + 3) ɡ͡bomnʊ̀à (5 + 4) kuɡ͡bua
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Dida Yocoboué Dida bóló mwɔsɔ Mutaa Mọnha ɛŋɡ͡bɪ́ ɛŋɡ͡bʊ́frɔ (5 + 1) Queen's Day (5 + 2) Queenɓáta (5 + 3) Queenvwaná kóɡ͡ba
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Dida Neyo ɓɔɔɔɔló Ahịa tāā Ọ bụ n'ihi na ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-eme ihe nkiri ɡ͡bɪ́ ɡ͡bɪ́flɔ́ (5 + 1) ɡ͡básɔ́ (5 + 2) ɡ͡bátā (5 + 3) Fanaā (5 + 4) kʊ́ɡ͡bá
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Kwadia Kodia ɡ͡bɤl32 / ɓɤl32 sɔː2 taː2 mɔna43 nɡ͡bɤ3 Nɡ͡bɤw 333 (5 + 1) nɡ͡bɔː43sɔ3 (5 + 2) nɡ͡baː43ta3 (5 + 3) nɡ͡bɤmɔna343 (5 + 4) kʊɡ͡ba33
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Bassa Bassa Ọ bụ n'ihi na ọ bụ n'oge ahụ ka a na-akpọ ya. N'ihi ya Ọ ga-abụ hĩinyɛ M̀m̌ mɛ́nɛ̌ìn-ɖò (5 + 1) Mọọọvù-nọvù (5 + 2) Mọọọvùù-ka (5 + 3) M̀nɛ̌ìn-bíinyɛ (5 + 4) Ọ bụ otú e si agụ
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Bassa Dewoin (Dewoi) ɡ͡bǒ N'ihi ya ta hĩinyɛ M̀m̌ Nkwupụta (5 + 1) N'ihi ya, ọ ga-abụrịrị na ọ ga-adị n'otu n'otu Atụmatụ (5 + 3) Hafuola (5 + 4) ebe
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Bassa Gbasei (Gbii) (1) dɔ̀ː / ɗɔ̀kái N'ihi ya Ọ ga-abụ ɲ̀ ụyọkọ m̀ḿ __ibo____ibo__ m̀m̀̀̀̀m̀m̀ (5 + 1) N'ihi ya, ọ ga-abụrịrị na ọ ga-adịkarị mma (5 + 2) m̀m̀tã́ (5 + 3) __ibo____ibo__ m̀m̀̀̀̀́́́́̀̀̀̃ (5 + 4) Bacha anụnụ anụnụ
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Bassa Gbii (Gbi-Dowlu) (2) dòò, dyúáɖò N'ihi ya Ọ ga-abụ Ọ bụ na ọ bụ na ọ dị na ya hm̀m̀ mɛ̀nɛɛ̄n-ɖò (5 + 1) M̀nɛɛ̄n-nsọọ (5 + 2) Met̀nɛɛ̄n-tə̃ (5 + 3) M̀nɛɛ̄n-Ibē (5 + 4) figabùè
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Grebo, Glio-Oubi Glio-Oubi hwə̃ Ka ọ dị Ndị na-eme ihe nkiri ɡ͡bə̀ Ugboro ise (5 + 1) hṹsɔ́ (5 + 2) Mmanụ ala (5 + 3) Mmetụta (5 + 4) ọ ga-abụ na ọ ga-adị
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Grebo, Ivorian Pye (Piè) Krumen Ya mere N'ihi ya hý̌ hũ̀jārō [hũ̀jāɾō] ('isii na otu') hũ̀jāhʋɛ__tir____tir____tir__ ('five plus two') hũ̀jātā ('isi na atọ') Hũ̀jāhɛ ('five plus four') Ọ bụ n'oge ahụ ka a na-eme ya
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Grebo, Ivorian Tepo Krumen (1) Ọ bụ n'oge a na-eme ihe nkiri N'ihi ya hý̌ huõ̀nɔ̀ (5 + 1) nɪ́pātā (litː 'ọ bụghị/bụ/atọ') N'ihi ya, ọ ga-abụrịrị na ọ ga-eme ihe nkiri sēlédò (litː 'ndị fọdụrụ / ebe/otu') Ọ bụ n'oge ahụ ka a na-eme ya
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Grebo, Ivorian Tepo Krumen (2) Dome Ọdịdị N'ihi ya, ọ bụ Ọ bụ n'oge ùmnɔ̄dô (5 + 1) ùmnɔ̄ɔ̄ɛ́n (5 + 2) blɛ̄nbìɛ́n ùmīyándō Ọ bụ n'oge ahụ ka a na-eme ya
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Grebo, Liberia Central Grebo (Barrobo) duo Ọ bụ n'afọ taan N'ezie jieun wùnɔ̀dǒ (5 + 1) jetan (4 + 3)? jiinhɛ̀n (4 + 4)? sǒndò (litː 'ịnọ otu' tupu 10) Fụ
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Grebo, Liberia Northern Grebo mee sɔ̃̌ Ọ ga-abụ N'ihi ya m̀m Mgbe (5 + 1) nyiɛtã (4 + 3) N'ihi ya (4 + 4) siědo (litː 'ịnọ otu' tupu 10) Ọ bụ n'oge ahụ ka a na-eme ya
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Klao Klao Dome Saịn tan Sọnarọ mùné́do (5 + 1) mùné́sɔ́n (5 + 2) mùnéɛtan (5 + 3) sopádo (10 - 1) puè
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Klao Tajuasohn nne sun nn = ? tan hin hoom ḿhon doe (5 + 1) ḿhon sun (5 + 2) hinin (4 + 4) siɛrdoe (litː 'na-anọgide na-abụ otu') punn
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Wee, Guere-Krahn Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ Krahn tòò N'oge ochie Ọdịda Anyanwụ Sọnwa m̀m̌ M̀o̓ (5 + 1) Mmekọahụ (5 + 2) Mkpụrụ osisi̓ǹ (5 + 3) Menyìɛ̓ (5 + 4) Ihe na-eme ka mmadụ nwee ike
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Wee, Guere-Krahn Akpụkpọ ahụ duě / tòò Ihe omuma ohuru tan Sọnwa m̀m̌ Mmanụ (5 + 1) N'elu (5 + 2) Methan (5 + 3) Mọnye (5 + 4) Ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-eme ya
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Wee, Nyabwa Nyabwa (Nyaboa) do4 sɔ̃2 Ọ ga-abụ na 3 шalanɛ33 mu4u1 M4ɛ1lo4 (5 + 1) M4ɛ1sɔ̃2 (5 + 2) M4ɛ1 ụgbọ ala3 (5 + 4) mɛ4ɛ1ɲiɛ33 (5 + 5) 44 bu
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Wee, Wobe Northern Wè (Wobe) kwa 3 / n'ihi 1 sɔɔn2 / n'ebe ahụ2 taan3 nyiɛ43 mm41 M41-3 (5 + 1) Afọ anọ na iri anọ na otu (5 + 2) M411na3 (5 + 3) mɛ41nyiɛ3 (5 + 4) puue3

Ntụnyere nke ọnụọgụ n'asụsụ Kru site na Marchese (1983): [7]

Nchịkọta Asụsụ otu abụọ atọ anọ ise isii asaa asatọ itoolu iri iri abụọ otu narị
Siamou Mkpụrụ osisi N'ihi ya, ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-akpọ lan na-adị tyar yiro Ọ bụ na ọ bụ na ọ na-eme Kpaa kyii prɛ kal fu kar Karkwụ
Aizi Aïzi mī na ya; yre Iʃɪ ita unu na-achị yugbo Foto friʃi patɛ fi Mmanụ gu juyugbo
Kuwaa Kuwaa dee Ahịa Nke a bụ ihe a na-akpọ ɲì̀ wààyò folɛ́̀ Gilo kwata na Ọ bụ otú ahụ ka ọ na-adị Kuwa Ọ bụ ezie na ọ bụ ihe amamihe dị na ya Glílɛlú
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Bakwe Baku (Soubré)
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Dida Dida (Lozoua) mblò Ọkụ ọkụ Ọka Ọ bụ ezie na ọ bụ N'anya N'ihi ya, ọ bụ n'oge ahụ ka a na-akpọ N'WWW N'ihi ya, ọ ga-abụrịrị na ọ ga-adị N'ihi ya, ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-akpọ N'Anya N'ihi ya, ọ bụ n'oge ahụ ka a na-eme ihe nkiri kʊgbā grʊ̄ gwlīǹgbī
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Dida Vata ɓlɔ́́ Ahịa Ọ bụ ezie na ọ bụ Agbụrụ gbò́sɔ́ N'ihi ya, ọ bụ n'oge gara aga ka a na-akpọ Kọgbụ golō
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Bete Bété (Daloa) ɓʊ̀lʊ̀ Ahịa Mʊ̀nà ńgbɨ́ ńgbʊ́lʊ́́ ńgbísɔ N'ihi ya, ọ bụ ńgbɨ́mʊnà̀ kúgbɨ́á Gʊ́lʊ́ gʊ́lúgbɨ́
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Bete Bété (Guibéroua) ɓʊ̀lʊ̀ Ahịa mʊʌ̀nā n̄gbɨ́ N'afọ Gọmbụ N'afọ ndị ọzọ gbʊʌ́tā N'afọgbɨ mʊʌ̀nā kʊ̄gbʌ Gʊ'lʊ' Gwww's Marb's Mar
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Bete Godié ɓʉ̄lʉ̄ Ahịa mʊ̀nʌ̄ ʌ̀gbʉ̄ ʌ̀gbʉ̄pʉ̄lʉ̄ [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] N'egwuregwu Kʊgbʌ N'ihi ya, ọ bụ n'oge ahụ ka a na-eme ihe nkiri gwʌ̀lɪgbʉ̄
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Bete Koyo ɓɔ́́́́lɔ́ sɔ̄ Ọ bụ n'ihi na ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-eme ihe nkiri ŋgbɨ́ ŋ̀gbópló Ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-eme ya ŋgbátā N'ihi ya, ọ bụ n'oge ahụ ka a na-akpọ N'Anya Ihe osise gʊ̄lʊ̄ gʊ̀lɪ̀ɲ́gbɨ́
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Bete Néyo ɓʊ̄lʊ́ Ahịa tāā Ọ bụ n'ihi na ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-eme ihe nkiri gbɪ́ gbɪ́flɔ́́́ gbásɔ́ gbátā N'ihi ya Ihe osise Glʊ́ gwlɪgbɪ́
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Klao Klao dòò sʊ́́ Ọ bụ ezie na ọ bụ ezie na ɲɛ́̀ mù ebe ŋmìɛ̀dò ŋmìɛ́sɔ́́ ŋmìɛ́tā sɛpáádō Puɪ̄ Ọ bụ n'oge a na-anọ Ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-akpọ
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Bassa Bassa Ọ bụ ya mere e ji nwee obi ụtọ sɔ̄ gị Ihe ndị a na-eme n'oge gara aga hm̀m̀ musikụ
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Bassa Ihe a na-eme na ya gbò Ahịa ɲìɛ̄ m̀m̄ Melekgbō M̀lēslɔ́́́́ M̀lēá M̀le's ebe
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Grebo Tépo mee ka ọ bụrụ musikị Ịdị gị N'ihi ya, ọ bụ hwɔ̀nɔ̀ N'asụsụ Bekee N'ihi na ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-akpọ Ọ bụ mgbe a na-eme ya pu na-aga A na-akpọ ya N'ihi ya, ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-eme ya
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Grebo Grébo Ahịa na-adị Nke a bụ ihe a na-akpọ Hmú __ibo__ Ọdịdị sīe̍dō Punɔdo wōdó húbū
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Grebo Ubi Nwaanyị na-adị N'oge a na-eme egwuregwu gbə̀ __ibo__ Ọdịdị Ọdịdị Mmanụ ala Ihe omuma di nma ọ ga-abụ na ọ ga-adị gōrō gòléhm̄
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Grebo Jrwe Ọ bụ n'oge ahụ ka a na-eme Ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-akpọ Ụzọ gị N'ihi ya, ọ bụ M̀m̍ M̀m's's'h __ibo__ M̀m'hʊɛ́́́́ M̀m'a'a't HMMMM-JM-J pu na-aga Ọ bụ n'ihi na ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-akpọ Ọdịdị
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Wee Ọgwụgwọ dòò N'ihi na ọ bụ ihe a na-eme Ọ bụ ezie na ọ bụ ezie na ɲīɛ̄ ~ ɲīɛ́̄; ɲīɛā̄ ~ ɲā̀̄ m̄ḿ M̀̀̀̀h̀h̀ Mkpụrụ osisi M̀̀̀̀) Ọ bụ ihe mere e ji mara ya Ebe e si nweta ya Klāsɔ Km̀̀̀̀h̀h̀
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Wee Nyabwa dʊ̀ Ahịa Ọ bụ ezie na ọ bụ ɲìɛ̄ Mpu M̀̀̀̀ M̀̀̀̀h̀h̀ M̀̀̀̀ Mụl Mbido GLOLUE N'oge a na-adịghị anya
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Wee Wobé tòò N'ihi na ọ bụ ihe a na-eme Ọ bụ ezie na ọ bụ ezie na ɲìɛ̄ m̄ḿ Mmanụ ala Ọ bụ mgbe a na-eme ya Mkpụrụ ndụ Ihe omuma nke mbu Ebe e si nweta ya Klāsɔ Km na-aga n'ihu
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Wee Konobo buwɛ A na-akpọ ya Isi iyi mm Ịkụziri Mella buwɛ kwalaso Mkpụrụ osisi

Akụkụ ahụ (isi)[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Akụkụ nke isi site na Marchese (1983): [7]

Nchịkọta Asụsụ isi ntutu isi anya ntị imi ezé ire ọnụ
Siamou Mkpụrụ osisi gmel fleɲi Ụdị Tasy na-eme Oké Osimiri ɲen ee ko
Aizi Aïzi drʊ lɪfɪ Cere lʊkɔ mʊvɔ ɲɪ mọkwa mu
Kuwaa Kuwaa Olu Ọ bụ n'ihi na Ọ bụ n'oge ahụ ka a na-akpọ nɔi ɲ na-acha Ọdịdị Igo
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Bakwe Baku (Soubré) N'ihi ya, ọ bụ nwa ɲwee ɲʉ ɲákúlú mló glɛ̀ MMA mʌ́
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Dida Dida (Lozoua) wlú ɲɪ̄ Ci ɲūklwí mné GLA mɪ̄ɔ̄ nɪ̄
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Dida Vata ɲe Ya ɲe-flú m na-aga GLA Meɔ̄ nɪ̄
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Bete Bété (Daloa) Wu-lu-kpèlè ɲúkō ji yu-ku-ku mlə̍ Glei mɪ́́́́ɔ́ ŋō
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Bete Bété (Guibéroua) Wukpəlé ɲū-kwə̄ yiɾi yúkwɨlí N'ihi ya Gʌ-la mɪ̄ɔ̄ N'ihi na ọ bụ
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Bete Godié Olu ɲɪ̄ naɨdí ɲūkúlú N'ihi ya N'oge na-adịghị anya mɪɔ̄ O nwere ike ịbụ onye
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Bete Koyo Olu ɲɪ́ī yɪyē ɲūklwí ŋʉ́́ GLA mɪ̄ɔ̄ O nwere ike ịbụ onye
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Bete Néyo ɲɪ́ yɪ́ ɲúkwlí mlé Gọọmenti mɪ̄ɔ̄ amụrụ
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Klao Klao Ọdịda Anyanwụ N'ihi ya ji Nkọwa N'ihi ya, ọ bụ MMA Igo
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Bassa Bassa Duo m jélé Manaa mɔ́tɔ Igo
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Bassa Ihe a na-eme na ya Duulu Gbanwee Mkpụrụ okwu Ọ bụ n'ebe ahụ ka ọ dị Igo
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Grebo Tépo Yu pupu na-eto eto Yise N'ihi na ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-akpọ mɪ̍yá Nri Mị na-eto ~ mị na-eso na-ekwu
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Grebo Grébo na-agụ unu na-ekwu agafe Meá MMA N'oge a na-eme ya
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Grebo Ubi m yīrō nōā Ọdịda Anyanwụ N'ihi ya, ọ bụ n'oge ọzọ ka a na-eme ihe n'oge a
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Grebo Jrwe le Ọ bụ n'asụsụ na-adịghị mma jró N'ihi na ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-akpọ Mɪ na-ekwu Nri na-eme ihe Mkpụrụ osisi na-adị
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Wee Ọgwụgwọ drú míī jrííē __ibo____ibo____ibo__ Ọdịdị ɓʊ̄ djūlɛ̀ M̀̀̀̀ Ịmara
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Wee Nyabwa Ọchịchị n'oge na-adịghị anya Yiddish Ọ bụ mgbe a na-akpọ N'oge a ɲéné Ọdịdị ŋwɔ̄
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Wee Wobé jrú m na-ekwu maka m; m na-akọwa jríɛ́́ __ibo____ibo____ibo__ Ọdịdị Mkpụrụ osisi __ibo__ Ọdịdị Mkpụrụ osisi ŋwɔ̄
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Wee Konobo drɔ m Yedo Na-enweghị Mkpụrụ osisi Mọ

Akụkụ ahụ (n'okpuru)[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Akụkụ ahụ ndị ọzọ sitere na Marchese (1983): [7]

Nchịkọta Asụsụ olu aka ara eriri afọ ụgbọ mmiri ụkwụ ọkpụkpụ ọbara akpụkpọ ahụ
Siamou Mkpụrụ osisi kwa Mmanụ Na-adịbeghị anya ɲēfū kpar na-aga
Aizi Aïzi hụrụ drɪ mʊkʊ Kra ɲre kʊkɔ
Kuwaa Kuwaa Fụl ɲàlì Ọ bụ n'oge ahụ ka a na-akpọ Mmanụ ala kwa na-aga n'ihu Ọ bụ na-adị
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Bakwe Baku (Soubré) Pịlị Daɾó ɲɪ̄tɪ̄ mʊ̄kwɛ̄ ɓɔō kɔ̄ō Tuɾú
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Dida Dida (Lozoua) brɪ̀ ~ bɾɪ̀; bɾɪ́ ~ brɪ̀ sɔ̄ ɲētī mɪ̄ mʊ́kʊ̄díè ɓō kwíyè Dọshị kpʊ̄kpā
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Dida Vata sɔ̄ m na-aga Mkpụrụ ndụ ɓɔ̄gʊ̀ fa na-aga dūlū Ọdịdị
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Bete Bété (Daloa) blʊ̀ Ahịa ɲɪ́tɪ́ Ọdịdị dàī Ọchịchọ kwa dɾú
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Bete Bété (Guibéroua) bʊ̀lʊ́ Ahịa ɲɪ̄tɪ̄ mɪ́ Chaya Ọ bụ n'ihi na ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-akpọ kwá site na afọɾu Ọ bụ mgbe a na-akpọ
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Bete Godié bʌlɛ̄ sɔ̄ ɲītì mɪ́ Nke iri afọ ɓʉ̄ Fairy dɾe ebe kpʊ̄kpʌ
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Bete Koyo blɛ̀ sɔ̄ɔ̄ ɲītīyē mɪ́ mákɔ̄lʊgbā ɓɔɔ́́́́ féyē Dolu
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Bete Néyo blɛ̄ sɔ̄ɔ́́ Ọkụ ọkụ ɲúkōlíé ɓɔɔ́́́́ feē Dọshị kpʊ̄kpā
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Klao Klao N'ihi ya, ọ ga-abụrịrị na ọ bụ sʊ̄ ɲītī Ọkụ Ọ bụ n'oge ahụ ka a na-eme ya bʊ̄ Ọ bụ na ọ bụ na ọ dị ɲnɔ̄
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Bassa Bassa ebe Aha a na-akpọ ya MMA Zìì ɓo kpá N'ebe a na-akpọ Nork ku
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Bassa Ihe a na-eme na ya būnū na-adị ɓō gba gba gba gba ɲimo
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Grebo Tépo plʊ̀ na-abịa N'ihi na ọ bụ n'ihi na a na-akpọ 'Afaananyere' ŋmí nɛ́́ ~ nɛ́; nɛ́ ~ nɛú́ Bʊ̍ Ihe a na-akpọ da'blʊ́ kɔ̀ ~ kɔ̍; kɔ̍ ~ kɔ̀
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Grebo Grébo na-akọ akụkọ ifo naanị ɲínē Kúdíde na-abụghị nke a klaị ɲénɔ́ na-eme
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Grebo Ubi pòlo ho muə̄gli O nwere ike ịbụ onye bo kala Ọ bụ ebe a na-akpọ
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Grebo Jrwe plʊ̀ Ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-akpọ Afịhịa Nkọwa Bʊ̍ Ihe a na-akpọ [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] Gí̀
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Wee Ọgwụgwọ blönn __ibo____ibo__ Ọdịdị N'ihi ya, ọ bụ ɓóà Bʊ̍ Kịrịkịrịkịrị ɲmɔ̄
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Wee Nyabwa būlū sʊ̄ ɲētì̀ m zànɛ̍ɛ ɓʊ̄ kpá ɲēmō Udo
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Wee Wobé Ọdịdị __ibo____ibo__ Ọdịdị N'ihi ya, ọ bụ N'ihi ya, ọ ga-abụrịrị na ọ ga-adị bʊ̄ Kịrịkịrịkịrị nmɔ̄
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Wee Konobo Ọkpụkpụ abụọ gbolo bo kla Ebe obibi ku

Aha ndị ọzọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Aha ndị ọzọ sitere na Marchese (1983): [7]

Nchịkọta Asụsụ agwọ àkwá mpi ọdụ eriri nna nne nwanyị nwa aha
Siamou Mkpụrụ osisi jàl Kyã Gọh ɲan ton Ọ bụ mgbe ahụ ka a ga-asị na ọ bụ mgbe a ga-eji mel ɓisyā yị
Aizi Aïzi srɪ ji Gbeli Ya mere zuzo kekya lapɛ
Kuwaa Kuwaa Onye na-eto eto Mkpụrụ osisi Ọ bụ n'oge gara aga ka a na-akpọ ɲídewúlé Ya na ya ọtọ Aha a na-akpọ ya ɲɛlɛ
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Bakwe Baku (Soubré) tɾɔ̄ sàpɨgē Tọ yuo ŋwɔ́lɔ́́́ yəyie ɲrɪ
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Dida Dida (Lozoua) trɛ̄ jīè gwɪ́ Ọganihu ɓlū na-aga na-aga Ebe ọwụwa anyanwụ ŋwnɔ́ Cile na-eto eto ŋlɪ́
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Dida Vata __ibo__ N'afọ ndị ọzọ ~ na-aga n'ihu Ọ bụ n'ihi na ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-eme ihe nkiri co- Ebe ọwụwa anyanwụ ŋonoro otú ahụ
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Bete Bété (Daloa) tɪmɛ́ Gʉyī Ịnọ bụ onye na-eme ihe ike li-kpə́ tɓà ka Isiokwu gu na-aga N'ihi ya, ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-akpọ
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Bete Bété (Guibéroua) Mkpụrụ osisi gʊ́ gwə̀yi [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] dɪ̄bà ka Makesa ŋʉ́lɪ́
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Bete Godié trɛ̄ gɪ̀ vɪ̄ Ihe omuma di nma ɓɨlɨkpə̄ tʉ́ ka ŋwɔ́lɔ́́́ yɪ́ N'oge a, ọ bụ
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Bete Koyo Owuuru na-eme gɪ̀yē ɓlíyē isi Ebe ọwụwa anyanwụ Isiokwu Ọ dị ŋɨ́nɨ́́́́
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Bete Néyo __ibo__ N'afọ ndị ọzọ Mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa Vʊ́ ɓlú tʊ́ Ọgba ŋwló yʊ́ Yylɪ́
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Klao Klao slɛ̄ Isiokwu Ọ bụ otú ahụ ka ọ na-eme Ọ bụ n'ihi na ọ bụ n'oge ahụ ka a na-eme ya Duuzpu Ebe ọ bụ na ọ dị De Nkọwa جام Ọdịda Anyanwụ
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Bassa Bassa Ọ bụ Ya mere gmɛ̀ Ọ na-ekwu okwu Lulu Ọ bụ onye na-amaghị màa ɲeni
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Bassa Ihe a na-eme na ya N'ihi ya ge Ebe a na-akpọ ɓúlū N'ihi ya, ọ bụ Maị ɲiro; makesa Wu Ụgbala
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Grebo Tépo N'ihi ya, ọ bụ A na-akpọsa ya ŋmʊ̄ patà Buu na-aga kwuo ~ kwuo; kwuo ~ kwuo ɲnɔ dʊ́
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Grebo Grébo síde ŋēyē ludu Buu-Où na-adị ɲénɛ́ Ọ bụ otú ahụ ka a na-akpọ ɲéné
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Grebo Ubi ebe a Hawɛŋɨnɛ ŋwɛ ba wūlū Onye na-ekwu okwu di ɲīrō yu ɲíró
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Grebo Jrwe N'ihi ya, ọ bụ Oge o si aga na-eme ihe lúrū De N'ihi ya, ọ bụ ɲl
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Wee Ọgwụgwọ Ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-eme ya Ọ bụrụ na ị na-ekwu na ŋm̄ɔ dbú Ba Ọ bụ mgbe a na-eme ya Jọ na-adị ɓāò ɲnɪ
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Wee Nyabwa Ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-eme ya Ọ bụ n'ihi na ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-akpọ N'ihi ya, ọ bụ n'oge ahụ ka ọ na-eme ɓlu̍kū Isi lótō ɲə́nɔ́ yuị ɲéné
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Wee Wobé Ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-eme ya ya mere ŋmɛ̀ Ọ bụ otú ahụ ka ọ na-adị dbū ~ dbú; dbú ~ dbū __ibo____ibo__ N'ihi ya ɲnɔ̍ kpāo jú sǎā __ibo__ Ọdịdị
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Wee Konobo Sir ɲie gbochie ya Ihe a na-eme dru ba nke ɲɪnɪ jowe Isi iyi

Okike[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Okwu metụtara okike sitere na Marchese (1983): [7]

Nchịkọta Asụsụ ụbọchị anyanwụ ọnwa mmiri ọkụ anwụrụ ọkụ oké osimiri uzuzu nnu
Siamou Mkpụrụ osisi yef na-agụ unu Fwi na-adị Niɛ
Aizi Aïzi zi ze cu nrɪ isi jru magri ɓʊɓʊ trʊ
Kuwaa Kuwaa Somvolt Ka ọ dị kewu Nimi Ka ọ dị koo Ihe omuma di iche iche Onye Nke ahụ bụ ihe
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Bakwe Baku (Soubré) Srè jró sɨple Kapupu bru tánīē Ọ bụ n'oge ahụ ka a na-eme ya
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Dida Dida (Lozoua) cɾɪ̄ Ọnyụlọn cʊ́ ɲú Agba nke ọma jlū __ibo____ibo__ Ọdịdị ịṅụ mmiri glī
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Dida Vata [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] ɲú kōsū N'ihi ya, ọ bụ n'oge ahụ ka a na-akpọ ŋúŋu
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Bete Bété (Daloa) yɪ̍ɾɪ yʊ̍ɾʊ́ na-eme ka ọ dị ɲu Agba nke ọma جیۆ gɨ-n'ihi ɓu-kwu Gʉ́ɓɨ́
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Bete Bété (Guibéroua) yɪ́ɾɪ́ yʊ́ɾʊ́ cʊ́ ɲú Agba nke ọma [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] jīē ɓūù-kwə̍ gɨ's̍ɓɨ's
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Bete Godié yʊ̀ɾʊ̀ yʊɾʊ́ cʊ̄ ɲú Agba nke ọma jùɾù jīyē ɓàɓū gɨ̀ɗɨ̀
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Bete Koyo Ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-akpọ ya Ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-akpọ ya cʊ́ʊ̄ ɲú Agba nke ọma jùrù jīyē ɓūɓú Gʉ̀lʉ̀
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Bete Néyo zlì Ọnyụlọn cʊ́ ɲú kōsū jlù gɨ̄ē mʊ mɪ̄ɪ́ Ohere dị mma
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Klao Klao Ọdịdị cʊ̄ Ọnyà Ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-eme ka ọ dị mma jluị jló Pupuí na-eme
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Bassa Bassa Ọ bụ n'oge gara aga jóló Ọ bụ gị anyị Ọdịdị dị mfe anyị Iio Pupu gị
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Bassa Ihe a na-eme na ya Ọ bụ n'oge gara aga N'ihi ya Naì gị
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Grebo Tépo ɲnɔ̀wo afọ iri na ụma musik̀pɔ ma ọ bụ na-adị na-aga n'ihu jrù yrú Pupu
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Grebo Grébo ŋwɛ́́́́ musik̀bō Ọnyà jūdú yúdá Ọmụmụ ihe Nke a bụ
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Grebo Ubi ɲìrò jīrō musikliɛ Nri n onye na-ahọrọ jùrù tápɛ̀ Mkpụrụ osisi
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Grebo Jrwe ɲlɔ́wò jrʊ́ Ọganihu Nkọwa na-adị jrù Ịdị elu Ọnyà
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Wee Ọgwụgwọ Ọdịdị jru [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] snow Ọdịdị na-aga n'ihu djɛ́̀ Ịdị elu
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Wee Nyabwa wɪ́ na naoro cʊ́ ma ọ bụ na-aga Snow jurū gɨ̄ɨ̄ pīpèlè tonnes
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Wee Wobé Ọdịdị jru [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] na-ekwu snow N'ihi ya, ọ bụ na-aga n'ihu pu na-aga Ịdị elu
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Wee Konobo Igo jɨdo co Fisi nani jlu ọ bụrụ na Ịnyịnya ibu ta

Ngwaa (1)[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ụfọdụ ngwaa ndị bụ isi sitere na Marchese (1983): [7]

Nchịkọta Asụsụ Iri nri ihe ọṅụṅụ ịta ịgbọ agbọ nwụọ gbuo ịga ije bịa
Siamou Mkpụrụ osisi di namu nuo ahụ ko (klo) ko (N'ihi ya) koel Ọchịchị (nke ojii)
Aizi Aïzi li ma Ụzọ mbido gwra Ebe ọ ga-aga na ya
Kuwaa Kuwaa Ọnyà Onye ọ bụla ɲìmì Ọchịchị fa na Java namu
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Bakwe Baku (Soubré) ml na-aga ml ọ bụla Igo ɓlá Nri
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Dida Dida (Lozoua) gi na-aga mlá mni̍ Mkpụrụ osisi ndị a na-akpọ "Liz" ɓlá Na-eto eto [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji]
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Dida Vata li na-eme N'ihi na ọ bụ Nkọwa Site n'oge ahụ N'oge na-adịghị anya na-aga n'ihu
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Bete Bété (Daloa) li N'ihi ya, ọ bụ n'oge gara aga ka a na-akpọ N'ihi ya, N'ihi ya, tɾɪ Ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-akpọ N'afọ
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Bete Bété (Guibéroua) Di nɪmʌ́ nīmɨ̄ N'ihi ya, [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] N'ihi na ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-eme ihe
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Bete Godié ɗɨ̄ mʌ́nʌ́ mɨ̄lɨ̄ gwʌ̄sɛ̀ Akpịrị ọnụ n'oge na-adịghị anya
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Bete Koyo lɨ̄ Ọdịda Anyanwụ miɨ̄ N'oge na-adịghị anya ɓlá Naị.
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Bete Néyo li mlá miī N'ihi ya, ọ bụ n'oge ahụ ka a na-eme ihe nkiri Ọ bụ ezie na ọ bụ ndị ọzọ ka a na-akpọ nāà
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Klao Klao Di na-adị nmī wlà Ọ bụ otú ahụ ka a na-eme Ahịa ~ na-adị
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Bassa Bassa Obi adịghị ya mma numu hwala Mmanụ ala láɓá na-aga n'ihu ji
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Bassa Ihe a na-eme na ya Uche ku ta; laawá ya
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Grebo Tépo di na-ekwu na-adị wlà kʊ́ Laị ~ laị; Laị ~ Na di na-eme
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Grebo Grébo di na-adị mlí wōdá kō (ɛ́) di
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Grebo Ubi Obere Iola Ibuli na Ọ bụ
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Grebo Jrwe Ọ bụ n'oge ochie ka a na-akpọ Nkọwa wlà na-eme na-adị di na-eme
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Wee Ọgwụgwọ Jere na-aga n'ihu nmū gwlà ɗrē dbā na-adị
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Wee Nyabwa Di Mpu na-adịghị mma Mgbe ị ga-enwe ihe ịga nke ọma Ọ bụ n'ihi na ọ bụ n'oge ahụ ka a na-eme ihe nkiri Na
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Wee Wobé Di na-aga n'ihu nmū Ọchịchị Mụl dba na-adị
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Wee Konobo di na na-ekwu na ọ bụ Gulaị Mọ draịvụ na jlo

Ngwaa (2)[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ngwaa ndị ọzọ sitere na Marchese (1983): [7]

Nchịkọta Asụsụ nye gwuo ụra ịkwanye ịgba égbè na-abụ abụ
Siamou Mkpụrụ osisi Ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-akpọ ya ee; Ugboro abụọ Ọdịda Anyanwụ
Aizi Aïzi Fisi ɓru mɔ namʊ gị جیọ
Kuwaa Kuwaa N'ihi ya Bií wa na ruo na ọ bụ Nkwupụta ilu
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Bakwe Baku (Soubré) ɲe Ọnyà kwɛ́́ɛ́
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Dida Dida (Lozoua) Nri ɓlí Mmekọrịta Ọ bụ jri̍ ~ jɾi̍ ɓlɪ̄
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Dida Vata ɓlí Oge mbu nke mbu na-esote ɓlɪ
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Bete Bété (Daloa) Fushiị wlù Azụmaahịa N'ihi ya, ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-akpọ Tɪtɾɪ́ blɪ̄
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Bete Bété (Guibéroua) Nri ɓúlú Mmiri na-eto eto N'ihi ya jiɾi ~ jīɾi ɓʉ̄lɪ̄
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Bete Godié Nri ɓɨ́dɨ́́ ŋwɔ́ɔ́́́́ɔ́ Ọ bụ jri ɓʉ̄lɪ̄
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Bete Koyo Nri Nkwupụta Makesa zɛ́ jrɨ̄ ɓlɪ̄
Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, Bete Néyo Nri wlúū Isiokwu Ọ bụ jri ~ jrī ɓlɪ̄
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Klao Klao ɲî acha anụnụ anụnụ na-adị jlì blē
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Bassa Bassa ɲí ɓúlú Ebe ọwụwa anyanwụ Ebe a na-akpọ ɓele
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Bassa Ihe a na-eme na ya na-agụ egwú ɓúlú Ebe ọwụwa anyanwụ Shia gbī ɓēlē
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Grebo Tépo Maazị gblú ŋmò Ị na-eto bre na-adị
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Grebo Grébo na-adị Budu móɔ́ __ibo__ Ọdịdị ọka wit
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Grebo Ubi ɲé búlọs ŋmo tūɛ̄ N'ihi ya, ọ ga-abụrịrị na ọ ga-adị bəlɛ
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Grebo Jrwe N'ihi ya, ọ ga-abụrịrị na ọ bụ n'oge a ka a ga-eme ihe blú __ibo____ibo__ N'ihi na ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-akpọ gị bre'wlà
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Wee Ọgwụgwọ Ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-akpọ ɓlú Mkpụrụ ndụ Ọdịda Anyanwụ acha anụnụ anụnụ
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Wee Nyabwa ɲe Bulu mó na-eme Ebe jīrī ɓlē
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Wee Wobé Ọdịdị blú Mkpụrụ ndụ Cree na-ekwu na ọ bụ acha anụnụ anụnụ
Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, Wee Konobo unu blo mo Tuị jidiɛ acha anụnụ anụnụ

Ihe owuwu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  Dị ka Marchese Zogbo si kwuo (2012), Proto-Kru nwere:

  • ụdaume na-eme ka ọ dị n'ime
  • ụda anọ
  • *CVCV- (C) V na ikekwe *CVV syllable structure. * Mkpụrụ okwu CCV, na ikekwe * Mkpụrụedemede CVV, sitere na * CVCV mgbọrọgwụ.
  • Usoro okwu SVO, mana nwere ọtụtụ ụdị OV
  • ọdịdị nke nsonaazụ
  • akụkụ zuru oke na nke na-ezughị oke

Mkpụrụ okwu Proto-Kru (Marchese Zogbo 2012):

p t k kp
b d g gb
ɓ
m n ŋ (?)
s
l w

Mkpụrụ okwu ndị e si na ya nweta:

  • /ɟ/ nwere ike ịpụta site na palatalization (*g > ɟ), dịka *gie > ɟie.
  • *c, *ɲ, *kw, *gw, *ŋw sitere na ụdaume alveolar ma ọ bụ velar na-esote ụdaume dị elu ma ọ bụ dị elu n'ihu.
  • /ɗ/ nwere ike isite na *l.

Mkpụrụedemede Proto-Kru (Marchese Zogbo 2012):

ɪ Ọ bụ n'oge ahụ ka a na-akpọ
na o
Ọ bụ Ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-eme ya
a

E nwere nkewa doro anya nke abụọ n'etiti Western na Eastern Kru nke a na-ahụ site na ọdịiche phonological na lexical. Ụfọdụ isoglosses n'etiti Western Kru na Eastern Kru:

Nkọwa Proto-Western Kru Proto-Eastern Kru
osisi *tu *su
nkịta *gbe *gwɪ
ọkụ *nɛ *kosu
ezé *ɲnɪ *gle

Edensibia[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. Breitbonde (1991). "City, Countryside, and Kru Ethnicity". Africa 61 (2): 186–201. DOI:10.2307/1160614. 
  2. Dalby (1998). Dictionary of Languages. New York: Columbia UP. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 (2003) in Bahl: Encyclopaedia of Muslim World. New Delhi: Ammol Publications, 24–25. ISBN 9788126114191. 
  4. McEvoy (1997). "Understanding Ethnic Realities among the Grebo and Kru People of West Africa". Africa 47 (1): 62–80. DOI:10.2307/1159195. 
  5. Fisiak (1984). Historical Syntax. New York: Mouton. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 Marchese, Lynell. 1989. Kru. In Bendor-Samuel, John (ed.), The Niger-Congo Languages: A Classification and Description of Africa's Largest Language Family, 119-139. Lanham MD, New York & London: Lanham: University Press of America.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 Marchese, Lynell. 1983. Atlas linguistique Kru: nouvelle edition. Abidjan: Agence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique (ACCT).
  8. Chan (2019). The Niger-Congo Language Phylum. Numeral Systems of the World's Languages.
  • Westerman, Diedrich Hermann (1952) Asụsụ nke West Africa (Nkebi nke Abụọ). London/New York/Toronto: Oxford University Press.

Njikọ mpụga[dezie | dezie ebe o si]